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  • The UK daily weather observation data contain meteorological values measured on a 24 hour time scale. The measurements of sunshine duration, concrete state, snow depth, fresh snow depth, and days of snow, hail, thunder and gail were attained by observation stations operated by the Met Office across the UK operated and transmitted within DLY3208, NCM, AWSDLY and SYNOP messages. The data span from 1889 to 2018. For details of observations see the relevant sections of the MIDAS User Guide linked from this record for the various message types. This version supersedes the previous version of this dataset and a change log is available in the archive, and in the linked documentation for this record, detailing the differences between this version and the previous version. The change logs detail new, replaced and removed data. This dataset is part of the Midas-open dataset collection made available by the Met Office under the UK Open Government Licence, containing only UK mainland land surface observations owned or operated by the Met Office. It is a subset of the fuller, restricted Met Office Integrated Data Archive System (MIDAS) Land and Marine Surface Stations dataset, also available through the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis - see the related dataset section on this record. Currently this represents approximately 95% of available daily weather observations within the full MIDAS collection.

  • Isotopic sampling of methane from tedlar bag samples collected over Alaskan wetlands, samples analysed at Royal Holloway University of London This dataset contains air sample measurements of isotopic d13C methane. The measurements were collected using regular flask samples over Alaskan wetlands. The samples were analysed Royal Holloway University of London using continuous flow gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-GC/IRMS). These data were collected as part of theMethane Production in the Arctic: Under-recognized Cold Season and Upland Tundra - Arctic Methane Sources (UAMS) project funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) (NE/P002552/1).

  • The UK soil temperature data contain daily and hourly values of soil temperatures at depths of 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 centimetres. The measurements were recorded by observation stations operated by the Met Office across the UK and transmitted within NCM or DLY3208 messages. The data spans from 1900 to 2017. At many stations temperatures below the surface are measured at various depths. The depths used today are 5, 10, 20, 30 and 100cm, although measurements are not necessarily made at all these depths at a station and exceptionally measurements may be made at other depths. When imperial units were in general use, typically before 1961, the normal depths of measurement were 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 inches. Liquid-in-glass soil thermometers at a depth of 20 cm or less are unsheathed and have a bend in the stem between the bulb and the lowest graduation. At greater depths the thermometer is suspended in a steel tube and has its bulb encased in wax. This dataset is part of the Midas-open dataset collection made available by the Met Office under the UK Open Government Licence, containing only UK mainland land surface observations owned or operated by Met Office. It is a subset of the fuller, restricted Met Office Integrated Data Archive System (MIDAS) Land and Marine Surface Stations dataset, also available through the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis - see the related dataset section on this record.

  • The UK daily temperature data contain maximum and minimum temperatures (air, grass and concrete slab) measured over a period of up to 24 hours. The measurements were recorded by observation stations operated by the Met Office across the UK and transmitted within NCM, DLY3208 or AWSDLY messages. The data span from 1853 to 2019. For details on measurement techniques, including calibration information and changes in measurements, see section 5.2 of the MIDAS User Guide linked to from this record. Soil temperature data may be found in the UK soil temperature datasets linked from this record. This version supersedes the previous version of this dataset and a change log is available in the archive, and in the linked documentation for this record, detailing the differences between this version and the previous version. The change logs detail new, replaced and removed data. Of particular note, however, is that as well as including data for 2019, historical data recovery has added temperature and weather data for Bude (1937-1958), Teignmouth (1912-1930), and Eskdalemuir (1915-1948). This dataset is part of the Midas-open dataset collection made available by the Met Office under the UK Open Government Licence, containing only UK mainland land surface observations owned or operated by the Met Office. It is a subset of the fuller, restricted Met Office Integrated Data Archive System (MIDAS) Land and Marine Surface Stations dataset, also available through the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis - see the related dataset section on this record. Currently this represents approximately 95% of available daily temperature observations within the full MIDAS collection.

  • This dataset contains tracks generated using a bespoke tracking algorithm developed within the BITMAP (Better understanding of Interregional Teleconnections for prediction in the Monsoon And Poles) project, identifying and linking upper-tropospheric vortices (described in Hunt et al, 2018, QJRMS - see linked documentation). This utilised data derived from from various simulation output for the WCRP Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) 'Historical' experiment. Similar datasets were produced using various model output from the WRCP CMIP5 'RCP45' and 'RCP85' experiments and the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis model output, also available within the parent dataset collection. Western disturbances (WDs) are upper-level vortices that can significantly impact the weather over Pakistan and north India. This is a catalogue of the tracks of WDs passing through the region (specifically 20-36.5N, 60-80E) on the 500 hPa layer. This differs from those tracks from the ECMWF Era-Interim data which were carried out on the 450-300 hPa layer. See linked documentation for details of the algorithms used. BITMAP was an Indo-UK-German project (NERC grant award NE/P006795/1) to develop better understanding of processes linking the Arctic and Asian monsoon, leading to better prospects for prediction on short, seasonal and decadal scales in both regions. Recent work had suggested that the pole-to-equator temperature difference is an essential ingredient driving variations in the monsoon. For further details on the project itself see the linked Project record.

  • The UK daily weather observation data contain meteorological values measured on a 24 hour time scale. The measurements of sunshine duration, concrete state, snow depth, fresh snow depth, and days of snow, hail, thunder and gail were attained by observation stations operated by the Met Office across the UK operated and transmitted within DLY3208, NCM, AWSDLY and SYNOP messages. The data span from 1887 to 2020. For details of observations see the relevant sections of the MIDAS User Guide linked from this record for the various message types. This version supersedes the previous version of this dataset and a change log is available in the archive, and in the linked documentation for this record, detailing the differences between this version and the previous version. The change logs detail new, replaced and removed data. Of particular note, however, is that as well as including data for 2020, historical data recovery has added further data for Eastbourne (1887-1910). This dataset is part of the Midas-open dataset collection made available by the Met Office under the UK Open Government Licence, containing only UK mainland land surface observations owned or operated by the Met Office. It is a subset of the fuller, restricted Met Office Integrated Data Archive System (MIDAS) Land and Marine Surface Stations dataset, also available through the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis - see the related dataset section on this record. Currently this represents approximately 95% of available daily weather observations within the full MIDAS collection.

  • This dataset is a compilation of time series, together with uncertainties, of the following elements of the global mean sea level budget and ocean mass budget: (a) global mean sea level (b) the steric contribution to global mean sea level, that is, the effect of ocean water density change, which is dominated, on a global average, by thermal expansion (c) the mass contribution to global mean sea level (d) the global glaciers contribution (excluding Greenland and Antarctica) (e) the Greenland Ice Sheet and Greenland peripheral glaciers contribution (f) the Antarctic Ice Sheet contribution (g) the contribution from changes in land water storage (including snow cover). The compilation is a result from the Sea-level Budget Closure (SLBC_cci) project conducted in the framework of ESA’s Climate Change Initiative (CCI). It provides assessments of the global mean sea level and ocean mass budgets. Assessment of the global mean sea level budget means to assess how well (a) agrees, within uncertainties, to the sum of (b) and (c) or to the sum of (b), (d), (e), (f) and (g). Assessment of the ocean mass budget means to assess how well (c) agrees to the sum (d), (e), (f) and (g). All time series are expressed in terms of anomalies (in millimetres of equivalent global mean sea level) with respect to the mean value over the 10-year reference period 2006-2015. The temporal resolution is monthly. The temporal range is from January 1993 to December 2016. Some time series do not cover this full temporal range. All time series are complete over the temporal range from January 2003 to August 2016. For some elements, more than one time series are given, as a result of different assessments from different data sources and methods. Data and methods underlying the time series are as follows: (a) satellite altimetry analysis by the Sea Level CCI project. (b) a new analysis of Argo drifter data with incorporation of sea surface temperature data; an alternative time series consists in an ensemble mean over previous global mean steric sea level anomaly time series. (c) analysis of monthly global gravity field solutions from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravimetry mission. (d) results from a global glacier model. (e) analysis of satellite radar altimetry over the Greenland Ice Sheet, amended by results from the global glacier model for the Greenland peripheral glaciers; an alternative time series consists of results from GRACE satellite gravimetry. (f) analysis of satellite radar altimetry over the Antarctic Ice Sheet; an alternative time series consists of results from GRACE satellite gravimetry. (g) results from the WaterGAP global hydrological model. Version 2.2 is an update of the previous Version 2.1. The update concerns the estimates of ocean mass change from GRACE.

  • This dataset contains Black carbon (BC) concentrations in ugm-3 measured with an Aethalometer model AE31 made during the Pre- Monsoon and Post-Monsoon periods of the APHH Delhi campaigns in 2018 at Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical University for Women (IGDTUW) site. The data has been corrected following the Weingartner method. Absorption coefficients were calculated following the Sandradewi model to determine biomass burning and fossil fuel contributions in Mm-1. The measurements were collected at a height of 4m. The data were collected as part of the DelhiFlux project part of Air Pollution & Human Health in a Developing Indian Megacity (APHH-India) programme.

  • The land based SYNOP messages measurements describe hourly observations from land stations distributed globally. The observations cumulate in around 60,000 reports a day, giving measurements of parameters such as wind speed and direction, maximum and minimum air temperature, sunshine duration, rainfall accumulation, and cloud type. The data are collected by observation stations worldwide and transmitted within the land SYNOP message. Data are extracted from the Met Office's MetDB system before being sent to CEDA for archiving. These extractions occur at the 4 principal synoptic periods (00-06, 06-12, 12-18 and 18-00 UT). The dataset contains a range of measurements including: - Wind speed and wind direction - Maximum and minimum air and grass temperature - Horizontal and vertical visibility - Snow depth - Dew-point temperature - Relative humidity - 3 -hour pressure change - Height and period of wind waves - Cloud height and type - Radiation in last 24 hours - Maximum gust period - Past and present weather - Rainfall accumulation - Precipitation amount - Sunshine duration The wind speed and vertical gust speed are given to the nearest metre per second, and the vertical gust acceleration to the nearest metre per second squared. The wind direction from which the wind blows is measured in Degrees (true). The entry for an east wind is 090, for a south wind it is 180 and so on clockwise. Note that zero values in both wind speed and wind direction fields indicate that there was no wind blowing at the time of observation. The air temperature, grass temperature and dew-point temperature are measured in Kelvin. The cloud height, visibility, snow depth, and wind-wave height are given in metres. Sunshine duration is recorded over 24 hours and over one hour. For the former, the measurement is in hours, but for the latter the measurement is in minutes. The past weather is recorded as a number between 0-9 which details what the weather has been like in the last 6 hours for observations at 00, 06, 12, 1800 UTC, the last 3 hours for observations at 03, 09, 15, 2100 UTC and the previous hour at any other times. The past weather is only recorded when a manual observation is done at the station. The relative humidity is measured as a percentage. Documentation and Links to further information and references (see linked documentation on this record): Some general information about surface station readings can be obtained from the abridged version of "MIDAS Data Users Guide", provided by the Met Office. This document describes the meteorological surface data in the Met Office Database - MIDAS. This guide is rich in information and is aimed at those with little familiarity with observing methods or instrumentation. Details of the WMO Meteorological codes used at weather observing stations (daily and hourly weather) explain the codes used in this dataset further.

  • This dataset contains includes Organic aerosols, NO3, SO4, NH4 and Cl concentrations in ugm-3 measured with Compact Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectromete made during the Post-Monsoon periods of the APHH Delhi campaigns in 2018 at Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical University for Women (IGDTUW) site and India Meteorological Department site. Organic aerosol factors (HOA, LVOOA, BBOA, COA and SVOOA were identified using PMF factorization. The data were collected as part of the DelhiFlux project part of Air Pollution & Human Health in a Developing Indian Megacity (APHH-India) programme.