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  • Model data from CHASER MIROC-ESM, the atmospheric chemistry coupled version of the MIROC Earth System Model, part of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC)/ Stratosphere-troposphere Processes and their Role in Climate (SPARC) Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative phase 1 (CCMI-1). CCMI-1 is a global chemistry climate model intercomparison project, coordinated by the University of Reading on behalf of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). The dataset includes data for the following CCMI-1 experiments: Reference experiments: ref-C1SD and ref-C2. Sensitivity experiments: senC1SDfEmis, senC2fCH4, senC2fEmis, senC2fGHG, senC2fN2O and senC2fODS. ref-C1SD: Similar to ref-C1 but the models are nudged towards reanalysis datasets, and correspondingly the simulations only cover 1980–2010. (“SD” stands for specified dynamics.) ref-C2: Simulations spanning the period 1960–2100. The experiments follow the WMO (2011) A1 baseline scenario for ozone depleting substances and the RCP 6.0 (Meinshausen et al., 2011) for other greenhouse gases, tropospheric ozone (O3) precursors, and aerosol and aerosol precursor emissions. senC1SDfEmis: Surface emissions such as nitrogen oxides (NOx ), carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and aerosol precursors are prescribed at 1960 levels throughout, allowing the influence of meteorological variability on tropospheric composition to be established. senC2fEmis: Similar to ref-C2 but with surface and aircraft emissions fixed to their respective 1960 levels. senC2fGHG: Similar to ref-C2 but with greenhouse gasses (GHGs) fixed at their 1960 levels, and sea surface and sea ice conditions prescribed as the 1955–1964 average (where these conditions are imposed). senC2fCH4: Similar to ref-C2 but the methane surface-mixing ratio is fixed to its 1960 value. senC2fN2O: Similar to ref-C2 but the nitrous oxide surface-mixing ratio is fixed to its 1960 value. senC2fODS: Similar to ref-C2 but with ozone-depleting (halogenated) substances (ODSs) fixed at their 1960 levels.

  • This data set consist of a single file which contains a set of optimised global surface fluxes of methane (CH4), produced through variational inverse methods using the TOMCAT chemical transport model, and the INVICAT inverse transport model. These surface fluxes are produced as monthly mean values on the (approximately) 5.6-degree horizontal model grid. The associated uncertainty for the flux from each grid cell is also included. The fluxes and uncertainties are global and cover the period Jan 2010 - Dec 2018. The emissions from fossil fuels are labelled FF_FLUX, whilst the uncertainties are labelled FF_ERROR. The emissions from natural, agricultural and biomass burning sources are labelled NAT_FLUX, whilst the uncertainties are labelled NAT_ERROR. These two sectors (fossil fuel and non-fossil fuel) are solved for separately in the inversion. Flux and uncertainty units are kg(CH4)/m2/s, and time units are days since January 1st 2010. These emissions show improved performance relative to independent observations when included in the TOMCAT model. Further details about the data can be found in Wilson et al. (2020) in the documentation section.

  • High frequency measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and carbon monoxide (CO) made at Bilsdale Tall Tower, North York Moors National Park were made for the UK-DECC (Deriving Emissions related to Climate Change) Network. Bilsdale (BSD) tall tower is in a remote area of the North York Moors National Park and is the first monitoring site in the northeast region of England. The closest large conurbations are York and Middlesbrough, located 30 miles south and 16 miles northeast, respectively. The tower is on a high plateau overlooking green valleys used mainly for livestock (sheep and cattle). Between 2014-01-01 and 2017-03-17, air samples are taken from a line sampling 108 m above ground level. From 2017-03-17 onwards, air was sampled from 248 m above ground level. Due to the sites location, far from strong sources of local pollution, measurements from this site will be used to calculate emission maps of trace gas species in the UK in combination with other measurement stations in the UK (Ridge Hill, Tacolneston and Heathfield) and Ireland (Mace Head). This work was funded by Business Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) contracts TRN1028/06/2015 and TRN1537/06/2018 to the University of Bristol.

  • The BICEP/NCEO: Monthly global Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) v5 datasets contain POC concentrations (mg m^-3) with per pixel uncertainties estimates gridded on both geographic and sinusoidal projections at 4 km spatial resolution for the period of 1997 to 2020. The POC products were generated as part of the European Space Agency (ESA) Biological Pump and Carbon Exchange Processes (BICEP) project with support from the National Centre of Earth Observation (NCEO). The POC datasets have been produced by using a modified empirical band ratio algorithm by Stramski et al. (2008): 292*Rrs(490)/Rrs(560)^-1.49. Additional variables that were used for the calculation of the POC products are also provided in the datasets, including the Remote Sensing Reflectance (Rrs) at 490 nm and 560 nm obtained from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative version 5 dataset (OC-CCI v5). For more details on the algorithm and its validation, please see the BICEP Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) and validation report (https://bicep-project.org/Home). A related dataset based on the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative v4.2 data is also available (see link in the related records section).

  • This data file contains two sets of optimised global surface fluxes of ethane (C2H6), produced through variational inverse methods using the TOMCAT chemical transport model, and the INVICAT inverse transport model. Emissions were produced using an iterative method of optimisation, known as 4D-Var, which minimised the model-observation differences. These surface fluxes are produced as monthly mean values on the (approximately) 5.6 degree horizontal model grid. The associated uncertainty for the flux from each gridcell is also included. The fluxes and uncertainties are global, and cover the period Jan 2008 - Dec 2014. There are two alternative emissions sets, labelled EMIS_ALL and EMIS_ANTH, whilst the uncertainties are labelled ERROR_ALL and ERROR_ANTH, respectively. The two optimised emission estimates are produced through iterative minimisation of model-observation error in INVICAT. In all cases the observations are surface flask samples of ethane produced by by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Global Monitoring Division (NOAA GMD) and the University of Colorado’s Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR). Whole air samples in flasks are collected weekly to bi-weekly at each site and C2H6 is measured using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detection method. The EMIS_ALL fluxes are produced through variation of all surface emission types (anthropogenic, biomass burning, oceanic and biospheric), whilst the EMIS_ANTH fluxes are produced by only allowing the surface anthropogenic emissions to vary, with prior estimates of other emission types then added back on. Flux and uncertainty units are kg(C2H6)/m2/s, and time units are days since January 1st 2008. These emissions show improved performance relative to independent observations when included in the TOMCAT model. Further details about the data can be found in the PDF documentation stored along side this data, as well as in Monks et al., 2018.

  • Ten day back trajectory calculations made using the FLEXPART model initiated from Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory four times a day to show the origins of the air arriving at the observatory and support the analysis of the observations. The Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) exists to advance understanding of climatically significant interactions between the atmosphere and ocean and to provide a regional focal point and long-term data. The observatory is based on Calhau Island of São Vicente, Cape Verde at 16.848N, 24.871W, in the tropical Eastern North Atlantic Ocean, a region which is data poor but plays a key role in atmosphere-ocean interactions of climate-related and biogeochemical parameters including greenhouse gases. It is an open-ocean site that is representative of a region likely to be sensitive to future climate change, and is minimally influenced by local effects and intermittent continental pollution.

  • Atmosphere and Ocean components; Frequency: daily and monthly Variables Atmosphere daily: tas uas vas zg500 Variables Atmosphere monthly: cl clt evspsbl hfss hus prc prw rlds rlut rsds rsdt rsuscs rsutcs ta tauu ua va wap cli clw hfls hurs pr prsn psl rlus rlutcs rsdscs rsus rsut sfcWind tas tauv uas vas zg500 Variables Ocean daily: rsdssi sic sit snc snd snw tsice usi vsi Variables Ocean monthly: htovovrt mlotst msftmyz rsdssi sic sit sltovovrt snd so sos thetao tos tsice uo vo

  • This dataset contains v4.0 permafrost extent data produced as part of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Permafrost project. It forms part of the third version of their Climate Research Data Package (CRDP v3). It is derived from a thermal model driven and constrained by satellite data. CRDPv3 covers the years from 1997 to 2021. Grid products of CDRP v3 are released in annual files, covering the start to the end of the Julian year. This corresponds to average annual ground temperatures (at 2 m depth) which forms the basis for the retrieval of yearly fraction of permafrost-underlain and permafrost-free area within a pixel. A classification according to the IPA (International Permafrost Association) zonation delivers the well-known permafrost zones, distinguishing isolated (0-10%) sporadic (10-50%), discontinuous (50-90%) and continuous permafrost (90-100%). Case A: It covers the Northern Hemisphere (north of 30°) for the period 2003-2021 based on MODIS Land Surface temperature merged with downscaled ERA5 reanalysis near-surface air temperature data. Case B: It covers the Northern Hemisphere (north of 30°) for the period 1997-2002 based on downscaled ERA5 reanalysis near-surface air temperature data which are bias-corrected with the Case A product for the overlap period 2003-2021 using a pixel-specific statistics for each day of the year.

  • Bodeker Scientific produced a global combined monthly mean vertical ozone profile database spanning the period 1979 to 2007. The database is completely filled such that there are no missing data. This database is used for assessing or constraining global climate model simulations. These data held at CEDA are a copy from Bodeker Scientific taken on November 2012.

  • The BICEP/NCEO: Monthly global Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) v4.2 datasets contain POC concentrations (mg m^-3) with per pixel uncertainties estimates gridded on both geographic and sinusoidal projections at 4 km spatial resolution for the period of 1997 to 2020. The POC products were generated as part of the European Space Agency (ESA) Biological Pump and Carbon Exchange Processes (BICEP) project with support from the National Centre of Earth Observation (NCEO). The POC concentrations were estimated using an empirical Remote Sensing Reflectance (Rrs) band ratio algorithm by Stramski et al. (2008): 203.2*Rrs(443)/Rrs(555)^-1.034. This algorithm has shown a relatively good performance in the recent global inter-comparison study conducted by Evers-King et al. (2017). Additional variables that were used for the calculation of the POC products are also provided in the datasets, including the Rrs at 443 nm and 555 nm obtained from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative version 4.2 dataset (OC-CCI v4.2)(Sathyendranath et al., 2020). In addition to the papers by Stramski et al. (2008) and Evers-king et al. (2017), for more details on the algorithm and its validation, please see the BICEP Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) and validation report (https://bicep-project.org/Home). This version of the dataset is an updated version of the previous 'NCEO: Monthly global Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) (produced from the Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative, Version 4.2 dataset)'. A related product based on the Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative v5.0 data is also available (see the link in the related records section).