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  • Zr/Rb, Ca/Ti, Rb/K ratios against depth (0.112 m to 62.686 m) and age ( 366 to 150190 yrs). NERC grant, NE/D012996/1, abstract Lake Tana, in the highlands of northern Ethiopia, is the source of the Blue Nile, one of the world's great rivers. Surprisingly, very little is known about the age and history of this lake: one estimate from the 1930's is that it was formed 10,000 years ago by a lava dam. Similarly, little is known about the climatic history of the wider region that comprises the Blue Nile headwaters, despite the fact that the Nile has long been recognized as critical to the resources of ancient and modern Egypt. New geophysical and core data, obtained by us in October 2003 and September 2004 with NERC support, show that the lake may be at least 40,000 years old. Our new data also show that the lake dried out at around 16,000 years ago, and almost certainly at apparently regular intervals during the later stages of the last Ice Age. It is possible that the lake dried because of intense droughts lasting one or two hundred years, and that the droughts were caused by disruption of Africa's monsoon climate when iceberg-laden meltwater from North America flooded the North Atlantic - the Heinrich events. In this new PalaeoTana Project, we aim to test these hypotheses by drilling a sediment core, up to 100m in length, from the northern basin of Lake Tana, in about 10m water depth, and about 2km from shore. The core will be scanned at high resolution using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray and colour imagery, geophysical and magnetic core-scanning technology, without damaging the sedimentary components. The resulting datasets will identify past desiccation events, which will be investigated in detail and interpreted by comparison to sediments of the known drying-out event at 16,000 years ago. Dating the sediments by appropriate methods including luminescence, tephrochronology, and Argon-Argon dating will allow precise estimates of the timing and duration of the drought events. The relative timing of these events in comparison with abrupt climatic events in ocean cores (especially Heinrich events), and in other continental records, will allow inferences about the global- scale mechanisms of abrupt climate change. The data can also be used to test climate models, and thus to help judge the accuracy of model-predicted abrupt climate change in the future. A long core record of past climate and environment from this part of Africa would have major significance for understanding both regional environmental change, because of the influence of the Nile on NE Africa and the eastern Mediterranean, and global climate. It will contribute to understanding how future changes in ocean temperature and circulation will affect global climate, especially in the heavily populated monsoon regions of Africa and Asia. It will also have significance for understanding the later stages of human evolution in and dispersal out of Africa, by providing a record of the environmental changes that influenced early human populations and their water, plant and hunting resources.

  • Groundwater level and groundwater temperature data measured in 9 boreholes between August 2012 and August 2018. Groundwater conductivity data measured in 1 of these boreholes from September 2012 to August 2014. Eight of the boreholes are drilled into a sandur (glacial outwash floodplain) aquifer in front of Virkisjokull glacier, SE Iceland, and are between 8.2 and 14.9 m deep. The remaining borehole is drilled into a volcanic rock aquifer between the sandur and glacier and is 5.1 m deep. Selected groundwater monitoring data are reported in Ó Dochartaigh, B. É., et al. 2019. Groundwater?- glacier?meltwater interaction in proglacial aquifers, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Further information on borehole installations and geology can be found in Ó Dochartaigh et al. 2012. Groundwater investigations at Virkisjokull, Iceland: data report 2012. British Geological Survey Open Report OR/12/088,

  • Concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), total petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 84 near-surface soils (5-20 cm depth) taken from a 255 km2 area of Glasgow in the Clyde Basin, UK, during July 2011. Total petroleum hydrocarbon ranged from 79-2,505 mg kg-1 (mean 388 mg kg-1; median 272 mg kg-1) of which the aromatic fraction was 13-74 % (mean 44 %, median 43 %) and saturates were 28-87 % (mean 56 %, median 57 %). Σ16 PAH varied from 2-653 mg kg-1 (mean 32.4 mg kg-1; median 12.5mg kg-1) and Σ31 PAH range was 2.47-852 mg kg-1 (mean 45.4 mg kg-1; median 19.0 mg kg-1). PCB tri-hepta range was 2.2-1052 mg kg-1 (mean 32.4 mg kg-1; median 12.7 mg kg-1) and the ΣPCB7 was 0.3-344 mg kg-1 (mean 9.8 mg kg-1; median 2.7 mg kg-1). This data is associated with the published research paper Kim, A.W., Vane, C.H., Moss-Hayes, V. Berriro, D.B., Fordyce, F., Everrett, P. Nathanail, P.C. 2018. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in urban soils of Glasgow, UK. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 108, 2-3, 231-248.

  • Porewaters from IODP Expedition 366 were extracted from serpentinite mud volcano sediments onboard the RV JOIDES Resolution (see Fryer et al, 2017; 2018 for details). Selected samples were then analysed at the University of Southampton for 87Sr/86Sr and boron isotopes and SUERC for stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope data. The strontium isotope data has recently been accepted for publication (Albers et al., 2019 (In Press) Fluid–rock interactions in the shallow Mariana forearc: carbon cycling and redox conditions, Solid Earth special issue "Exploring new frontiers in fluids processes in subduction zones").

  • Revised dataset available here .This dataset comprises 655 borehole records and previously unanalysed pumping tests from across Uganda that were compiled from historical borehole records held within 9 district water offices. The dataset is a compilation of historical borehole records held within nine district water offices across Uganda. These data originated from numerous drilling campaigns undertaken by private contractors in each district to site and construct hand-pump borehole community water supplies between 2000 to 2018. In total over 1000 paper borehole records were initially collated and reviewed. This work was carried out over several months visiting the district water offices. Following a quality assurance procedure 655 records were transcribed to create a digital dataset. Each borehole record in the dataset contains a series of metadata alongside the pumping test data (e.g. pump depth, static water level, pumping rate and duration) including locational information (e.g. coordinates, water strike, borehole depth, borehole lithologies). The dataset is delivered as a series georeferenced site information within an MS Excel spreadsheet file.

  • The data consists of Fe-isotope ratio measurements, expressed in permil notation (δ57Fe) relative to the international standard IRMM-014 following standard practise. The measurements are of bulk rock samples and the sample set consisted of a suite of well-characterized basalts and picrites from three periods in the evolution of the Galápagos plume, from the approximately 70- to 90-Ma plume head [Tortugal, Curaçao (Lesser Antilles), and Gorgona Island (Colombia)], 60- to 70-Ma head-tail transitional accreted terranes [Quepos (Costa Rica) and Azuero Peninsula (Panama)], and modern (<2 Ma) steady-state plume. The samples were provided by collaborators Esteban Gazel (Central American samples) and Dennis Geist (Galapagos) in powder form. Original data on the samples can be found in the following references: D. J. Geist, T. R. Naumann, J. J. Standish, M. D. Kurz, K. S. Harpp, W. M. White, D. J. Fornari, Wolf Volcano, Galápagos Archipelago: Melting and magmatic evolution at the margins of a mantle plume. J. Petrol. 46, 2197–2224 (2005). M. D. Kurz, J. Curtice, D. Fornari, D. J. Geist, M. Moreira, Primitive neon from the center of the Galápagos hotspot. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 286, 23–34 (2009). J. Trela, E. Gazel, A. V. Sobolev, L. Moore, M. Bizimis, B. Jicha, V. G. Batanova, The hottest lavas of the Phanerozoic and the survival of deep Archaean reservoirs. Nat. Geoscience 10, 451–456 (2017). J. Trela, C. Vidito, E. Gazel, C. Herzberg, C. Class, W. Whalen, B. Jicha, M. Bizimis, G. E. Alvarado, Recycled crust in the Galápagos Plume source at 70 Ma: Implications for plume evolution. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 425, 268–277 (2015). Iron separation and isotope measurements were performed at the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge following established procedures such as those described in the following papers: H. M. Williams, M. Bizimis, Iron isotope tracing of mantle heterogeneity within the source regions of oceanic basalts. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 404, 396–407 (2014). C. R. Soderman, S. Matthews, O. Shorttle, M. G. Jackson, S. Ruttor, O. Nebel, S. Turner, C. Beier, M.-A. Millet, E. Widom, M. Humayan, H. M. Williams, Heavy δ57Fe in ocean island basalts: A non-unique signature of processes and source lithologies in the mantle. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 292, 309–332 (2021). Measurements were made on a Neptune Plus multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS) in wet plasma, with typical 2 SEs on multiple δ57/54Fe measurements of the same sample better than 0.02‰ and measurements of reference materials in agreement with accepted values. Data table S1 gives the measured Fe isotope data, along with a compilation of selected literature major and trace element used in this study. Data table S2 gives the measured Fe isotope data for the geological reference materials used during analytical sessions. Data table S3 gives the range of calculated primary Fe isotope compositions for each locality. For more information see published paper, Caroline R. Soderman et al. ,The evolution of the Galápagos mantle plume. Sci. Adv.9,eadd5030(2023).DOI:10.1126/sciadv.add5030

  • Radiocarbon ages of planktic and benthic foraminifera from sediment core EW9302-2JPC in the Northwest Atlantic from 0 to 30,000 years ago. Picked monospecific planktic foraminifera (G. bulloides and N. pachyderma) and mixed planospiral benthic formanifera (Cibicidoides, Melonis, Elphidium) were prepared to graphite at the NERC Radiocarbon Facility - East Kilbride and passed to the Keck Carbon Cycle AMS Facility, University of California, Irvine, USA for 14C analysis.

  • Mean grain size data in the sortable silt fraction (10-63 um) from 0- 8 meters composite depth in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) site 980. Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 980 was drilled in July 1995 in the North Atlantic Ocean, on the Feni Drift, off the eastern edge of the Rockall Plateau at 55.49°N, 14.70°W. Hole 980A Position: 55°29.087'N, 14°42.134'W. Hole 980B Position: 55°29.094'N, 14°42.137'W.

  • The data set contains location (latitude and longitude), ellipsoidal height (m) and observed gravity of benchmarks at the Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy. The gravity and location data were collected between 8 and 12 July, 2015 using a Scintrex CG5 gravimeter (serial number: 572) in tandem with a TOPCON HiPer Pro Dual-Frequency GNSS base and rover system. The survey contained a total of 85 benchmarks in addition to the base station.

  • Sediment data and Nd data from fish teeth in samples from IODP Site 1490. NERC grant The Late Miocene Climate Enigma: Insights from Expedition 363.