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  • The data presented in the Table 1 are U-Th chronology results of Siberian and Mongolian speleothems. This data is a basis for a scientific paper of Vaks, A. et al. (2013) "Speleothems Reveal 500,000-Year History of Siberian Permafrost." Science 340 (6129): 183-186. The table shows the ages of 111 layers of 36 speleothems taken from the six caves of Siberia and Mongolia. Vadose speleothems grow in caves of unsaturated zone when atmospheric water infiltrates into the caves from the surface. Therefore these speleothems cannot grow in permafrost, as well as in dry desert conditions. Therefore in Siberia the periods of speleothem growth show intervals during which the Siberian permafrost thawed and became discontinuous or absent. In Mongolian Gobi Desert the speleothem deposition periods show when the desert was both humid than present and warm enough to enable water infiltration into the caves. The data presented in tables 2 and 3 are OxCal-4.1 modeling results of the Table 1 chronology data for the Holocene (Table 2) and Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 5.5 (Table 3). The tables show exact durations of Holocene and MIS-5.5 permafrost thawing periods in Botovskaya and Okhotnichya Caves.

  • This datasets contains 323 observations of borehole breakouts across and drilling induced tensile fractures from borehole imaging used to re-characterise the UK stress field orientation in 2016. This was published in the Journal of Marine and Petroleum Geology and is openly available using doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2016.02.012 The observations relate to 39 wells from Central England, Northern England and Northern Scotland and are provided with links to screen grabs of the images for clarity. The basic well metadata is supplied along with a description of the dataset. The Images were generated in the IMAGE DISPLAY module of the Landmark RECALL software and are supplied on an “as shown” basis. Descriptions of the tools and the techniques used are listed in the accompanying paper: KINGDON, A., FELLGETT, M. W. & WILLIAMS, J. D. O. 2016. Use of borehole imaging to improve understanding of the in-situ stress orientation of Central and Northern England and its implications for unconventional hydrocarbon resources. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 73, 1-20.

  • The following dataset provides climate and cave monitoring data from Cueva de Asiul northern Spain between 2010 and 2014. This data set was initially presented in Smith et al., (2016) Cave monitoring and the potential for palaeoclimate reconstruction from Cueva de Asiul, Cantabria (N. Spain). International Journal of Speleology, 45(1), 1-9. This data set represents the majority of cave monitoring undertaken at this site as part of a NERC funded PhD project (NERC studentship grant NE/I527953/1), data collection either occurred within this single cave site (43°19’0’’N, 3°35’28’’W) or within 1km of the cave in the village of Matienzo. The data set includes high resolution monitoring data for a range of climatic parameters including, cave and external temperature, rainfall direction, amount and oxygen isotope value, soil and cave air pCO2 concentration and carbon isotope value, cave drip rates and oxygen and deuterium isotope values. All data was collected using standard automated logging systems and the data/ samples were analysed either at Lancaster University, UK or at the NERC isotope geosciences laboratory, British Geological Survey, UK. Any missing data is a result of automated logger malfunction and is explained in full in the above cited paper. In combination this data offers a very high resolution, multiyear veiw into hydrological and cave ventilation processes, each of which play a major role in controlling speleothem growth and chemical makeup in Cueva de Asiul. The data set presents the pertinent background monitoring for the accurate interpretation of speleothems from this cave site. Those who may be interested in the data set include cave scientists who wish to implement a monitoring station/understand how climatic parameters influence speleothem development, or those who wish to obtain focused climate data from the Matienzo region between 2010 and 2014. The data set was collected by members of Lancaster University and the Matienzo caving expedition as part of NERC studentship grant NE/I527953/1. All cave monitoring was undertaken with kind permission from Gobierno de Cantabria, Cultura.

  • The data set provides climate and cave monitoring data from Cueva de Asiul, Cantabria, northern Spain. This data was initially presented in graphical form in Smith et al., (2015) - Drip water Electrical Conductivity as an indicator of cave ventilation at the event scale. Science of the Total Environment, 532, 517-527. All data was collected from within the cave or within a 1km radius of the cave site (43°19'0"N, 3°35'28"W) using instrumentation set up as part of a PhD project running between January 2010 and January 2014. The data set includes high resolution event based monitoring data for a range of climatic parameters - cave and external temperature, rainfall amount, soil pCO2 cave air pCO2 concentration, cave drip water calcium saturation, drip water electrical conductivity and cave air pressure. This data was analysed at Lancaster University, UK or at the NERC isotope geosciences laboratory, British Geological Survey, UK. Any missing data from this 4 year period is a result of instrument malfunction and is clearly explained within the above cited paper. The electrical conductivity component of the data set offers the first data set of this type form any cave system, using a submerged CTD Diver probe and novel piston flow housing. The rest of the data constitute a part of a larger cave monitoring data set produced during the project using a number of standard automated cave monitoring devices. When combined this data leads us to conclude that cave drip water electrical conductivity is driven primarily by changes in cave air pCO2 at Cueva de Asiul and therefore responds to cave ventilation dynamics, rather than by changes in karst water residence time. Without such extremely high resolution monitoring the impact of cave ventilation on event based changes in drip water electrical conductivity would not have been established for this site. This data set should be of interest to anyone studying similar cave sites, interested in the role of electrical conductivity as a monitoring tool within caves and cave ventilation on speleothem growth dynamics. The data set was collected by members of Lancaster University and the Matienzo caving expedition as part of NERC studentship grant NE/I527953/1. All cave monitoring was undertaken with kind permission from Gobierno de Cantabria, Cultura.

  • The images in this dataset show the mixing of two liquid solutions in a random bead pack as a function of time and in three-dimensions. The working fluids used in this study are solutions of methanol and ethylene-glycol (MEG, fluid 1) and brine (fluid 2). In particular, three mixtures of ethylene-glycol and methanol were prepared that differ in wt% ethylene-glycol, namely 55 wt% (MEG55), 57 wt% (MEG57) and 59 wt% (MEG59). Measurements are conducted using in the regime of Rayleigh numbers, Ra = 2000-5000. X-ray Computed Tomography is applied to image the spatial and temporal evolution of the solute plume non -invasively. The tomograms are used to compute macroscopic quantities including the rate of dissolution and horizontally averaged concentration profiles, and enable the visualisation of the ow patterns that arise upon mixing at a spatial resolution of about (2x2x2) mm3. We observe that the mixing process evolves systematically through three stages, starting from pure diffusion, followed by convection-dominated and shutdown. A modified diffusion equation is applied to model the convective process with an onset time of convection that compares favourably with literature data and an effective diffusion coefficient that is almost two orders of magnitude larger than the molecular diffusivity of the solute. The comparison of the experimental observations of convective mixing against their numerical counterparts of the purely diffusive scenario enables the estimation of a non-dimensional convective mass flux in terms of the Sherwood number, Sh = 0.025Ra. We observe that the latter scales linearly with Ra, in agreement with observations from both experimental and numerical studies on thermal convection over the same Ra regime.

  • Due to differential loading of ice on Britain and Ireland the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) response and therefore sea-level record will vary with distance from the centre of the British Irish Ice Sheet. GIA models are tested against geological observations, however there is a paucity of observations below -10m depth and the lateglacial period when the BIIS retreated leading to a rapid response of both sea-level and GIA. The aim of the project was to use geophysical data, ground truthed by core material, to find evidence of lateglacial sea-level minima in the Irish and Celtic Sea to refine these GIA models. Cruise log and digital copies of the core information (location, water depth, core length) taken onboard the research cruise CE12008 on the RV Celtic Explorer. A GeoReseource 6m vibrocorer was used to collect sediment samples. Cores where taken at multiple sites and from southern and eastern Ireland: Bantry Bay, Dunmanus Bay, Waterford,Offshore County Louth and Dundalk Bay, offshore Isle of Man; offshore Wales: Cardingan Bay; and offshore Northern Ireland: Kilkeel and Dundrum Bay, Belfast Lough.

  • Data identifying landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with geological names and rock type descriptions. The scale of the data is 1:50 000 scale providing bedrock geology. Onshore coverage is provided for all of England, Wales, Scotland and the Isle of Man. Bedrock geology describes the main mass of solid rocks forming the earth's crust. Bedrock is present everywhere, whether exposed at surface in outcrops or concealed beneath superficial deposits or water bodies. The bedrock geology of Great Britain is very diverse and includes three broad classes based on their mode of origin: igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. The data includes attribution to identify each rock type (in varying levels of detail) as described in the BGS Rock Classification Scheme (volumes 1-3 ). The bedrock has formed over long periods of geological time, from the Archean eon some 7500 million years ago, to the relatively young Pliocene, 58 million years ago. The age of the rocks is identified in the data through their BGS lexicon name (published for each deposit at the time of the original survey or subsequent digital data creation). For stratified rocks i.e. arranged in sequence, this will usually be of a lithostratigraphic type. Other rock types for example intrusive igneous bodies will be of a lithodemic type. More information on the formal naming of UK rocks is available in the BGS Lexicon of Named Rock Units. Geological names are based on the lithostratigraphic or lithodemic hierarchy. The lithostratigraphic scheme arranges rock bodies into units based on rock-type and geological time of formation. Where rock-types do not fit into the lithostratigraphic scheme, for example intrusive, deformed rocks subjected to heat and pressure resulting in new or changed rock types; then their classification is based on their rock-type or lithological composition, using visible features such as texture, structure, mineralogy. The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.

  • Data produced from NERC Grant NE/J008745/1. Grant Abstract: Iron sulfides are widespread in the environment, where they regulate and control the global geochemical iron and sulfur cycles. However, despite their application as indicators for seawater anoxia and recorders of early-life isotopic and paleomagnetic data, iron sulfide minerals are still largely unexplored compared to, for example, iron oxide minerals or the silicates or carbonates. Numerous iron sulfide phases are known, but many are highly unstable or only partially stable for a short time in the environment. Even the least reactive iron sulfide, pyrite, is no longer stable once exposed to air at the Earth's surface. Its dissolution leads to the problem of acid mine drainage, where sulfuric acid and any trapped toxic metals are released with devastating effects on the environment near the mine. However, iron sulfides also have beneficial effects on the environment, as they easily incorporate metals within their structure, and thus could be sinks for toxic metals or radioactive elements. An intriguing aspect of iron sulfides is the crucial role they may have played in the Origin of Life. Thin layers of iron-nickel sulfide are believed to have formed in the warm, alkaline springs on the bottom of the oceans on Early Earth. They are increasingly considered to have been the early catalysts for a series of chemical reactions leading to the emergence of life. The oxygen-free production of various organic compounds, including amino acids and nucleic acid bases - the building blocks of DNA - is thought to have been catalyzed by small iron-nickel-sulfur clusters, which are structurally similar to the highly reactive present day iron sulfide minerals greigite and mackinawite, yet we know little about how they form. In view of the likely role of such reactive minerals in the conversion of pre-biotic CO2 on Early Earth, we may well be able to harness iron sulfides as present-day catalysts for the same process, thereby potentially aiding the slowing down of climate change by converting the CO2 we produce into useful chemicals. In today's world, the importance of such iron-nickel-sulfide clusters as catalysts has been confirmed, as several life-essential iron-sulfur proteins help transform volatiles such as H2, CO and CO2 into other useful and less harmful chemicals. In all of the above examples, it is important to understand that the reactions that lead to the formation of all these minerals which are necessary for any of the geologically stable minerals to exist (i.e., pyrite) all rely on our understanding of the nucleation and growth of unstable precursors or of the reaction transforming one phase to another. Furthermore, the structure and reactivity of each of these phase determines its role and potential application in the environment. A few research groups in the UK and abroad have carried out high quality investigations of the properties of a number of iron sulfide minerals, but it is particularly difficult to investigate events early on in the nucleation process, even though they set the scene for all subsequent transformations. In this project we propose to employ a robust combination of state-of-the-art computation and experiment to unravel the nucleation of iron sulfide mineral phases. We aim to follow the reactions from the emergence of the first building block in solution, through agglomeration into larger clusters, their aggregation into nano-particles and the eventual transformation into the final crystal. We anticipate that this project, investigating short-lived processes which are only now accessible to study through the development of high temporal and spatial resolution in-situ characterization techniques and High Performance Computing platforms, will lead to in-depth step-by-step quantitative insight into the iron sulfide formation pathways and enhance our fundamental understanding of how a mineral nucleates in solution.

  • Data identifying landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with geological names and rock type descriptions. The scale of the data is 1:50 000 scale. Onshore coverage is provided for all of England, Wales, Scotland and the Isle of Man. Superficial deposits are the youngest geological deposits formed during the most recent period of geological time, the Quaternary, which extends back about 2.58 million years from the present. They lie on top of older deposits or rocks referred to as bedrock. Superficial deposits were laid down by various natural processes such as action by ice, water, wind and weathering. As such, the deposits are denoted by their BGS Lexicon name, which classifies them on the basis of mode of origin (lithogenesis) with names such as, 'glacial deposits', 'river terrace deposits' or 'blown sand'; or on the basis of their composition such as 'peat'. Most of these superficial deposits are unconsolidated sediments such as gravel, sand, silt and clay. The digital data includes attribution to identify each deposit type (in varying levels of detail) as described in the BGS Rock Classification Scheme (volume 4). The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.

  • The data provided here are the numerical simulation data for the multi-decadal experiment (1960 – 2013 inclusive) for the validation of the upgraded Met Office HadGEM3-A based operational event attribution system for EUCLEIA (European Climate and weather Events: Interpretation and Attribution). Improvements include higher horizontal and vertical resolution (N216 L85) and the latest dynamical core (ENDGame) and land surface model (JULES). External forcings are historical natural variability of solar irradiance and volcanic aerosol optical depth as well as historical anthropogenic prescriptions of GHGs, ozone, aerosols and land use change. SST and SIC lower boundary conditions are provided from the HadISST observational dataset. The experiment comprises a 15 member stochastic physics ensemble using kinetic energy backscatter and randomly perturbed physics schemes. All ensemble members share identical initialisation of the atmospheric state from ERA-40 reanalysis at 0000Z December 1st 1959. Atmospheric data are provided at temporal output resolutions of 3-hourly, 6-hourly, daily and monthly; land data are provided at daily and monthly resolutions.