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  • The global marine meteorological observations data contains marine meteorological values, such as wave heights and periods, wind speed and direction, present weather, and air and sea temperature, measured during the hour ending at the stated date and time. The data is collected by worldwide observation stations and transmitted within the following message types: Ship SYNOP, which is also referred to as FM 13-IX SHIP, FM 18-X BUOY, Light Vessel, Marid, Marine logbooks, NAVY, OWS, PLAT/RIG, and VOF. In this dataset the different message types are all described by the SHIP message name. Data are available from 1854 to present. The data consist of: Offshore wind (speed and direction) Weather (present, past) Cloud (amount, type, base amount, base height) Pressure (mean sea level) Visibility Temperature (air, dew-point, wetbulb, sea) Relative humidity Wave (direction, period, height) Wind-wave (period, height) Swell (direction, -wave period, height) Ship direction and distance Maximum gust speed and period The wind speed is given to the nearest knot, direction to the nearest 10 degrees, and the time of the maximum gust is given to the nearest 0.1 hour. The wind direction from which the wind blows, is measured in Degrees (true). The entry for an east wind is 090, for a south wind it is 180 and so on clockwise. Note that zero values in both wind speed and wind direction fields indicate that there was no wind blowing at the time of observation. The temperature and dew point are given to the nearest 0.1 degree Celsius, the pressure is given to the nearest 0.1 hectopascal, the cloud base height and the visibility are given to the nearest decametre. Cloud amount is reported in oktas. The past weather is recorded as a number between 0-9 which details what the weather has been like in the last 6 hours for observations at 00, 06, 12, 1800 UTC, the last 3 hours for observations at 03, 09, 15, 2100 UTC and the previous hour at any other times. The past weather is only recorded when a manual observation is done at the station. Marine reports are defined by position (latitude and longitude) and by time. Duplicates can exist at a specified position and time, e.g. when ships are alongside for bunkering, so the identifier of the ship or buoy is part of the primary key of the entity. A great many ships do not include a valid call sign in their reports; the call sign may be missing or invalid. When this occurs, Midas will substitute the call sign value “SHIP”.

  • The Meteorological Research Flight (MRF) was a Met Office facility, which flew a well-instrumented C-130 Hercules aircraft for atmospheric research purposes. This dataset contains airborne atmospheric and chemistry measurements taken on board the Met Office C-130 Hercules aircraft flight A259 for research purposes.

  • The UK hourly weather observation data contain meteorological values measured on an hourly time scale. The measurements of the concrete state, wind speed and direction, cloud type and amount, visibility, and temperature were recorded by observation stations across the UK and transmitted within SYNOP, METAR, DLY3208, AWSHRLY and NCM messages. The sunshine duration measurements were transmitted in the HSUN3445 message. The data spans from 1875 to present. This dataset also contains data from a selection of overseas sites: SRC_ID STATION STATUS LAST DATA 1580 GUTERSLOH CLOSED 28/10/2013 13:00 1582 BRUGGEN CLOSED 29/09/2001 05:00 1584 LAARBRUCH CLOSED 14/05/1999 23:00 1585 GIBRALTAR, NORTH FRONT OPEN 03/02/2020 09:00 1588 AKROTIRI, CYPRUS OPEN 03/02/2020 09:00 1603 ASCENSION ISLAND AIRFIELD OPEN 02/02/2020 21:00 1605 BOTTOMS WOOD, ST HELENA OPEN 03/02/2020 09:00 1608 PORT STANLEY, FALKLAND IS CLOSED 31/12/1980 23:00 1609 MOUNT PLEASANT, FALKLAND IS OPEN 03/02/2020 09:00 56810 MOUNT OLYMPUS OPEN 16/04/2019 09:00 61737 MOUNT KENT, FALKLAND ISLANDS OPEN 03/02/2020 09:00 61743 MOUNT BYRON, FALKLAND ISLANDS OPEN 03/02/2020 09:00 61744 MOUNT ALICE, FALKLAND ISLANDS OPEN 02/02/2020 05:00

  • Evaluation of the Ozone and Water Vapour Datasets of the 40-Year European Re-analysis of the Global Atmosphere Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) Round 2 project led by Prof. A. O Neill, Dr W. Lahoz and Prof. B. Hoskins, Centre for Global Atmospheric Modelling, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading. This dataset contains comparisons between the ERA40 water vapour field output and measurements from the MOZAIC research aircraft instrumentation and the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments on board the Upper Air Research Satellite (UARS).

  • The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) is an international programme co-ordinated by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) for the establishment of high quality global and regional sea level networks for application to climate, oceanographic and coastal sea level research. The programme became known as GLOSS as it provides data for deriving the 'Global Level Of the Sea Surface'; a smooth level after averaging out waves, tides and short-period meteorological events. The main component of GLOSS is the Global Core Network (GCN) of 308 sea level stations around the world, which are maintained by 87 countries. This dataset is public.

  • The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) which was based in Stavanger, Norway during January and February, 1989, was designed to study the production and loss mechanisms of ozone in the north polar stratospheric environment, and the effect on ozone distribution of the Arctic polar vortex and of the cold temperatures associated with the formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSC). This dataset contains measurements of chemical and dynamical parameters collected onboard the DC-8 aircraft (for example, ClO, BrO, HCl, O3, NOx, N2, HNO3 and CH4, whole air samples and aerosol measurements).

  • The European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment is a European Commission (EC) measurement campaign undertaken in the Northern Hemisphere winter of 1991-92 to study ozone chemistry and dynamics. This dataset contains measurements of HNO3, air temperature and air pressure measurements.

  • MOHSST, (Met Office Historical Sea-Surface Temperature) is a gridded dataset of sea-surface temperature anomalies covering the period 1856-2006. MOHSST has now been superceeded by HadSST2. We now recommend use of HadSST2 instead of MOHSST for all purposes. MOHSST is only still available in case it is needed for direct comparison with earlier work where MOHSST was used. MOHSST is produced by taking in-situ measurements of SST from ships and buoys, rejecting measurements which which fail quality checks, converting the measurements to anomalies by subtracting climatological values from the measurements, and averaging the resulting anomalies on a 5 by 5 degree monthly grid. Up to 1996 the measurements used are those in the U.K. Marine Data Bank; more recent years use data coming in through the GTS. After gridding the anomalies, bias corrections are applied to remove spurious trends caused by changes in SST measuring practices, and the data are smoothed to reduce noise. The data were provided by the Met Office Hadley Centre.

  • CCMVal was a large international effort to improve understanding of Chemistry-Climate Models (CCMs) and their underlying GCMs (General Circulation Models) through process-oriented evaluation, along with discussion and coordinated analysis of science results. The first round of CCMVal (CCMVal-1) evaluated only a limited set of key processes in the CCMs, focusing mainly on dynamics and transport. This dataset contains MAECHAM4CHEM model output from the WMO 2006 REF1 experiments run by the Max Planck Institutes, Germany.

  • "The Mass balance and freshwater contribution of the Greenland ice sheet: a combined modelling and observational approach" project, which was a Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) RAPID Climate Change Research Programme project (Joint International Round - NE/C51631X/1 - Duration 1 Jun 2005 - 30 Nov 2008) led Prof Jonathan Bamber of the University of Bristol, with co-investigators at the Nansen Environmental & Remote Sensing Center, Norway, the Royal Netherlands Meteorology Institute and Dr MR van den Broeke, University of Utrecht, Netherlands. The dataset quantifies how, where and when the Greenland ice sheet has fed fresh water through iceberg calving, subglacial melting and meltwater runoff into the surrounding ocean during the last half century. This dataset contains precipitation, evaporation and run off model outputs.