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  • Data identifies landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with type of artificial or man-made ground. It indicates areas where the ground surface has been significantly modified by human activity. The scale of the data is 1:10 000 scale. Onshore coverage is partial with approximately 30% of England, Scotland and Wales available in the version 2 data release. BGS intend to continue developing coverage at this scale; current focus is to include all large priority urban areas, along with road and rail transport corridors. Types of artificial ground include: Infilled ground areas where original geology has been removed and then wholly or partially back filled includes waste or landfill sites. Landscaped ground areas where surface has been reshaped includes former sand and gravel workings for recreation and amenity use. Made ground man made features including embankments and spoil heaps. Reclaimed ground are areas of land fill, where new ground is created, usually in coastal margins, may be for example a consequence of draining of submerged wetlands and beach rebuilding. Worked ground areas where ground has been removed including quarries and road cuttings. Disturbed ground areas of ill-defined shallow or near surface mineral workings where distinction cannot be made between made and worked ground. Whilst artificial ground may not be considered as part of the 'real geology' of bedrock and superficial deposits it does affect them. Artificial ground impacts on the near surface ground conditions which are important to human activities and economic development. Due to the constantly changing nature of land use and re-use/redevelopment caution must be exercised when using this data as it represents a snapshot in time rather than an evolving picture hence the data may become dated very rapidly. The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.

  • The map shows the location of excess sample materials from the G-BASE (Geochemical Baseline Survey Of The Environment) geochemistry project:- stream sediments, panned heavy mineral concentrates and soils are stored long term in the National Geoscience Data Centre and are available for use in other projects. The Minerals Programme (incorporating the Mineral Reconnaissance Programme) sample collection contains reference samples of drill cores, rocks, tills, soils, stream sediments and panned concentrates. These samples were collected in the period 1974 - to date in mineralised and potentially mineralised areas of the United Kingdom, principally in the northern and western Britain.

  • Data identifying landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with geological names and rock type descriptions. The scale of the data is 1:10 000 scale. Onshore coverage is partial with approximately 30% of England, Scotland and Wales available in the version 2 data release. BGS intend to continue developing coverage at this scale; current focus is to include all large priority urban areas, along with road and rail transport corridors. Superficial deposits are the youngest geological deposits formed during the most recent period of geological time, the Quaternary, which extends back about 2.58 million years from the present. They lie on top of older deposits or rocks referred to as bedrock. Superficial deposits were laid down by various natural processes such as action by ice, water, wind and weathering. As such, the deposits are denoted by their BGS lexicon name, which classifies them on the basis of mode of origin (lithogenesis) with names such as, 'glacial deposits', 'river terrace deposits' or 'blown sand'; or on the basis of their composition such as 'peat'. Most of these superficial deposits are unconsolidated sediments such as gravel, sand, silt and clay. The digital data includes attribution to identify each deposit type (in varying levels of detail) as described in the BGS Rock Classification Scheme (volume 4). The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.

  • THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN **This dataset was created for the "Britain beneath our feet" atlas using information extracted from the Geochemical Baseline Survey Of The Environment (G-BASE) For The UK . For acidity of stream water data please see Geochemical Baseline Survey Of The Environment (G-BASE) For The UK ** Geochemical Baseline Survey Of The Environment (G-BASE) coverage for acidity of stream water. The G-BASE programme involves systematic sampling and the determination of chemical elements in samples of stream sediment, stream water and, locally, soil, to build up a picture of the surface chemistry of the UK. The average sample density for stream sediments and water is about one site per 1.5-2km square. Analytical precision is high with strict quality control to ensure countrywide consistency. Results have been standardised to ensure seamless joins between geochemical sampling campaigns. The data provide baseline information on the natural abundances of elements, against which anomalous values due to such factors as mineralisation and industrial contamination may be compared.

  • The map shows the localities where samples that form part of the BGS rock collections have been taken. Many of these samples are from surface exposure, and were collected by BGS geologists during the course of geological mapping programmes. Others are from onshore boreholes or from mine and quarry workings. The principal collections are the E (England and Wales), S (Scotland), N (continuation of the S collection) and the MR (miscellaneous). The collections, which are held at the BGS offices at Keyworth (Nottingham) and Edinburgh, comprise both hand specimens and thin sections, although in individual samples either may not be immediately available. Users may also note that the BGS holds major collections of borehole cores and hand specimens as well as over a million palaeontological samples. The Britrocks database provides an index to these collections. With over 120,000 records, it now holds data for some 70% of the entire collections, including the UK samples shown in this application as well as rocks from overseas locations and reference minerals. The collections are continuously being added to and sample records from archived registers are also being copied into the electronic database. Map coverage is thin in some areas where copying from original paper registers has not been completed. Further information on Britrocks samples in these and other areas can be obtained from the Chief Curator at the BGS Keyworth (Nottingham) office or from the rock curator at the BGS Murchison House (Edinburgh) office.

  • Profile soil analyses are available from a number of BGS programmes, notably the Mineral Reconnaissance Programme (MRP) and the Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment (G-BASE) programme. Sampling depth and range of analytes determined is very variable for the MRP. G-BASE samples are consistently from 35 - 50 cm though since 2003 it has become routine practice in the G-BASE project to collect a top soil and deeper profile sample from the same site but only analyses the top soil and store the profile soil. This also applies in urban areas. The G-BASE profile soils were generally sieved to 150 microns before analysis and determined by XRFS for some or all of: Mg, P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, V, Cr, Co, Ba, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pb, Bi, Th, U, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Ge, Sc, Se, Br, Hf, Ta, W, Tl, Te and I. MRP samples can include profile samples from greater than 1 meter collected using a power auger and also include till samples. The G-BASE samples are collected at a density of 1 sample per two square kilometres in rural areas and 4 samples every kilometre square in urban areas. MRP sampling was more site specific generally collecting soil samples along lines at spacing intervals generally 25 - 250 m.

  • This low-resolution image has been produced from BGS land and marine gravity data. The colour was generated using the BGS COLMAP software package. Colour levels are defined by histogram equalisation. Combining this image with the grey shaded relief image produces a similar image to the colour shaded relief image. The measured gravity values have been corrected in order to show the anomalies attributable to variations in crustal density. In broad terms the blues are attributable to large volumes of low density rocks, the reds to high density rocks. Significant lows occur, for instance, over areas of thick, low density sedimentary rocks(e.g. Cheshire Basin, Wessex Basin), or large granites (eg Cornwall). For marine data, free-air anomalies have been calculated from observed gravity values along marine survey lines. Line intersection errors between crossing lines and overlapping surveys have been used using network adjustment techniques. Free air anomalies have been calculated for sea-bottom stations. For land data, bouguer anomalies have been calculated from gravity observations at points of known height. In order to minimise the effect of topography, Bouguer corrections for the British Mainland have been applied using a density estimated for each station. Elsewhere a correction density of 2.67 Mg/m3 has been used. Corrections for the gravitational effect of terrain have been made where significant, and in a general extent to a radius of 48.6km. The data have been interpolated onto a 1km x 1km grid using a variable tension technique, and smoothed.

  • Regional Geochemical data from drainage basin reconnaissance survey carried out as part of a bilateral aid project between the UK Department for International development (DFID) (formerly ODA) and the Indonesian Government. Some 23,000 stream sediment samples collected and analysed (less than 80 mesh fraction) for Copper, Lead, Zinc, Cobalt, Nickel, Manganese, Silver, Arsenic, Molybdenum, Tin and Tungsten (partial extraction) and Lithium, Potassium, Chromium and Iron (total extraction). Samples collected and classified on the basis of 1:250 000 map quadrangle areas. Data gathering completed in two phases: First phase: North of the equator (North Sumatra Project, NSP). Second phase: South of the equator (Southern Sumatra Geological and mineral exploration Project). Sampling and analytical methodology has been consistent throughout. All data is available as on the Sumatra CD-database CD-ROM. North of the equator data published as 1:250 000 single element classified symbol plots and as a monochrome geochemical atlas. South of the equator data published as 1:250 000 single element proportional symbol plots and a geochemical atlas (hardcopy and CD-ROM). Projects also involved regional geological mapping and in Southern Sumatra regional geophysics (gravity). Raw data can be obtained from the Directorate of Mineral Resources, Bandung, Indonesia.

  • This layer of the map based index (GeoIndex) shows the locations of over 12,500 rock samples from the land area of the United Kingdom gathered as part of the Mineral Reconnaissance Programme (MRP). The Mineral Reconnaissance Programme (MRP), funded by the DTI, carried out baseline mineral exploration in Great Britain between 1972 and 1997. The programme has been subsumed into the new BGS Minerals Programme, also funded by the DTI. The rock samples have been analysed for a variety of major and trace elements, mainly by XRF.

  • The UTM series of maps are based on 1:250 000 base maps published by the Ordnance Survey. Mapping is divided into squares which cover 1 degree by 1 degree of latitude / longitude in the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection, and coverage extends offshore and onto the continental shelf. The UTM series are available in three different themes: - Solid geology (complete coverage within the mapped area, including most of the UK continental shelf) - Sea bed sediments (coverage for most offshore areas) - Quaternary geology (coverage for the UK sector of the North Sea, Irish Sea and the Atlantic margin) Also included within this series are two small-scale (1:500 000) bedrock geology maps of the Central Rockall Basin and North Rockall Basin. These maps supersede the older quarter-inch series of maps which were published for England / Wales and Scotland. Geological maps represent a geologist's compiled interpretation of the geology of an area. A geologist will consider the data available at the time, including measurements and observations collected during field campaigns, as well as their knowledge of geological processes and the geological context to create a model of the geology of an area. This model is then fitted to a topographic basemap and drawn up at the appropriate scale, with generalization if necessary, to create a geological map, which is a representation of the geological model. Explanatory notes and vertical and horizontal cross sections may be published with the map. These maps are, for the most part, hard-copy paper records stored in the National Geoscience Data Centre (NGDC) and are delivered as digital scans through the BGS website.