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  • This dataset contains data for the plots in Figures 3 and 4 in the article: Effective rheology across the fragmentation transition for sea ice and ice shelves, Åström, and D.I. Benn, GRL, 2019. The data is produced with the numerical simulation code HiDEM, which is an open source code that can be found at: https://github.com/joeatodd/HiDEM. The data plots in the paper contain the data used as benchmarks for testing the reliability of the simulations (Fig.3), and the main results (Fig. 4), the effective rheology of sea ice across the fragmentation transition. Funding was provided by the NERC grant NE/P011365/1 Calving Laws for Ice Sheet Models CALISMO.

  • Transcriptomic analyses were undertaken on both in situ collected and experimentally warmed blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from Greenland. M. edulis were collected from the Godthabsfjorden near Nuuk, Greenland (64.45555, -51.14416) at the following locations and dates: Inner fjord (64.45941, -50.31030) on 11/06/2018; outer fjord (64.19666, -51.69) on 13/06/2018, and sub-tidal (64.19666, -51.69) on 13/06/2018 (outer fjord at 20-40cm below the lowest low water mark). The in situ collected inner and outer fjord intertidal animals with outer fjord subtidal animals used as controls were collected at 27 degree Celsius, 19 degree Celsius and 3 degree Celsius, respectively. Some of the outer fjord subtidal M. edulis were experimentally warmed to 22 degree Celsius and 32 degree Celsius for one hour to mimic high aerial exposure temperatures in the inner and outer fjord intertidal, respectively. RNA-Seq was performed on 5 animals for each treatment, with all subsequent bioinformatics analyses performed by Novogene, China. This work was supported by the Carlsberg Foundation, the Independent Research Fund Denmark (Danmarks Frie Forskningsfond) (DFF-International Postdoc; case no. 7027-00060B), a Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship (IF) under contract number 797387 and Aage V. Jensens Fond (Aage V. Jensens Foundation) and NERC-UKRI core funding to the British Antarctic Survey.

  • Rock samples were collected from the northern LeMay Range, southern Douglas Range and the Lully Foothills of Alexander Island during the 2004-2005 field season, and transferred to the Open University (OU) via the British Antarctic Survey. Samples were stored in the OU rock store during preparation for isotopic work.

  • This dataset consists of 75 destructive ice surface samples for which glacier algae cell counts were undertaken. The sample locations were distributed randomly over a 250 X 250 m area. Funding was provided by the NERC standard grant NE/M021025/1.

  • Microclimate data collected hourly at Anchorage Island, for 15 climatic variables via automatic data loggers, from 2001-2009. Data is not available across the entire temporal range for all variables. NERC funded under the British Antarctic Survey National Capability programme, Polar Science for Planet Earth.

  • These datasets show how lake water-pressure fluctuated through time over several months in seasonally-frozen catchments in winter. These catchments were in three settings: the lowland Finnish Arctic, an alpine valley and a high cirque in Switzerland. The water-pressure data are accompanied by water temperature and (except for Orajarvi), ground temperature for the same periods. Together, they were used to detect and quantify the water content of snow falling on the lake surfaces. The locations, method of data collection and analysis and the results are described in detail in Pritchard, H. D., Farinotti, D., & Colwell, S. (2021). This work was funded by Natural Environment Research Council (UK) core funding to the British Antarctic Survey, and a fellowship from the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland.

  • The British Antarctic Survey holds magnetic data measuring the plasmaspheric mass loading on magnetic field lines in Antarctica. The network of Low Power Magnetometer (LPM) instruments consists of permanent and temporary sites. The data is collected in 3 D fluxgate at up to 1 second and 1 nT resolution. Samples are taken once a second for 150 milliseconds at maximum power. This decreases to once a minute if power is low over the winter. Time and position is measured using an attached GPS system.

  • Measurements of mean annual temperature in degrees Celsius at 22 sites in Pine Island Glacier, located by hand held Garmin GPS position, and altitude recorded by survey quality Leica GPS. The mean annual temperature of a remote ice sheet site is generally agreed to be equivalent to the temperature measured at 10m depth in a borehole. This dataset records the 10m temperatures at 22 remote sites in the Pine Island Glacier region of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Data were recorded on a single thermistor logging thermometer for a period of 12 to 24 hours on the date noted in table (marked in table as ''Single thermistor'') or as the mean of two cables with parallel triple thermistors measured at a single time (date/time noted in table) after a minimum of 12 hours settling in the borehole (marked in table as ''Average of six thermistors''). Measurements were made independently in two boreholes: one drilled to approximately 12m for deployment of a neutron source ice density probe (marked in table as ''10m temperature neutron probe borehole''); one drilled to approximately 50m during recovery of an ice core (marked in table as ''10m temperature ice core borehole''). Some have argued that the mean annual temperature is better measured at 15m in a borehole to remove any trace of the seasonal surface temperature cycle. In the table we additionally record the temperature in the ice core borehole at 15m (marked in table as ''15m temperature ice core borehole'') using a logging PT-100 temperature device (marked in table as ''Single PT-100'').

  • Marine debris washing up on beaches on Bird Island has been monitored since 1989 with over 9,000 items of debris recovered up until present day. In addition to the raw data, a summary of the data by year or by debris description is available. Occasions when no debris was found, or it was not possible to carry out a survey, are recorded in the metadata. This data is submitted to the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) as part of their Marine Debris Programme.

  • The British Antarctic Survey holds magnetic data measuring the plasmaspheric mass loading on magnetic field lines in Antarctica. The network of Low Power Magnetometer (LPM) instruments consists of permanent and temporary sites. The data is collected in 3 D fluxgate at up to 1 second and 1 nT resolution. Samples are taken once a second for 150 milliseconds at maximum power. This decreases to once a minute if power is low over the winter. Time and position is measured using an attached GPS system.