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These data consist of sets of 3-dimensional gridpoint analyses of the stratosphere which are produced by the Met Office using data from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) instruments onboard the NOAA (National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration) operational polar orbiters. TOVS consists of 3 instruments, the Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU) the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and the High Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS). Daily radiance and geopotential height data are available on a 5 degree latitude / longitude global grid from December 1978 to April 1997. Software is provided to derive potential vorticity. Access permission required so that PI can monitor usage of data.
This CD-ROM contains data from the combined experiment: Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment; and Measurements for Assessing the Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (ASHOE/MAESA). This experiment was conducted in four phases between March and November 1994 at NASA Ames Research Center, California; Barbers Point, Hawaii; and Christchurch, New Zealand. Most of the data are essentially in their final form, but additional calibrations are being done for some instruments. A second edition incorporating any changes to the datasets is anticipated in mid 1996. The data consist of in situ and remotely sensed measurements collected onboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft (including O3, H2O, N2O, CO2, CH4, CO, H2, SF6 and a wide range of CFCs); radiosonde, ozonesonde, and backscatter sonde balloon measurements; ground-based spectrometer and lidar measurements; and SAGE II satellite measurements. Theory teams provided calculations of: meteorological parameters in the form of partial hemispheric analyses, cross-sections along the ER-2 flight track, interpolations to the ER-2 flight path, and back- trajectories of selected parcels along the ER-2 flight path; photodissociation rates of selected chemical species along the ER-2 flight path; and cloud properties along the ER-2 flight track.
Transport and mixing in fronts was a NERC Polluted Troposphere Research Programme project (Round 1 - NER/T/S/2002/00149 - Duration 2002 - 2005) and was led by DR SL Gray, University of Reading. The aim of this research was to provide improved quantitative estimates of the rate at which frontal regions in weather systems transport polluted air from the boundary layer to the free troposphere. Modelling studies performed using typical mesoscale to regional-scale resolution cannot resolve certain frontal mixing processes which are clearly visible in high resolution radar observations; namely multiple shear layers and large-amplitude Kelvin-Helmholtz billows. To perform very high-resolution (of order 2 km by 90 vertical levels) model simulations of frontal cases using the new dynamics (non-hydrostatic) Met Office model. The dynamical representation of these mixing processes and the transport and mixing of passive tracers in the model were evaluated using observations. The climatological impact of these individual fronts was determined using a climatological frontal database. The Polluted Troposphere Programme was a 5-year NERC thematic research programme was centred upon the study of polluted boundary layer air and its transport to the free troposphere. The programme focussed on the regional scale, defined as intermediate between urban and hemispheric.
The UK Colonial Registers and Royal Navy Logbooks (CORRAL) project uses late 18th to early 20th century archive material to enhance the global coverage of daily to sub-daily weather observations by digitising Royal Navy ship's logbooks (from ships of voyages of scientific discovery and those in the service of the Hydrographic Survey) and coastal and island records contained in UK Colonial documents. This provides meteorological recordings from marine sites back to the 18th Century. These data are public. These records are held at The National Archive, Kew. The ADM section includes records of the Admiralty, Naval Forces, Royal Marines, Coastguard, and related bodies, concerning all aspects of the organisation and operation of the Royal Navy and associated naval forces, over the period 1205-1998 (more details are available in the National Archives catalogue entry). The CORRAL project deals with the following series: ADM51: Admiralty: Captains' Logs, 1669-1853 ADM53: Admiralty: and Ministry of Defence, Navy Department: Ships' Logs 1799-1985 [Excluding Flying Squadron] ADM53 -- Flying Squadron: Admiralty: and Ministry of Defence, Navy Department: Ships' Logs 1869-1872 ADM55: Admiralty: Supplementary Logs and Journals of Ships on Exploration, 1757-1861; 1904, including logs from the voyages of James Cook.
"To what extent was the Little Ice Age a result of a change in the thermohaline circulation?" project. This was a Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) RAPID Climate Change Research Programme project (Joint International Round - NE/C509507/1 - Duration 1 Aug 2005 - 31 Jul 2008) led by Dr Tim Osborn of the University of East Anglia, with co-investigators at the University of East Anglia and Royal Netherlands Meteorology Institute. The dataset collection contains various model experiment output used in an analysis of whether the Little Ice Age climate could have been generated by one or more of the following factors: a weakening of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation; the persistence of a generally negative North Atlantic Oscillation; or reduced radiative forcing (by increased volcanic activity, reduced solar insolation and lower greenhouse gas concentrations relative to the present). Rapid Climate Change (RAPID) was a £20 million, six-year (2001-2007) programme for the Natural Environment Research Council. The programme aimed to improve the ability to quantify the probability and magnitude of future rapid change in climate, with a main (but not exclusive) focus on the role of the Atlantic Ocean's Thermohaline Circulation.
This data was collected from the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP) conducted onboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft in January and February, 1987 based in Darwin, Australia. This mission was the last of 6 STEP missions which began with the Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) in April 1984. The Darwin, Australia phase of STEP utilized 15 instruments and accessed the world's highest, coldest tropopause as well as the largest penetrating cumulonimbus anvils. The flights were designed to test a dehydration mechanism proposed by Danielsen (1982), as well as to acquire sufficient data to test and develop other hypotheses. The STEP missions were designed to investigate different aspects of stratosphere-troposphere exchange (in mass, trace gases, and aerosols), including cloud-free and cloud-dominated mechanisms in both the mid-latitudes and the tropics. STEP was carried out under NASA and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Data from the NASA/NOAA aircraft campaign based in Darwin, Australia in January and February 1987. Designed to investigate mechanisms of equatorial stratosphere-troposphere exchange. Measurements include trace gases and aerosol in cloud free and cloud dominated conditions. This dataset is public.
The UGAMP ozone climatology consists in a 4-dimensional distribution of ozone that has been built up from the combination of several observational data sets. These data sets include satellite observations (SBUV, SAGE II, SME, TOMS) as well as ozone sonde data provided by the Atmospheric Environment Service of Canada. This global climatology, covering five years (1985 to 1989), was originally established to replace the simpler ozone climatologies used as input in the UGAMP models (ECMWF parameterization or 2-D zonal means deduced from satellite data). It provides monthly means of the ozone column above the grid levels as well as 5-year averages and zonal averages of these monthly means, on a 2.5 x 2.5 deg horizontal grid and over 47 levels, from the ground up to 0.001 mb. Software to convert ozone columns into mixing ratio and to interpolate the data on any required grid is also available.
Land surface and marine surface observations data from the Met Office station network and other world wide stations as stored in the Met Office MIDAS database. Data are available for the period 1853 to present. The dataset comprises daily and hourly weather measurements, hourly wind parameters, max and min air temperatures, soil temperatures, sunshine duration and radiation measurements and daily, hourly and sub-hourly rain measurements, some climatology data and marine observations (including sea surface temperature, swell and wave associated parameters). This dataset collection supersedes the Met Office Land Surface Stations Dataset collection (1900-2000), also archived at the BADC.
RAPID-WATCH VALOR project investigated how the inclusion of RAPID-WATCH observations into the 'initial conditions', used to start climate model simulations, can refine predictions of the future climate and, particularly, the future state of the AMOC. This dataset collection contains NEMO, FOAM AND ECMWF Model output. The project developed ways to assimilate the RAPID-WATCH and other ocean observations into ocean models which were then used to produce ocean 'syntheses' - complete data sets of our best guess of past ocean state. Similar syntheses were also produced which exclude the RAPID-WATCH observations. Both of these sytheses were then used to start prediction experiments in climate models. By comparing the climate model simulations starting with and without the RAPID-WATCH observations, the impact of the the RAPID-WATCH array observations on climate predictions, and the climate model AMOC were found.
High resolution radiosonde data from the British Antarctic Survey's stations Halley and Rothera are available. The data consists of vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, relative humidity, humidity mixing ratio, radiosonde position, wind speed and wind direction. Measurements are taken at 2 second intervals and the ascents extend to heights of approximately 20-30 km. The archive has data from 2001 and generally there is 1 ascent per day from both stations.