Atmospheric conditions

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  • Airborne and model data collected during the ACCACIA - Aerosol-Cloud Coupling And Climate Interactions in the Arctic project. The dataset comprises airborne in situ measurements of cloud microphysical properties, the vertical structure of the boundary layer and aerosol properties, and the fluxes of solar and infra red radiation above, below, and within cloud. Data was collected on board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft and the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) Masin aircraft. It also contains data from specially configured Met Office Unified Model runs. AMS and SP2 data measured on board the Research Ship James Clark Ross during ACCACIA is also available. This project is part of the NERC Arctic research programme. (NERC Reference: NE/I028858/1).

  • The data set comprises time series measurements from offshore pressure gauges mounted on the sea floor. The data holdings are approximately 250 observation months from 100 sites. The data have mainly been collected in the continental shelf seas around the British Isles. Data records contain date/time, total pressure and, occasionally, temperature. The sampling interval is typically 15 minutes or hourly, over deployment periods ranging from 1 to 6 months. Data were collected mainly by the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (POL), now the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) at Liverpool, and are managed by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC).

  • The oceanographic part of the ACSIS (North Atlantic Climate System Integrated Study) project uses sustained observations from the North Atlantic, gathered during other observational programs, such as RAPID, Argo and OSNAP, to generate ocean heat budgets. The overarching objective of the ACSIS project is to enhance the UK’s capability to detect, attribute and predict changes in the North Atlantic Climate System, comprising: the North Atlantic Ocean, the atmosphere above it including its composition, and interactions with Arctic Sea Ice and the Greenland Ice Sheet. The data will be combined with models to develop new products. ACSIS is delivered by a partnership between six NERC Centres, National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), National Oceangraphy Centre (NOC), British Antarctic Survey (BAS), National Centre for Earth Observation (NCEO), Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling (CPOM), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) and the UK Met Office. ACSIS has been fully funded for five years (2016-2021) through the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Long Term Science commissioning, which aims to encourage its research centres to work closely together to tackle major scientific and societal challenges. The oceanographic data are held by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC), the atmospheric, cryospheric and model data are held by the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis (CEDA).

  • A time series of ocean circulation in the North Atlantic from 1900-2018 was calculated using a number of gridded data products. These comprise the EN4.2.1 gridded temperature and salinity dataset (Good et al. 2013), using Gouretski and Reseghetti (2010) corrections (, gridded satellite altimetry from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS, and gridded wind stress fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF, Both ERA-20C and ERA-Interim products were obtained to cover the periods 1900-1978 and 1979-2018 respectively.

  • The Marine Autonomous Systems in Support of Marine Observations (MASSMO) campaign 4 dataset includes data collected by 8 submarine gliders, 2 wavegliders and one autonomous surface vehicle. The dataset comprises recovery version data. i.e. the data downloaded from a vehicle at the end of its mission. The data obtained from gliders operated by the University of East Anglia (UEA) is fully quality controlled. No quality control procedures have been applied to the data obtained from all other autonomous vehicles. Parameters observed include, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, optical backscatter, oxygen, acoustic noise and video data. The dataset was collected within the UK sector of the Faroe-Shetland Channel, focussing on the outer shelf and upper shelf. The work area had a bounding box of 58-62 degrees north and 2-9 degrees west. The MASSMO 4 campaign was run between 1st June 2017 until 7th June 2017 while platforms were deployed they were collecting data continuously. The dataset was collected using a mixture of three autonomous surface vehicles and eight submarine gliders. Glider sensor suites included CTD, bio-optics, oxygen optodes, and passive acoustic sensors. Additionally the surface vehicles were equipped with meteorological sensors and cameras. The campaign comprised a range of oceanographic data collection, but had a particular focus on passive acoustic monitoring of marine mammals and oceanographic features, and included development of near-real-time data delivery to operational data users. MASSMO 4 was co-ordinated by the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) in partnership with University of East Anglia (UEA), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) and Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS). The mission was sponsored by Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) and involved close co-operation with the NATO Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE) and UK Royal Navy, and was supported by several additional commercial, government and research partners.

  • The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) sea level data set comprises data collected from approximately 160 tide gauge sites distributed around the world. The data are usually hourly heights of sea surface elevation, although some were collected and supplied at higher frequencies (i.e. 6 or 15 minute intervals) or as pressure values rather than elevations. The data are primarily from 1990 to 1998 (the WOCE period), but the dataset also includes historical data as a number of the tide gauges had been operating for many years. The total volume of data held is 3550 site years. A few sites have data extending back over 50 years and many over 20 years. The British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) was responsible, as a WOCE Data Assembly Centre (DAC), for assembling, quality controlling and disseminating this comprehensive sea level data set. Data were supplied by Argentina, Australia, Canada, Chile, China, Cuba, Denmark, Ecuador, France, Iceland, Japan, New Zealand, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Ukraine, the UK and the USA. Data quality control was carried out with the aid of sophisticated screening software which allows rapid inspection of the data. The sea level data were tidally analyzed and the residuals inspected. Parameters other than sea level, for example atmospheric pressure and sea surface temperature, were also visually inspected. This quality control identified spikes and gaps in the data in addition to timing problems and datum shifts. Any problems identified were resolved with the data supplier. Qualifying information accompanying the data was also checked and data documentation assembled. The data can be downloaded from the BODC web site, or made available on CD-ROM.

  • This dataset consists of high resolution tiff photographed images of tide gauge charts, from various historical tide gauges from the Grand Harbour (Port of Valletta), Malta. Due to the historical nature of these records, there is little associated metadata with the original charts. They come from various individual tide gauge locations around the Grand Harbour (Port of Valletta), Malta, and some are labelled with more specific locations, such as French Creek and Ricasoli Breakwater. General coordinates have been given for the geographic coverage: 14.49E to 14.53E, 35.87N to 35.9N. The earliest chart is from the 01/06/1871 and the latest is from 1926. There are gaps of several years in the dataset. In his 1878 paper, On the tides at Malta, G. B. Airy describes the gauge in operation in 1871: "The float was a copper vessel, nearly spherical, about 8 inches in diameter; a vertical rod attached to it passed freely through a guide, and was hinged to the end of a horizontal lever, of which the arms were so proportioned that each space marked on the tabular form between the horizontal lines [one-fourth of an inch. - G.B.A.] corresponded accurately to an inch rise or fall of the float." "The cylinder on which the paper was wrapped revolved once in 24 hours". It is not known how long this gauge was in operation for, but all of the tide gauges that produced the tide gauge charts in this dataset would have been float gauges. The original charts were collected by the Royal Navy as part of their surveying duties of the Grand Harbour. The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office (UKHO) had these charts in its archives, which were difficult to access and in need of conservation. The charts were conserved and photographed and made publically available as digital images to help preserve one of the longest and earliest temporal series of sea level data in the Mediterranean. The original data were collected by the Royal Navy and were placed in the archives of the Admiralty, now the UKHO. The conserved and photographed images were created by the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office Archives for the MALTESER, MediterrAnean Long TErm SEa level Rescue project and then deposited with the British Oceanographic Data Centre. This project was funded under the Central Government Breakthrough Fund, 2014. Reference: Airy, G. B. (1878). On the tides at Malta. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 169, 123-138.

  • The cross-disciplinary themes will result in a diverse data catalogue. The ship collected data will be in the form of sea surface meteorology (2-D wind speed and direction, total irradiance, Photosynthetically Active Radiation/PAR, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity); atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2); biological, chemical and physical properties and processes in the marine photic zone (carbonate chemistry - pCO2, total alkalinity, pH, DIC; dissolved gases - oxygen; nutrient concentrations, ammonium regeneration, nitrification, nitrogen fixation, zooplankon ecology, chlorophyll concentration, photosynthetic pigment composition, bacterial production, phytoplankton and bacterial speciation, concentrations of biogenic trace compounds such as dimethyl sulphide/DMS and dimthylsulphoniopropionate/DMSP, salinity, temperature, zooplankon ecology) and bioassays of these same parameters under different future IPCC CO2 and temperature scenarios. The long-term (18 month) laboratory based mesocosm experiments will include data on individual organism response (growth, immune response, reproductive fitness) under different future IPCC CO2 and temperature scenarios in rocky intertidal, soft sediment and calcareous biogenic habitats, as well as the effects on commercially important species of fish and shellfish. The analysis of sediment cores will provide greater resolution of the paleo record during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Data will be used to aid the parameterisation of coastal and continental shelf seas (Northern Europe and the Arctic) model runs as well as larger scale global models. The shipboard fieldwork will take place around the UK, in the Arctic Ocean and the Southern Ocean. The mesocosms will look at temperate marine species common to UK shelf seas. Sediment cores have been collected from Tanzania. The models will look from the coastal seas of Northern Europe to the whole globe. Data to be generated will include data collected at sea, short-term (2-3 day) ship-board bioassays, from long-term (18 month) laboratory based mesocosm experiments and reconstructed paleo records from sediment cores. The 5 year UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme is the UK’s response to growing concerns over ocean acidification. Aims: 1 - to reduce uncertainties in predictions of carbonate chemistry changes and their effects on marine biogeochemistry, ecosystems and other components of the Earth System; 2 - to understand the responses to ocean acidification, and other climate change related stressors, by marine organisms, biodiversity and ecosystems and to improve understanding of their resistance or susceptibility to acidification; 3 - to provide data and effective advice to policy makers and managers of marine bioresources on the potential size and timescale of risks, to allow for development of appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies. The study unites over 100 marine scientists from 27 institutions across the UK. It is jointly funded by Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC).

  • This datasets contains a box model of the atmosphere‐ocean to understand surface warming response and explain how surface warming varies in time with carbon emissions. The box model consists of three homogeneous layers: a well‐mixed atmosphere, an ocean mixed layer with 100‐m thickness, and an ocean interior with 3,900‐m thickness, all assumed to have the same horizontal area. The model solves for the heat and carbon exchange between these layers, including physical and chemical transfers, but ignoring biological transfers, and sediment and weathering interactions. The model is forced from an equilibrium by carbon emitted into the atmosphere with a constant rate of 20 PgC/year for 100 years and integrated for 1,000 years. Ocean ventilation is represented by the ocean interior taking up the heat and carbon properties of the mixed layer on an e-folding time scale of 200 years. The model was generated as part of Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Discovery Science project “Mechanistic controls of surface warming by ocean heat and carbon uptake” standard grant reference NE/N009789/1 lead by Principal Investigator Professor Ric Williams.Model code and associated metadata are held in the archives at the British Oceanographic Data Centre. Other datasets generated by this grant are discoverable via EDMED 6712.

  • A dataset collected by investigators of the University of East Anglia during January - February 2020 in the tropical North Atlantic. Gliders SG620 and SG637 were deployed from the RV Meteor during cruise M161 as part of the EUREC4A oberservational campaign. Glider SG579 was deployed by the autonomous surface vehicle Caravela. All gliders were recovered by the Meteor. SG620 and SG637 occupied a bowtie pattern 10 km across centered at 14'10''N 57'20''W. The two gliders were deployed with CT sails measuring conductivity and temperature and completed 131 and 155 dives respectively. SG579 was deployed at 13'21''N 58'50''W and travelled 200 km to the bowtie over 10 days conducting 75 dives. Once onsite, SG579 conducted a further 220 dives. In addition to a CT sail, SG579 carried a PAR sensor and Wetlabs sensor measuring backscatter, chlorophyll a and CDOM. Data were processed using the UEA Seaglider Toolbox.