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  • Three species of Antarctic marine invertebrate: Nacella concinna (limpet), Paraceradocus miersi (crustacean) and Sterechinus neumayeri (urchin) were subjected to three different rates of warming and a two month acclimation trial at 2 degrees Celsius. The rates of warming were 1 degree Celsius per hour, 1 degree Celsius per day and 1 degree Celsius per 3 days. Animals were evaluated to determine whether there was a universal stress response at the cellular level. Funding was provided from the BAS National Capability Grant, funded by the UKRI Natural Environment Research Council (NERC).

  • UTLs were used to determine whether whole animal acclimation had occurred in R. perrieri on heated settlement panels in the Antarctic. The panels were placed at 15m depth at two sites (South Cove and North Cove) near Rothera Research Station, Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula (67.06861 S, 68.125 W). Heated and non-heated panels (one each of control, +1, +2) from the South Cove and North Cove sites colonised by R. perrieri were transferred to a 60 L jacketed tank with aerated sea water at the same temperature as the ambient sea water (0 degrees Celsius) and connected to a thermocirculator (Grant Instruments Ltd, Cambridge, UK). The temperature was raised at 1 degree Celsius h-1 with the temperature limit of each animal noted when they no longer responded to tactile stimuli. Funding was provided by the NERC grant NE/J007501/1.