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Acoustic backscatter in the water column

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  • This dataset consists of current velocity measurements of the water column from an upward-looking Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) deployed on the seabed and also includes CTD casts from an SBE 911+ CTD taken a long the Wyville Thompson Ridge. The mooring is situated in the region of the Wyville Thomson Ridge – a notable bathymetric feature running north-west from the Scottish shelf towards the Faroe Bank. The gully present between the Ridge and the parallel Ymir Ridge is the study site chosen for mooring work that began in 2003 and ended in 2013. Mooring deployment durations have typically ranged from between five and twelve months. Successive deployments have enabled a multi-year time series to develop. There have, however, been periods of instrumentation loss, which account for some gaps in the overall record (most noticeably during 2008/2009). Servicing of the mooring has been achieved using various research vessels and has often been incorporated into the schedule of the annual cruises occupying the Extended Ellett Line. The mooring consists of an anchored buoy housing an RDI Long Ranger ADCP, designed to rest on the seabed, with the instrument facing upwards. Current velocity measurements from the mooring help to provide valuable insight into regional ocean circulation. A small, poorly quantified, component of the southward-flowing deep water from the Arctic cascades over the Wyville Thomson Ridge from the Faroe Bank Channel into the northern Rockall Trough. Maintaining this time series will afford a better understanding of this outflow. The Wyville Thomson mooring work is led by Toby Sherwin at the Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS).

  • The data set comprises acoustic and associated environmental data from multi-parameter underwater acoustic experiments undertaken in the Gulf of Lions, N.W. Mediterranean and Loch Ness, Scotland. Measurements were made over the period 30 January 1995 to 22 September 1995. Of primary interest were shallow water (10-200m), medium range (1-10km) channels at communication frequencies in the 10-100kHz range. Modulation techniques used include: Carrier Wave, ASK, PSK, FSK, Multi-ASK, Multi-PSK and Multi-FSK. Multi-parameter underwater acoustic experiments were carried out under high level control and in total more than 36 Gigabytes of acoustic and associated environmental data were gathered. Experiments were carried out at medium depth (50-100m) in the Gulf of Lions and deeper water (50-200m) in Loch Ness, and the data were stored on a series of CD-ROMs. A suite of tests was performed over set ranges (1km, 7km, etc.). In general, each range was contained on a set of three CD-ROMs which specifically referred to individual parameters set for that particular range (e.g. location, gain levels, projector and hydrophone depths). Alongside the data recordings, the IRIG 'B' time signal was also recorded during all experiments to allow derivation of precise timings of all signal transmissions and receptions. This information is also contained on the CD-ROMs. Associated environmental parameters were recorded and documented. These data were collected using CTD profilers, thermistor chains, tide gauges, current flow meters and an ORETECH Weatherpak-400. The raw data were logged in an ASCII format on a DAT cartridge. The primary aim of EEVMAC (European Experimentally Validated Models for Acoustic Channels) was the generation of signals and the recording of data for propagation model validation in connection with the characterisation of underwater acoustic channels. Data were collected by researchers from Heriot-Watt University, UK and the Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Marines (LPCM), France. The British Oceanographic Data Centre holds 19 Gigabytes of edited data on CD-ROM, along with copies of the raw environmental data. Further details on the environmental data can be sought from Laboratoire d’Oceanographie de Villefranche, formerly LPCM.

  • The Marine Autonomous Systems in Support of Marine Observations (MASSMO) campaign 4 dataset includes data collected by 8 submarine gliders, 2 wavegliders and one autonomous surface vehicle. The dataset comprises recovery version data. i.e. the data downloaded from a vehicle at the end of its mission. The data obtained from gliders operated by the University of East Anglia (UEA) is fully quality controlled. No quality control procedures have been applied to the data obtained from all other autonomous vehicles. Parameters observed include, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, optical backscatter, oxygen, acoustic noise and video data. The dataset was collected within the UK sector of the Faroe-Shetland Channel, focussing on the outer shelf and upper shelf. The work area had a bounding box of 58-62 degrees north and 2-9 degrees west. The MASSMO 4 campaign was run between 1st June 2017 until 7th June 2017 while platforms were deployed they were collecting data continuously. The dataset was collected using a mixture of three autonomous surface vehicles and eight submarine gliders. Glider sensor suites included CTD, bio-optics, oxygen optodes, and passive acoustic sensors. Additionally the surface vehicles were equipped with meteorological sensors and cameras. The campaign comprised a range of oceanographic data collection, but had a particular focus on passive acoustic monitoring of marine mammals and oceanographic features, and included development of near-real-time data delivery to operational data users. MASSMO 4 was co-ordinated by the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) in partnership with University of East Anglia (UEA), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) and Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS). The mission was sponsored by Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) and involved close co-operation with the NATO Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE) and UK Royal Navy, and was supported by several additional commercial, government and research partners.

  • The MASSMO 5 dataset includes the near real time transmitted EGO (Everyone’s Gliding Observatories) NetCDF versions of glider data collected by five submarine gliders across three deployment campaigns. Recovery versions of data downloaded from the all gliders with no quality assurance are also available on request. Glider sensor suites included CTD, bio-optics, and oxygen optodes. Parameters observed include, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, optical backscatter, and oxygen data. The MASSMO 5a mission focused on the period 23 Jun 2018 to 06 Jul 2018 and included three submarine glider deployments (UK glider deployments only are included in this dataset). All assets were deployed from NRV Alliance in partnership with NATO-CMRE, but were recovered prematurely due to vessel technical issues. The primary geographic focus of MASSMO 5 was the outer shelf and upper slope off northern Norway, in the region between Bear Island and southern Spitsbergen, but outside the 12 mile territorial limits of these islands. The MASSMO 5b mission occurred within the period 17-24 Oct 2018, a total of three ocean gliders were deployed. The primary geographic focus of MASSMO5b was the northern North Sea to the east of the Orkney archipelago. The MASSMO 5c mission was aborted and no data were collected. The MASSMO 5d mission occurred within period 26 Apr 2019 to 6 May 2019, there was deployment of a single ocean glider. The primary geographic focus of MASSMO 5d was the Faroe Shetland Channel. MASSMO 5 was co-ordinated by the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) in partnership with University of East Anglia (UEA), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) and Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS). The mission was sponsored by Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) and involved close co-operation with the NATO Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE) and UK Royal Navy, and was supported by several additional commercial, government and research partners.

  • Acoustic backscatter data were collected on board the RRS James Clark Ross (cruise JR177) as part of the Discovery 2010 programme. Data were collected using a Simrad EK60 echo sounder at 38, 120 and 200 kHz. The EK60 was run continuously from Stanley (Falkland Islands) to Signy (South Orkney Islands), then to South Georgia across the Scotia Sea in the austral summer from December 2007 - February 2008. Dedicated acoustic transects were also run at a number of stations within these transects. The EK60 was calibrated during JR177 (10-11th February 2008). More information about the calibration can be found in the Cruise Report for JR177: https://www.bodc.ac.uk/data/information_and_inventories/cruise_inventory/report/jr177.pdf JR177 was the second of three cruises which comprise the field studies of the British Antarctic Survey''s (BAS) core science Discovery 2010 programme, funded by the Natural Environment Research Council. *******PLEASE BE ADVISED TO USE PROCESSED DATA******* The JR177 EK60 processed data is now available at https://doi.org/10.5285/cfc33544-e1df-4202-9d4b-c99e7f8a51d4.

  • This dataset consists of optical and acoustic seabed profiles of near bed hydrodynamics, bed morphology and suspended material in the water. Fieldwork was carried out by a team of researchers over a two week period, 24 May to 04 June 2013, surveying an area near Hilbre Island in the Dee Estuary. Measurements were taken in the inter-tidal and sub-tidal zones. Measurements were collected at three sites within the sampling area. A SEDbed suite of acoustic and optical instruments were deployed at each station to collect data. These instruments included CTD, LISST, Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, Bedform and suspended sediment imager, Multi-tier sediment trap and 3-D Acoustic Rippler Profiler. The data collection described formed the fieldwork component of the NERC-funded project “Realistic Sedimentary Bedform Prediction: Incorporating Physical and Biological Cohesion (COHBED)”. The project was undertaken with the aim to produce information about the growth, movement and stability of bedforms that consist of natural mixtures of sands and muds. The project was composed of Standard Grant reference NE/I027223/1 as the lead grant with child grants NE/I026863/1, NE/I024402/1, NE/I02478X/1. The lead grant runs from 05 January 2012 to 04 July 2015 and the child grants run from 15 December 2011 to 14 June 2015 (NE/I026863/1), 01 January 2012 to 30 June 2015 (NE/I024402/1), and 01 January 2012 to 31 October 2015 (NE/I02478X/1). Dr Jacobus Hugo Baas of Bangor University, School of Ocean Sciences was the principal investigator of the lead grant of this project. The child grants were led by Dr Sarah Bass of University of Plymouth, School of Engineering, Professor Daniel Roy Parsons of University of Hull, Geography, Environment and Earth Science, and Professor Daniel Paterson of University of St Andrews, Biology, respectively. The data described here have been received as raw files by BODC and will be processed using our in-house systems and made available online in the future.

  • Acoustic backscatter data were collected on board the RRS James Clark Ross (cruise JR179) as part of the BIOFLAME-BIOPEARL programme. Data were collected using a Simrad EK60 echo sounder. Data were collected throughout the cruise which ran through the Drake Passage, Bellingshausen Sea and Amundsen Sea in the Southern Ocean, from February to April 2008. The raw data files (Simrad .raw format) are held by the Polar Data Centre (PDC) at the British Antarctic Survey (BAS). *******PLEASE BE ADVISED TO USE PROCESSED DATA******* The JR179 EK60 processed data is now available at https://doi.org/10.5285/ecc51062-1338-445e-bd3c-2e63487d1953.

  • Acoustic backscatter data were collected on board the RRS James Clark Ross (cruise JR161) as part of the Discovery 2010 programme. Data were collected using a Simrad EK60 echo sounder at 38, 120 and 200 kHz. The EK60 was run continuously from Stanley (Falkland Islands) to Signy (South Orkney Islands), then to South Georgia across the Scotia Sea in the austral spring (October - December) of 2006. Dedicated acoustic transects were also run at eight stations within these transects. The EK60 was calibrated prior to data collection on a previous cruise (JR159 on 13-14th October 2006). More information about the calibration can be found in the Cruise Report for JR159: https://www.bodc.ac.uk/data/information_and_inventories/cruise_inventory/report/jr152_jr159.pdf JR161 was the first of three cruises which comprise the field studies of the British Antarctic Survey''s (BAS) core science Discovery 2010 programme, funded by the Natural Environment Research Council. *******PLEASE BE ADVISED TO USE PROCESSED DATA******* The JR161 EK60 processed data is now available at https://doi.org/10.5285/c831d5e4-8d03-4aea-a6c6-6db101f36d8d.

  • This dataset comprises hydrographic sections, together with measurements collected by ocean gliders and moored instrumentation deployed during the UK Overturning In the Subpolar North Atlantic Programme (UK-OSNAP). UK-OSNAP is the UK contribution to the International OSNAP Programme. The dataset also includes modelling output informed by the observations. OSNAP observations are focused on two lines: i) OSNAP West, extending from south Labrador to southwest Greenland and ii) OSNAP East from southeast Greenland to Scotland. Data collection commenced June 2014 and is ongoing. UK-OSNAP consists of cruises JR302, PE399, DY053, DY054, two alternating glider deployments, current meter moorings (five at Cape Farewell and three in the Rockall trough) and ADCPs in the Rockall Trough Shelf Edge Current. The model data addresses the Subpolar Gyre circulation and fluxes using data assimilation and theoretical analysis. The datasets assembled as part of UK-OSNAP provide a continuous record of full-depth, trans-basin mass, heat, and freshwater fluxes in the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre. These, coupled with the associated modelling exercises help improve the understanding of the circulation and fluxes of the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre. UK-OSNAP, funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) is led by the National Oceanography Centre (NOC). UK-OSNAP is a partnership between NOC, Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS), University of Oxford and the University of Liverpool. It is part of international OSNAP that is led by USA and includes 10 further partner groups in Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands and China. Investigators: National Oceanography Centre (NOC): Dr Penny Holliday, Dr Sheldon Bacon, Dr Chris Wilson, Neill Mackay. Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS): Dr Stuart Cunningham, Prof Mark Inall, Loic Houpert. University of Oxford: Prof David Marshall, Dr Helen Johnson. University of Liverpool: Prof Ric Williams, Dr Vassil Roussenov. The full dataset is still being assembled and currently consists of near real time glider measurements, mooring data and cruise data. NERC have added an extension to UK-OSNAP, until October 2024. This will result in the UK-OSNAP-Decade: 10 years of observing and understanding the overturning circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic (2014-2024).

  • Acoustic backscatter data were collected on board the RRS James Clark Ross (cruise JR200) as part of the Discovery 2010 programme. Data were collected using a Simrad EK60 echo sounder. This cruise ran two transects (Stanley to Signy and Signy to South Georgia) across the Scotia Sea in the austral autumn (March - April) of 2009. Within these transects, there were a series of stations at which dedicated acoustic transects were run, although the EK60 was run continuously throughout the cruise. JR200 was the third of three cruises which comprise the field studies of the Discovery 2010 programme. The programme was designed to analyse interactions in the Southern Ocean ecosystem. The raw data files (Simrad .raw format) are held by the Polar Data Centre (PDC) at the British Antarctic Survey (BAS). *******PLEASE BE ADVISED TO USE PROCESSED DATA******* The JR200 EK60 processed data is now available at https://doi.org/10.5285/7b86ed5f-0520-4dec-9d1e-f76be05b98c9.