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  • The Met Office Hadley Centre's sea surface temperature data set, HadSST2, replaces the Met Office Historical Sea Surface Temperature dataset (MOHSST6) and is a monthly global field of SST (Sea Surface Temperature) on a 5 deg latitude by 5 deg longitude grid from 1850 to August 2013. The data are neither interpolated nor variance adjusted. The SST data are taken from the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set, ICOADS, from 1850 to 1997 and from the NCEP-GTS from 1998 to the present. HadSST2 is produced by taking in-situ measurements of SST from ships and buoys, rejecting measurements which which fail quality checks, converting the measurements to anomalies by subtracting climatological values from the measurements, and calculating a robust average of the resulting anomalies on a 5° by 5° degree monthly grid. After gridding the anomalies, bias corrections are applied to remove spurious trends caused by changes in SST measuring practices before 1942. The uncertainties due to under-sampling have been calculated for the gridded monthly data as have the uncertainties on the bias corrections. This dataset include: - SST anomaly data (HadSST2_SST_1850on.txt.gz) - 1961-1990 Climatology (HadSST2_climatology_5x5_1961_1990.txt) - numbers of observations used to calculate the average (HadSST2_nobs_1850on.txt.gz) - Estimates on the measurement and sampling errors on the SST data (HadSST2_m_and_s_errors_1850on.txt.gz) - bias-adjusted data using bias adjustments which represent the 97.5 percent and 2.5 percent confidence levels of the estimated errors on the adjustments (HadSST2_97.5_pct_bias_1850on.txt.gz and HadSST2_2.5_pct_bias_1850on.txt.gz). - Files showing the correction applied to the data e.g.: HadSST2_bucket_correction_median.txt.gz - the corrections applied to the data 1850-1941 HadSST2_bucket_correction_2.5pc.txt.gz - the lower bound of the 95% confidence range of the uncertainties 1850-1941 HadSST2_bucket_correction_97.5pc.txt.gz - the upper bound of the 95% confidence range of the uncertainties 1850-1941 A 1 degree version of HadSST2 is also available. Data were provided by the Met Office Hadley Centre. Dataset was produced by the Hadley Centre in collaboration with ICOADS.

  • This dataset contains measurements of sea ice content (HadISST1.1). Dataset include monthly mean gridded (1deg grid), global Ice content from 1870 to October 2015. This product replaced the GISST/GICE (Global Sea Surface Temperature/Global sea-Ice content) data sets ended in February 2003. The sea ice data are taken from a variety of sources including digitized sea ice charts and passive microwave retrievals. The sea ice fields are made more homogeneous by compensating satellite microwave-based sea ice concentrations for the impact of surface melt effects on retrievals in the Arctic and for algorithm deficiencies in the Antarctic, and by making the historical in situ concentrations consistent with the satellite data. SSTs near sea ice are estimated using statistical relationships between SST and sea ice concentration. From May 2007 the data set of in situ measurements used in HadISST has changed. The MOHSST data set, which was previously used has been discontinued, and HadSST2 is now being used in its place. The two systems ran in parallel for several months prior to the changeover and no significant differences were seen. The data were provided by the Hadley centre (Met Office). Important Notes: On 13th March 2015: Users have noticed that there is a minor discontinuity at the dateline in HadISST1 SST fields starting in 1982. It appears to only affect gridcells just to the east of the dateline. Please note that this can affect estimates of the mean and variability of SSTs in HadISST1 when analysed across this region. On 8th March 2011: The switch of satellite source data at the start of 2009 introduced a discontinuity in the fields of sea ice in both the Arctic and Antarctic. On 3rd December 2010: The SSM/I satellite that is used to provide the data for the sea ice analysis in HadISST suffered a significant degradation in performance through January and February 2009. The problem affected HadISST fields from January 2009 and probably causes an underestimate of ice extent and concentration. It also affected ses surface temperatures in sea ice areas because the SSTs are estimated from the sea ice concentration. As of 3rd December 2010, the Met Office Hadley Centre has reprocessed the data from January 2009 to the present using a difference sea ice data source. This is an improvement on the previous situation but users should still note that the switch of data source at the start of 2009 might introduce a discontinuity into the record.

  • This dataset contains measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) (HadISST1.1). Dataset include monthly mean gridded (1deg grid), global SSTs from 1870 to October 2015. This product replaced the GISST/GICE (Global Sea Surface Temperature/Global sea-Ice content) data sets ended in February 2003. The SST data are taken from the Met Office Marine Data Bank (MDB), which from 1982 onwards also includes data received through the Global Telecommunications System (GTS). In order to enhance data coverage, monthly median SSTs for 1871-1995 from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) (now ICOADS) were also used where there were no MDB data. The sea ice data are taken from a variety of sources including digitized sea ice charts and passive microwave retrievals. HadISST1 temperatures are reconstructed using a two stage reduced-space optimal interpolation procedure, followed by superposition of quality-improved gridded observations onto the reconstructions to restore local detail. The sea ice fields are made more homogeneous by compensating satellite microwave-based sea ice concentrations for the impact of surface melt effects on retrievals in the Arctic and for algorithm deficiencies in the Antarctic, and by making the historical in situ concentrations consistent with the satellite data. SSTs near sea ice are estimated using statistical relationships between SST and sea ice concentration. From May 2007 the data set of in situ measurements used in HadISST has changed. The MOHSST data set, which was previously used has been discontinued, and HadSST2 is now being used in its place. The two systems ran in parallel for several months prior to the changeover and no significant differences were seen. The data were provided by the Hadley centre (Met Office). Important Notes: On 13th March 2015: Users have noticed that there is a minor discontinuity at the dateline in HadISST1 SST fields starting in 1982. It appears to only affect gridcells just to the east of the dateline. Please note that this can affect estimates of the mean and variability of SSTs in HadISST1 when analysed across this region. On 3rd December 2010: The SSM/I satellite that is used to provide the data for the sea ice analysis in HadISST suffered a significant degradation in performance through January and February 2009. The problem affected HadISST fields from January 2009 and probably causes an underestimate of ice extent and concentration. It also affected ses surface temperatures in sea ice areas because the SSTs are estimated from the sea ice concentration. As of 3rd December 2010, the Met Office Hadley Centre has reprocessed the data from January 2009 to the present using a difference sea ice data source. This is an improvement on the previous situation but users should still note that the switch of data source at the start of 2009 might introduce a discontinuity into the record.