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Data derived from NERC grant NE/I024127/1 1) 36Cl data and supporting chemistry. This folder contains the 36Cl concentration data, data on sample locations on fault planes, major and trace element concentrations, and similar data for upper slope samples. 2) Depth versus density data for trenches in colluvium. This folder contains measurements of weights and volumes of colluvial material removed from trenches for some of the 36Cl sites. These data are used to calculate colluvial densities to inform modelling of the 36Cl data. 3) Field Site Documentation. This folder contains field data and field photographs and movies of the sample sites. It also contains a file that summarises interpretations of the data in this folder, to provide numerical values needed to support modeling the 36Cl data to recover fault slip histories. 4) Google Earth Files to locate sample sites. This folder contains kmz files for Google Earth to locate the sample sites. 5) Terrestrial LiDAR data for each 36Cl sample sites. This folder contains Terrestrial LiDAR data (from a LiDAR on a tripod).
This dataset contains calculated terrestrial fluxes of methane using static chambers from Stordalen mire, a subarctic peatland (68°20’ N, 19°03’ E) located near Abisko, Northern Sweden . Measurements were carried out during growing season 2013 in three measurement campaigns: 16-27 June (number of sampling occasions, n, = 4), 11-22 August (n=5) and 16-29 September (n=5 for wetland and 4 for birch forest). A total of 60 static chambers were measured, 14 within the birch forest and 46 within the wetland. In addition to fluxes auxiliary measurements such as air and soil temperature, soil moisture and soil nutrients were taken and the vegetation composition was recorded. The data was collected as part of the MAMM project (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic: Measurements, process studies and Modelling, http://arp.arctic.ac.uk/projects/) funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (grant NE/I029293/1). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/0dc1cdab-0f4f-4564-a863-a4b43335a5d7
Processed SAR interferograms for the Wells, Nevada earthquake. Grant abstract: How do earthquakes happen? Understanding the nature of earthquakes is a key fundamental question in Geociences that holds many implications for society. Earthquakes are typically associated with a sudden release of energy that has slowly accumulated over hundreds to thousands of years, being strongly controlled by friction in faults buried several kilometers beneath our feet under quite extreme conditions. For example, the amount of heat produced in just a few seconds is such that it can dramatically change the nature of the fault zone near the sliding surface. Moreover, there is abundant evidence of substantial frictional weakening of faults (i.e., fault strength weakens with increasing slip or slip rate) during earthquakes. However, there are still many open questions related to earthquake source processes: How similar are earthquakes in different temperature-pressure conditions? What is the earthquake's energy budget, which controls the intensity of ground motions? What are the physical mechanisms responsible for fault weakening? Recent progress in seismological imaging methods, theoretical fracture mechanics and rupture dynamics simulations can help solve these questions. Huge volumes of freely available seismic and geodetic data from around the world now allow the routine calculation of earthquake models where earthquakes are typically described as single space-time points. Time is now ripe for systematically building robust, more detailed seismic models bearing information on earthquake's physics by using recently developed sophisticated modelling tools along with high-quality images of the 3-D Earth's interior structure enabled by high performance computing facilities. Moreover, it is now possible to model ruptures theoretically in detail using both analytical fracture mechanics calculations and numerical rupture dynamics simulations, and, for example, estimate the fault temperature during the rupture process, which is the most direct way to quantify friction. However, systematic quantitative links between these calculations and seismological observations are still lacking. This project addresses these issues through a coordinated effort involving seismology and rock mechanics aiming at estimating fault temperature rise during earthquakes from new macroscopic seismic source models. We will use advanced seismic source imaging methods to build a new set of robust kinematic, static and dynamic earthquake source parameters for a large selected set of global earthquakes (e.g., average fault length, width, rupture speed and time history, stress drop, radiated and fracture energy). These solutions will then be used as input parameters to estimate fault temperature using analytical and numerical rupture dynamics calculations. This will lead to an improved understanding of how local fault processes occurring at scales from few microns to tens of centimetres translate into macroscopic seismological properties, how energy is partitioned during earthquakes and which are the mechanisms responsible for fault weakening. Ultimately this project will shed new light on many basic questions in earthquake science such as the similarity of earthquakes in different P-T conditions and the potential geological record left by ruptures (e.g., melt). More broadly, this project will benefit hazard models and any studies relying on accurate earthquake source parameters such as studies in seismic tomography, active tectonics and microseismicity (e.g., associated with hydraulic fracturing).
Hazards data in Sichuan (Dechang, Anning River catchment), China. Data include rainfall, earthquake, river catchment, boundary, geological map, soil map, land-cover map, road-map, DEM.
Zeta potential measurements of rare earth element enriched apatite from Jacupiranga, Brazil under water and collector conditions. Zeta potential measurements can be used to indicate the surface behaviour of a mineral under different reagent conditions. Mineral surface behaviour is important in processing and extracting minerals from their host ore, which can be energy intensive. Apatite is a phosphate mineral which can become enriched with rare earth elements. Rare earth elements are important in a wide range of products from iPhones to wind turbines.
Groundwater level and groundwater temperature data measured in 9 boreholes between August 2012 and August 2018. Groundwater conductivity data measured in 1 of these boreholes from September 2012 to August 2014. Eight of the boreholes are drilled into a sandur (glacial outwash floodplain) aquifer in front of Virkisjokull glacier, SE Iceland, and are between 8.2 and 14.9 m deep. The remaining borehole is drilled into a volcanic rock aquifer between the sandur and glacier and is 5.1 m deep. Selected groundwater monitoring data are reported in Ó Dochartaigh, B. É., et al. 2019. Groundwater?- glacier?meltwater interaction in proglacial aquifers, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2019-120. Further information on borehole installations and geology can be found in Ó Dochartaigh et al. 2012. Groundwater investigations at Virkisjokull, Iceland: data report 2012. British Geological Survey Open Report OR/12/088, http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/500570/
The tables describe U-series chronology of speleothems in Ledyanaya Lenskaya and Botovskaya caves used in the manuscript "Paleoclimate evidence of vulnerable permafrost during times of low sea ice" by Vaks et al. 2020, Nature 577, 7789, 221–225. The information included in the tables is listed as following: Table 1: Table 1a includes U–Pb data from Ledyanaya Lenskaya and Botovskaya caves; Table 1b includes common Pb estimates for Ledyanaya Lenskaya and Botovskaya caves. Table 2: U–Th chronology of speleothems from Botovskaya Cave. The data shows when speleothems were growing in Ledyanaya Lenskaya Cave during the last 1.5 Ma and in Botovskaya Cave during the last 0.7 Ma. Speleothems grow when water seeps from the surface into the caves. If the soil and rock above the cave is permanently frozen, water will not reach the cave and speleothems will not grow. Together with the data from Vaks et al (2013) "Speleothems Reveal 500,000-Year History of Siberian Permafrost", Science 340, 6129, p 183–186, these speleothem deposition periods show when the permafrost above the two caves was discontinuous or absent. Published Paper: Vaks, A., Mason, A. J. Breitenbach, S. F. M., Kononov, A. M., Osinzev, A. V., Rosensaft, M., Borshevsky, A., Gutareva, O. S., Henderson, G. M. Palaeoclimate evidence of vulnerable permafrost during times of low sea ice. Nature 577, 7789, 221–225 (2020) doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1880-1
Data from laboratory experiments conducted as part of project NE/K011464/1 (associated with NE/K011626/1) Multiscale Impacts of Cyanobacterial Crusts on Landscape stability. Soils were collected from two sites in eastern Australia and transferred to a laboratory at Griffith University, Queensland for conduct of experiments. Soils were A, a sandy loam, and B a loamy fine sand. Trays 120 mm x 1200 mm x 50 mm were filled with untreated soil that contained a natural population of biota. Soils were either used immediately for experiments (physical soil crust only: PC) or were placed in a greenhouse and spray irrigated until a cyanobacterial crust has grown from the natural biota. Growth was for a period of 5 days (SS), c.30 days (MS2) or c.60 days (MS1). Following the growing period (if applicable) trays were placed in a temperature/humidity controlled room at 35º and 30% humidity until soil moisture (measured 5 mm below the surface) was 5%. Trays were then subject to rainfall simulation. Rainfall intensity of 60 mm hr-1 was used and rainfall was applied for 2 minutes (achieving 2 mm application), 8 minutes (achieving 8 mm application) or 15 minutes (achieving 15 mm application). Following rainfall, trays were returned to the temperature/humidity-controlled room under UV lighting until soil moisture at 5 mm below the surface was 5%. A wind tunnel was then placed on top of each tray in turn and a sequential series of wind velocities (5, 7, 8.5, 10, 12 m s-1) applied each for one minute duration. On each tray the five wind velocities were run without saltation providing a cumulative dust flux. For the highest wind speed, an additional simulation run was conducted with the injection of saltation sands. Three replicates of each rainfall treatment were made. Variables measured include photographs, spectral reflectance, surface roughness, fluorescence, penetrometry, chlorophyll content, extracellular polysaccharide content, Carbon, Nitrogen and splash erosion and particle-size analysis (of wind eroded material). Details of rainfall simulator, growth of cyanobacteria, laser soil surface roughness characterisation and wind tunnel design and deployment in Strong et al., 2016; Bullard et al. 2018, 2019. Bullard, J.E., Ockelford, A., Strong, C.L., Aubault, H. 2018a. Impact of multi-day rainfall events on surface roughness and physical crusting of very fine soils. Geoderma, 313, 181-192. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2017.10.038. Bullard, J.E., Ockelford, A., Strong, C.L., Aubault, H. 2018b. Effects of cyanobacterial soil crusts on surface roughness and splash erosion. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences. doi: 10.1029/2018. Strong, C.S., Leys, J.F., Raupach, M.R., Bullard, J.E., Aubault, H.A., Butler, H.J., McTainsh, G.H. 2016. Development and testing of a micro wind tunnel for on-site wind erosion simulations. Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 16, 1065-1083.
A dataset of DOC and DBC concentrations from 78 sampling locations in South American rivers (surface waters).
Numerical model predictions of present-day horizontal deformation due to ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment processes at GPS sites across Antarctica. Model accounts for 3D spatial variations in Earth rheology using a finite element approach.