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  • Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a crucial technology to enable the decarbonisation of fossil fuel electricity generation. The UK has considerable potential for geological storage of CO2 under the North Sea and extensive offshore industry experience that could be applied. While initial storage is likely to be undertaken in depleted oil and gas fields, much larger saline aquifer formations are estimated to have sufficient capacity to securely contain 100 years of current UK fossil fuel power plant CO2 emissions. The CO2 Aquifer Storage Site Evaluation and Monitoring (CASSEM) project brings together the experience and different working practices of utilities, offshore operators, engineering contractors, and academic researchers to build collective understanding and develop expertise. CASSEM produced both new scientific knowledge and detailed insight into the CCS industry, developing best-value methods for the evaluation of saline aquifer formations for CO2 storage. Alongside work to assess the storage potential of two saline aquifer formations in close proximity to large coal power plant, CASSEM applied a novel Features, Events and Processes method to explore perceptions of risk in the work undertaken. This identified areas of industry and research community uncertainty and unfamiliarity to enable targeted investment of resource to reduce overall project risk. An openly accessible and flexible full chain (CO2 capture, transport and storage) costing model was developed allowing the CCS community to assess and explore overall costs. CASSEM's work also included the first use of citizen panels in the regions investigated for storage to assess public perception and educate the general public about CCS. CASSEM now plans to apply and further develop the methodologies established to test the viability of using a large offshore saline aquifer to store CO2 from multiple sources, leading to the proving of such a store by test injection of CO2.

  • The QICS project (Quantifying and Monitoring Potential Ecosystem Impacts of Geological Carbons Storage) was established to improve our understanding of the potential impacts of CO2 release on the environment and to develop tools and best practice for monitoring sub-seabed CCS reservoirs. To monitor the potential impact of a CO2 leak to surficial benthic megafauna, cages of bivalves (the common mussel Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 and the king scallop Pecten maximus (Linnaeus, 1758)) were deployed at the gas release site and at a reference site in the QICS experiment - both within Ardmucknish Bay, Oban, Scotland. Replicate individuals were sampled at six time points over a 125-day period, which spanned both the 37-day injection and recovery phases of the experiment, in order to establish impacts to molecular physiology. Samples of bivalves were also simultaneously sampled from a reference site within the bay in order to contrast changes in physiology induced by the gas release with naturally variability in the physiological performance of both species. There was no evidence of gene regulation of either selected carbonic anhydrases (CAx genes) or the alpha subunit of sodium potassium ATPAses (ATP1A genes) in individual bivalves collected from the CO2 gas release site, in either species. In the common mussel Mytilus edulis there was only evidence for changes with time in the expression of genes coding for different classes of carbonic anhydrase. It was concluded that the effects of the plume of elevated pCO2 on ion-regulatory gene transcription were negligible in both species. Pratt et al. 2015. No evidence for impacts to the molecular ecophysiology of ion or CO2 regulation in tissues of selected surface-dwelling bivalves in the vicinity of a sub-seabed CO2 release. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. DOI:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.10.001. QICS project website:

  • The dataset contains three modelled estimates of global ammonia emissions from seabird colonies, at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degrees latitude/longitude. The model estimates were derived with a) detailed global seabird population data collated from a large number of sources (data sources date from 1980-2010 for different parts of the world) b) climate data (source: High-resolution Gridded Datasets, Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, UK. last updated by Harris, I. (2007), date: 1995) c) emission model derived by Riddick et al. (2012) with funding for the project from the CEH Integrating Fund (NERC). A detailed description and discussion of the datasets, including methodology and uncertainties, can be found in the following peer-reviewed article: S. N. Riddick, U. Dragosits, T. D. Blackall, F. Daunt, S. Wanless and M. A. Sutton (2012) The global distribution of ammonia emissions from seabird colonies. Atmospheric Environment, 55 (2012), pp. 319-327 DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.02.052 Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • Revised full proposal cover sheet for scientific drilling (852-CPP2) 'GlaciStore: Understanding Pleistocene glaciation and basin processes and their impact on fluid migration pathways (North Sea)', submitted to Integrated Ocean Discovery Programme (IODP) April 2016. The full proposal cover sheet document is publicly available from IODP; the submitted full proposal document is restricted to the proponents for publication and for review and response from IODP. The proposal is a revision of full proposal 852-CPP in response to review by IODP. The lead submitter, on behalf to the GlaciStore consortium is Heather Stewart, British Geological Survey (BGS).The 32 proponents are from research and industry organisations in the UK, Norway, USA and Canada (BGS, Institute for Energy Technology, Lundin Norway AS, Memorial University of Newfoundland, SINTEF Energy Research, Statoil ASA, University of Bergen, University of Edinburgh, University of Oslo and University of Ottawa University of Texas at Austin). The revised full proposal cover sheet states the names of proponents of the 'GlaciStore' consortium and details for the lead submitter of the bid. The full proposal cover sheet comprises: an abstract of the submitted full proposal including description of project funding support as a Complementary Project Proposal: describes and states the scientific research objectives; summarises proposed non-standard measurements; tabulates details of the 13 proposed drill sites (revised from full proposal CPP-852) to address the scientific objectives. The objectives are to investigate: glacial history and sedimentary architecture; fluid flow and microbial processes in shallow sediments; and the stress history and geomechanical models for strata that have experienced multiple glacial and interglacial cycles. The table of revised proposed drilling sites includes designation of primary or alternate sites, the co-ordinates of the position and water depth at each proposed site, the objective for drilling and sampling and the depth to achieve the objective. The proponents, their affiliation, expertise and role for the submission are listed. UKCCSRC Grant UKCCSRC-C1-30.

  • This dataset contains data from a marine geophysical and multibeam survey took place in June 2012 in the area of Ardmucknish Bay on board the RV White Ribbon. This was a follow up survey to the previous work carried out in this area (2011/4 and 2012/5). QICS (Quantifying and monitoring potential ecosystem impacts of geological carbon storage) was a scientific research project funded by NERC; its purpose was to improve the understanding of the sensitivities of the UK marine environment to a potential leak from a carbon capture storage (CCS) system. Sea floor bathymetry data were collected using a Kongsberg EM3002D multibeam system. Sub bottom seismic profiling data were collected using an Applied Acoustics surface tow boomer (STB). Webpage NERC grant NE/H013954/1.

  • Data identifies landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with type of artificial or man-made ground. It indicates areas where the ground surface has been significantly modified by human activity. The scale of the data is 1:10 000 scale. Onshore coverage is partial with approximately 30% of England, Scotland and Wales available in the version 2 data release. BGS intend to continue developing coverage at this scale; current focus is to include all large priority urban areas, along with road and rail transport corridors. Types of artificial ground include: Infilled ground areas where original geology has been removed and then wholly or partially back filled includes waste or landfill sites. Landscaped ground areas where surface has been reshaped includes former sand and gravel workings for recreation and amenity use. Made ground man made features including embankments and spoil heaps. Reclaimed ground are areas of land fill, where new ground is created, usually in coastal margins, may be for example a consequence of draining of submerged wetlands and beach rebuilding. Worked ground areas where ground has been removed including quarries and road cuttings. Disturbed ground areas of ill-defined shallow or near surface mineral workings where distinction cannot be made between made and worked ground. Whilst artificial ground may not be considered as part of the 'real geology' of bedrock and superficial deposits it does affect them. Artificial ground impacts on the near surface ground conditions which are important to human activities and economic development. Due to the constantly changing nature of land use and re-use/redevelopment caution must be exercised when using this data as it represents a snapshot in time rather than an evolving picture hence the data may become dated very rapidly. The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.

  • Digital images of petrology rock thin sections from samples that are referenced in the BGS Petrological Collection Database (Britrocks). Two reference images are being captured for each thin section, one taken in Plane Polarized Light (PPL) and the other in Crossed Polarized Light (XPL). The Britrocks database provides an index to the BGS mineralogical & petrological collection. The computer database covers samples in the UK onshore mapping collection together with worldwide reference minerals and the Museum Reserve collection. The first England and Wales collection sample is from circa 1877, Threshthwaite Comb, Cumbria (collected by the Reverend Clifton Ward). The addition of new samples, transfer of records from registers and updates of existing records is ongoing on a regular basis. Internet access to the database is provided on the BGS web site. Capture of the Scottish Collections began February 2012. Capture of the English and foreign collections began in December 2012.

  • The data consists of annual measurements of standing aboveground plant biomass, annual aboveground net primary productivity and annual soil respiration between 1998 and 2012. Data were collected from seven European shrublands that were subject to the climate manipulations drought and warming. Sites were located in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands (NL), Denmark ( two sites, DK-B and DK-M), Hungary (HU), Spain (SP) and Italy (IT). All field sites consisted of untreated control plots, plots where the plant canopy air is artificially warmed during night time hours, and plots where rainfall is excluded from the plots at least during the plants growing season. Standing aboveground plant biomass (grams biomass per square metre) was measured in two undisturbed areas within the plots using the pin-point method (UK, DK-M, DK-B), or along a transect (IT, SP, HU, NL). Aboveground net primary productivity was calculated from measurements of standing aboveground plant biomass estimates and litterfall measurements. Soil respiration was measured in pre-installed opaque soil collars bi-weekly, monthly, or in measurement campaigns (SP only). The datasets provided are the basis for the data analysis presented in Reinsch et al. (2017) Shrubland primary production and soil respiration diverge along European climate gradient. Scientific Reports 7:43952. DOI: 10.1038/srep43952 Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset includes individual passive detector measurements of radon Rn-222 in the air of artificial burrows, Rn-222 measurements by instrumentation in soil gas of interstitial soil pores and burrow air, gamma analyses results for soil samples and, soil moisture and temperature data. Estimates of absorbed dose rates to wildlife from exposure to natural background radionuclides are required to put estimates of dose rates arising from regulated releases of radioactivity and proposed benchmarks into context. These data are from a study conducted at seven sites in northwest England (comprising broadleaved and coniferous woodlands, scrubland and pastures). Passive track etch detectors were used to measure the Rn-222 concentrations in artificial burrows over a period of approximately one year (July 2009 to June 2010). Instrumented measurements of burrow air and soil pore gas were also conducted in October 2009. The data result from a study funded by NERC-CEH and the England & Wales Environment Agency. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • Modelled predictions of annual pollutant loads in rivers from agricultural source areas for Scotland, reported at Water Framework Directive (WFD) catchment scale. The modelled pollutants include total phosphorous, nitrate (NO3-N), faecal indicator organisms (FIOs), suspended solids, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gas emissions. The agricultural source areas include arable land, improved grassland, rough grazing land and others (e.g. steadings, tracks and other non-field losses). Modelled predictions account for current (c. 2012) implementation of General Binding Rules, Nitrate Vulnerable Zone Action Programme and a number of SRDP options. The values specify pollutant losses in 10^6 colony forming units (cfu) per year for FIOs and kilograms per year for the other pollutants. Full details about this dataset can be found at