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  • This dataset consists of the 25m raster version of the Land Cover Map 1990 (LCM1990) for Northern Ireland. The 25m raster product consists of three bands: Band 1 - raster representation of the majority (dominant) class per polygon for 21 target classes; Band 2 - mean per polygon probability as reported by the Random Forest classifier (see supporting information); Band 3 - purity - percentage of the polygon covered by the majority class. The 21 target classes are based on the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) Broad Habitats, which encompass the entire range of UK habitats. This dataset is derived from the vector version of the Land Cover Map, which contains individual parcels of land cover and is the highest available spatial resolution. The 25m raster is the most detailed of the LCM1990 raster products both thematically and spatially, and it is used to derive the 1km products. LCM1990 is a land cover map of the UK which was produced at the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology by classifying satellite images (mainly from 1989 and 1990) into 21 Broad Habitat-based classes. It is the first in a series of land cover maps for the UK, which also includes maps for 2000, 2007, 2015, 2017, 2018 and 2019. LCM1990 consists of a range of raster and vector products and users should familiarise themselves with the full range (see related records, the UKCEH web site and the LCM1990 Dataset documentation) to select the product most suited to their needs. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • The Ancient Biomolecules Initiative is a Natural Environment Research Council programme exploring the biomolecular record of past life which is entombed in archaeological and geological deposits. The findings have applications in archaeology, anthropology, forensic science, research into the past climates and oil exploration. This resource consists of a series of leaflets in PDF format which describe the key findings of the Ancient Biomolecules Initiative.

  • This dataset details the paternity of progeny from Eschscholzia californica plants introduced to habitats comprising different floral cover. Data was collected in June 2015 at the Hillesden estate, Buckinghamshire, UK. Plants were genotyped at seven microsatellite markers before being introduced across the study site to form experimental arrays. Experimental arrays comprised of three E.californica plants separated by 1m and arranged in a triangular formation. A total of sixteen arrays were introduced across four 100 hectare replicate blocks, each separated by >500m. At the centre of each block, four experimental arrays were placed at 50m intervals along a 150m transect laid symmetrically across the boundary between an established wildflower patch and bare, fallow ground or grazed grassland (two arrays within the florally rich habitat and two arrays within the florally poor habitat). Upon maturation approximately 10 seeds were collected from each plant and genotyped. Fragment analysis was conducted and alleles were scored on Genemarker. Seeds were then manually scored as outcrossed or selfed and paternity was determined using Cervus. The dataset was part of a larger experiment looking at the effect of floral resources on the pollination services to isolated plants. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. Meteorology data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. Variables measured include albedo (ground and sky), temperature (dry bulb, wet bulb and soil (at 10cm and 30cm)), relative humidity, radiation (net. and solar), rainfall, surface wetness, soil moisture, wind direction and wind speed). These data are collected by Automatic Weather Stations at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol. They represent continuous hourly records from 1992 to 2012. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • The data are concentrations of different fluvial carbon species (dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and particulate organic carbon) which form part of the lateral transport of carbon from the terrestrial to aquatic system. This influences the terrestrial carbon balance as well as being a key part of the freshwater carbon cycle. The submission also contains hydrological (stage height, discharge and water temperature) and water chemistry data (pH, conductivity and oxygen saturation). The data were collected from Peruvian rainforest streams within the NERC funded Amazonica project (NE/F005482/1). Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset contains calculated terrestrial fluxes of methane using static chambers from Stordalen mire, a subarctic peatland (68°20’ N, 19°03’ E) located near Abisko, Northern Sweden . Measurements were carried out during growing season 2013 in three measurement campaigns: 16-27 June (number of sampling occasions, n, = 4), 11-22 August (n=5) and 16-29 September (n=5 for wetland and 4 for birch forest). A total of 60 static chambers were measured, 14 within the birch forest and 46 within the wetland. In addition to fluxes auxiliary measurements such as air and soil temperature, soil moisture and soil nutrients were taken and the vegetation composition was recorded. The data was collected as part of the MAMM project (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic: Measurements, process studies and Modelling, funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (grant NE/I029293/1). Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This project aimed to investigate whether the present chronological data for late Mousterian sites in Europe are biasing our perception of Neanderthal populations by making them appear more cold-adapted than the incoming anatomically modern Early Upper Palaeolithic humans. In this study we focused on the part of the Neanderthal world that experienced the most continental climatic environments - namely, European Russia north of the Black Sea - for it is in such a region that the environmental preferences, in particular tolerance to temperature, are most discernible. By applying a series of cross-validated non-14C chronological methodologies (OSL, TL, palaeomagnetic intensity, and tephrostratigraphy) to late Middle Palaeolithic assemblages the project sought to identify spatial and temporal patterning which, when correlated with local environmental proxies and wider climate data, would provide a better understanding of Neanderthal climate tolerances. The project has produced a suite of new age determinations from a selection of archaeological sites that had previously undergone investigation and which were available to sample without requiring new excavations; the corresponding data on the cultural, lithic and environmental associations of the new age measurements derive mostly from earlier existing studies.

  • To better-understand natural hydroclimate variability and to help place recent climatic change within a longer-term perspective, a reconstruction of summer precipitation was developed based upon the oxygen isotope ratios of precisely-dated latewood alpha-cellulose from oak tree rings. Oxygen isotopes in precipitation are closely related to precipitation variability across the UK, enabling the reconstruction to be used to extend May to August precipitation totals for the England and Wales precipitation series back to 1201CE. The agreement between instrumental and reconstructed values is unusually strong, with more than half of the variance explained and standard verification tests passed. The stability of this relationship is confirmed using split-period calibration and verification. This allows the reconstruction to be variance-scaled to the full length of the England and Wales instrumental series back to 1766CE. Near-constant replication, with a minimum of ten timbers sourced from historic buildings across central southern England ensures signal strength does not change over time. Summers during the late 20th century appear anomalously dry and those of the 21st century very close to the pre-20th century average with no evidence in the record of prolonged 'megadroughts' across England and Wales.

  • The data resource consists of half hourly time series of heat (latent and sensible) and trace gas (carbon dioxide and methane) fluxes obtained by eddy-covariance, gas concentrations and ancillary meteorological data (e.g. air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, photosynthetically active radiation, total incoming radiation, wind speed and direction). The data were collected at Guma Lagoon (18°57'53.01"S; 22°22'16.20"E), in the perennially flooded area of the Okavango Delta, Botswana, for the purpose of quantifying greenhouse gas fluxes over a Cyperus papyrus stand. The measurement period was 01/01/2018 to 31/12/2020. The instrumentation was installed the UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology; monthly maintenance and data collection visits were effected by the Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana. The research was funded through NERC grant reference NE/N015746/2 - The Global Methane Budget. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset is a model output, from the Grid-to-Grid hydrological model driven by observed climate data (CEH-GEAR rainfall and Oudin temperature-based potential evaporation). It provides monthly mean flow (m3/s) and soil moisture (mm water/m soil) on a 1 km grid for the period 1891 to 2015. To aid interpretation, two additional spatial datasets are provided: - Digitally-derived catchment areas on a 1km x 1km grid - Estimated locations of flow gauging stations on a 1km x 1km grid and as a csv file. The data were produced as part of MaRIUS (Managing the Risks, Impacts and Uncertainties of drought and water Scarcity), which was a UK NERC-funded research project (2014-2017) that developed a risk-based approach to drought and water scarcity ( Full details about this dataset can be found at