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  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. Site indices, as a relative measure of the actual population size, for UK butterfly species calculated from data from the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Site indices are a relative rather than an absolute measure of the size of a population, and have been shown to relate closely to other, more intensive, measures of population size such as mark, release, recapture (MRR) methods. The site index can be thought of as a relative measure of the actual population size, being a more or less constant proportion of the number of butterflies present. The proportion seen is likely to vary according to species; some butterfly species are more conspicuous and thus more easily detected, whereas others are much less easy to see. Site indices are only calculated at sites with sufficient monitoring visits throughout the season, or for targeted reduced effort surveys (timed observations, larval web counts and egg counts) where counts are generally obtained as close to the peak of the flight period as possible and are subsequently adjusted for the time of year and size of the site (area of suitable habitat type for a given species). Wider Countryside Butterfly Survey (WCBS) sites are thus excluded because they are based on very few visits from which accurate indices of abundance cannot currently be calculated. For transect sites a statistical model (a General Additive Model, 'GAM') is used to impute missing values and to calculate a site index. Each year most transect sites (over 90%) produce an index for at least one species and in recent years site indices are calculated for almost 1,500 sites across the UK. Site indices are subsequently collated to contribute to the overall 'Collated Index' for each species, which are relative measures of the abundance of each species across a geographical area, for example, across the whole UK or at country level in England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. Individual site indices are important in informing conservation management as not all sites show the same patterns for each species and likely reflect a combination of local climate and habitat management at the site. Although the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) and Butterfly Conservation (BC) are responsible for the calculation and interpretation of site indices, the collection of the data used in its creation is ultimately reliant on a large volunteer community. The UKBMS is run by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) and the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), in partnership with the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), and supported and steered by Forestry Commission (FC), Natural England(NE), Natural Resources Wales (NRW), Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA), and Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset contains vascular plant species abundance, average sward height, and soil analysis data from Parsonage Down National Nature Reserve (NNR), in southern England, in 1970, 1990 and 2016. Vascular plant species abundance and average sward height were recorded for each quadrat located along one of four transects. The transects were located in a CG2 Festuca ovina – Avenula pratensis grassland which dominates the majority of the site. Soil samples were also taken from various points along each transect and subsequently analysed for pH, loss-on-ignition, exchangeable potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphate and total nitrogen. The dataset was created for a study which examined long-term vegetation change at the nature reserve. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset comprises of derived annual statistics for measures of rainfall, streamflow, temperature and stream acidity (pH) for a stream, draining a small, approximately 1.2 square kilometres, upland conifer catchment. The stream, Nant Trawsnant, drains into the Llyn Brianne reservoir, Powys, United Kingdom. The data are for a 31 year period covering 1st April 1982 to 1st April 2012. The streamflow and acidity data are derived from 15 minute resolution observations throughout the calendar year 2013 from associated stream gauging and water quality stations on the Nant Trawsnant. The monthly rainfall measures presented, were derived from local rain gauges. The monthly temperature measures presented were derived from observations at a weather station near Talgarth, Powys. Routines within the Lancaster University Computer-Aided Program for Time-series Analysis and Identification of Noisy Systems (CAPTAIN) Toolbox for Matlab were used to develop a dynamic model of these data. These models were then used to simulate the 31-year record for which monthly statistics were derived. The statistics were derived to develop greater understanding of the controls on the long-term dynamics of aquatic biodiversity observed by other researchers in this stream. The work was part of the Diversity in Upland River Ecosystem Service Sustainability (DURESS) project, NERC grant NE/J014826/1. Members of staff from the Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University installed, maintained and downloaded the stream gauging and water quality stations and also carried out statistical analysis of the data. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. This dataset compares historic grassland survey data with contemporary spatial data of habitats in England. The NVC community and grassland type were determined for 848 quadrats surveyed at grassland sites in England between 1960 and 1981. A 100m buffer was generated around each individual quadrat which matched the spatial accuracy (±100m) of the quadrat location, to represent a grassland site. These sites were intersected with Natural England's Priority Habitats' Inventory in ArcGIS, to indicate the percentage cover of priority habitats found at the grassland sites in 2013. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This data set contains terrestrial fluxes of N2O from an intensively managed grazed grassland in Scotland measured using eddy covariance and chamber methods . The effect of a tillage event and two nitrogen fertilizer applications were investigated by comparing N2O fluxes from two adjacent intensively managed grazed grasslands , one of which was tilled. An eddy covariance system mounted at 2.4 m was used to measure fluxes of N2O, H2O and CO2 using a quantum cascade laser (QCL) gas analyser. Flux measurements were made over a six month period starting at the end of March, 2012. Chamber measurements were also made using both static and dynamic chambers. The data was collected as part of the GHG Platform project AC0116 funded by DEFRA. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset consists of soils dated using lead-210 (210Pb) in profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Soil cores were sampled during early summer in 2013 and 2014 from peatland plateaus, thawing peatland plateaus, burnt and unburnt black spruce forests in Yukon and Northwest Territories. The upper part of the soil profile was dated using 210Pb to quantify recent carbon accumulation rates. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset contains logged and manual observations of groundwater levels for piezometers at the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) River Lambourn Observatory wetlands at Boxford, Berkshire, for the period February 1 2012 to January 16 2015 (01/02/2012 to 16/01/2015). The CEH River Lambourn Observatory located in Berkshire, UK (51.445o N 1.384o W) comprises c. 10 ha of riparian wetland which is bordered to the east by a 600 m stretch of the River Lambourn. The subsurface architecture comprises bedrock Chalk, overlain by gravels and then peat. Also presented are datums and ground levels for each piezometer, with data available for groundwater levels in peat, gravels and chalk. Groundwater heads were routinely checked at all piezometers by manually dipping observed water levels. At selected piezometers groundwater heads were monitored every 15 minutes using pressure transducers. Piezometers were not anchored to bedrock, though piezometer datum movement due to peat compressibility with saturation was discounted after comparisons of level surveys. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset combines daily automated weather station (AWS) from the Climoor field site in Clocaenog forest, North East Wales The data are on relative humidity (percent), air temperature (degrees Celsius), rainfall (millimetres), air pressure (millibars), net radiation (millivolts), solar radiation (Kilowatts per square metre per second), photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), (micromol per square metre per second), wind speed (metres per second) and wind direction (degrees). These data are an extension for the Daily automated weather station dataset (1998-2015) for the time period July 2015 to August 2016. Data were not collected between 9th October 2015 and 3rd November 2015 due to problems with the sensors. Data are recorded in minute intervals. Up to January 2016 the data were averaged hourly, after January 2016 data were averaged half hourly. Data are then to averaged to daily values, which are reported here. Data collection, processing and quality checking was carried out by members of CEH Bangor staff. The Climoor field experiment intends to answer questions regarding the effects of warming and drought on ecosystem processes. The reported data are collected to monitor site specific environmental conditions and their development with time. These data are important to interpret results that are collected from the climate change manipulations imposed in the field. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset consists of soil temperature profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Soil temperature profiles were monitored during summer in 2013 and 2014 in Yukon and Northwest Territories. Monitored sites included peatland plateaus, thawing features of peatland plateaus, unburnt and burnt black spruce forests, and additional sites. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • Aquatic carbon (dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon and the carbon isotopic composition of DIC) and nutrients (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, total soluble phosphorus and silica) in rainfall fractions (rainwater, throughfall, stemflow and overland flow) were sampled in the Western Amazonian basin. The samples were collected towards the end of a wet season April - May 2012. Rainfall and throughfall samples were collected in plastic buckets. Stemflow samples were collected using stemflow collection systems. Overland samples were collected using a a plastic pipe cut lengthways directing flow into a plastic bucket. Established standard methods were used to analyse the DIC, DOC and nutrients. These methods are outlined in the lineage. The samples were taken to understand the nutrient and carbon delivery in rainwater as well as leaching from tree canopies, stems and from the soil surface. The data collection was carried out as part of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) funded Amazonica project (NE/F005482/1). Full details about this dataset can be found at