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Atmospheric humidity

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  • This Met/Ocean data bank comprises wave, current, water temperature and surface meteorology (air temperature, humidity and wind) data collected at 11 off-shore sites on the UK continental shelf, between 1973 and 1988. Three hourly wave data (short term statistics) and hourly wind observations together with atmospheric pressure, air temperature and, occasionally, sea surface temperature were measured at weather ships (W.S.) Stevenson (61 20.0N, 000 00.0E from 1973 - 1976), Fitzroy (60 00.0N, 004 00.0W from 1973 - 1976) and Boyle (50 40.0N, 007 30.0W from 1974 - 1977). Moored current meter measurements were also made at 2 to 4 depths at each site. Three-hourly measurements of sea temperature, air temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction were collected at the National Data Buoy DB/1 site (48 43.0N, 008 58.0W) between 1978 and 1982. Directional spectra of the wave field were also derived from measurements of heave, pitch and roll of the buoy, while surface currents were measured hourly. DB/1 was succeeded by DB/2 (located at 48 44.0N, 008 50.0W from 1984 - 1986 and at 58 59.0N, 007 13.0W from 1986 - 1988) and DB/3 (60 30.9N, 002 52.0W from 1984 - 1988). Met/Ocean data and directional wave spectra are available from these sites, comprising hourly recordings of wind speed and direction, maximum wind gust speed, air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure (and pressure trend over three hours), sea temperature, significant wave height and period, maximum wave height, swell wave height, period and direction, wind wave height and period, current speed and direction. The directional wave spectra consist of the 9 co- and quad- spectral densities for 51 frequency slots, plus derived height, period, direction and directional spread of all waves, wind waves, swell waves and spectral peak wave period. The UKOOA dataset also includes measurements from four platforms, with short term wave statistics, hourly wind observations, atmospheric pressure, air temperature and occasionally sea surface temperature data available from Forties (57 45.0N, 001 00.0E) between 1974 and 1980; Brent (61 04.0N, 001 43.0E) between 1975 and 1980; and Beryl/Frigg (59 35.0N, 001 40.0E) between 1979 and 1982. One dimensional wave spectra and meteorological data are available from Foula (60 08.0N, 002 59.0W) between 1977 and 1979. All data were collected by the UK Offshore Operators Association (UKOOA) and are stored at the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC).

  • The dataset contains a variety of atmospheric measurements including time series of air temperature, wind speed and direction, precipitation, irradiance and humidity. A comprehensive atmospheric sampling programme provided measurements of atmospheric particulates, aerosols and gases, including hydrocarbons, nitrogen, oxygen, ozone and sulphur species, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrous and hydrochloric acids. Additional measurements of photolysis rates and ion and radical concentrations were also collected. The data were collected from the vicinity of the north Norfolk coast between 1994 and 1997. The bulk of the data were collected during two field campaigns in the winter (October/November) of 1994 and the summer (May/June) of 1995. During these campaigns data were collected continuously from the University of East Anglia (UEA) Atmospheric Observatory at Weybourne on the north Norfolk coast. The widest range of parameters is available for this station. An instrumented vessel (MV Guardian) was stationed offshore to provide a second sampling site to allow changes in a given air mass to be monitored. The Imperial College London Jetstream Research aircraft made one flight during each campaign to provide a link between the two surface stations and four additional flights in 1996 and 1997. The River-Atmosphere-Coast Study (RACS) was the component of the LOIS programme looking at processes from the river catchment into the coastal sea. Professor John Plane from the Environmental Sciences Department at UEA was the scientific co-ordinator of this sub-project of LOIS. The data are held by BODC as a series of ASCII data files conforming to the NASA AMES 1001 format together with a PDF document that describes the data set.

  • This data set comprises a variety of meteorological parameters measured every three hours (some more recent data are at hourly intervals) at the ten North Atlantic Ocean Weather Ships for the periods listed below. OWS Alpha (1947 - 1974); OWS Bravo (1953 - 1973); OWS Charlie (1945 - 1981); OWS Delta (1945 - 1973); OWS India (1947 - 1975); OWS Juliet (1947 - 1975); OWS Kilo (1954 - 1975); OWS Lima (1975 - 1983); OWS Mike (1949 - 1982); OWS Romeo (1975 - 1980). Each OWS record contains data from Norway, the Netherlands, France, Sweden, Russia, the UK and the USA as appropriate. Six of the weatherships ceased operation in the mid-1970s. However data are still being collected by OWS Mike, Romeo, Charlie and Lima. More recent data from these ships may be obtained from the UK Meteorological Office.

  • The Carbon Uptake and Seasonal Traits in Antarctic Remineralisation Depth (CUSTARD) data set comprises hydrographic data, including measurements of temperature, salinity and currents, complemented by bathymetric, meteorological and nutrient data. All the observational data from the project were collected at, and south of, the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) Global Southern Ocean Array, located south-west of Chile. Data collection activities span from November 2018 to January 2020 over 3 cruises (DY096, DY111 and DY112). The main aim of the CUSTARD project is to quantify the seasonal drivers of carbon fluxes in a region of the Southern Ocean upper limb, and estimate how long different quantities of carbon are kept out of the atmosphere based on the water flow routes at the observed remineralisation depths. The lead grant was funded by the NERC grant reference NE/P021247/1 with child grants NE/P021328/1, NE/P021336/1, NE/P021263/1. NE/P021247/1 was held at the National Oceanography Centre, led by Adrian Martin. Child grants were lead by Mark Moore of University of Southampton, Simon Ussher of University of Plymouth and Dorothee Bakker of University of East Anglia respectively.

  • This dataset was collected on the cruise JC136 in May and June 2016. This cruise is associated with a NERC joint standard research grant (NE/K011855/1 and NE/K013513/1) entitled “Influence of population connectivity on depth-dependent diversity of deep-sea marine benthic biota”. The aims of the project are to investigate connectivity among deep-sea populations at different depths and spatial scales using: 1) larval dispersal modelling using Lagrangian particle tracking, driven by hydrographic models, 2) population genetics/genomics, and 3) benthic community analysis. The aims of cruise JC136 were then to sample a range of sites and depth bands to: 1. obtain physical samples of 4 model organisms for molecular analysis, 2. gather benthic biological survey data for community level analysis, 3. collect oceanographic data to validate high-resolution oceanographic models with which we will model larval dispersal. The chief scientists of this cruise were Kerry Howell (University of Plymouth School of Marine Science and Engineering) and Michelle L Taylor (University of Oxford Department of Zoology). This dataset contains a variety of navigation data (position, heading, bathymetry), atmospheric measurements (air temperature, wind speed and direction, irradiance and humidity) and sea surface hydrographic data (transmittance, chlorophyll fluorescence, sea surface temperature and conductivity). Data were collected in the NE Atlantic (Rockall Bank, George Bligh Bank, Anton Dohrn Seamount, Wyville-Thomson Ridge, Rosemary Bank) from 27 ROV dives, 12 AUV missions, 43 CTD casts, 2 mooring deployments and equipment trials. All cruise aims were broadly met. 3630 biological samples were obtained, including sufficient depth and site coverage for molecular analysis of 3 target species. Video transect data was also obtained, with sufficient replication and depth stratification from 3 sites and near complete sampling from a 4th. This cruise provides sufficient oceanographic data to validate our models. In addition, 5811.66 km2 of seafloor multibeam was collected to contribute to ongoing efforts to map the North Atlantic, including the first multibeam from the Geike Slide and Hebridean Slope Nature Conservation Marine Protected Area (NCMPA). Poor visibility at the seabed prevented a planned resurvey of the Darwin Mounds Marine Protected Area (MPA).

  • The Joint Air-Sea Interaction (JASIN) 78 Project Data Set comprises a variety of measurements including upper air and near surface meteorology, and physical oceanography. Meteorological data include air temperature, pressure, humidity and wind, while oceanographic data include temperature, salinity, currents, wave spectra and short-term wave statistics. The data were collected in the North Rockall Trough, an area of deep water (1000m - 2000m) several hundred kilometres off the west coast of Scotland. The experiment lasted for 2 months from mid-July to mid-September 1978 and comprised 2 intensive observational phases preceded by a preparatory test period. Data were collected using a variety of instrumentation, with meteorological data being provided by radiosondes, tethered balloons, and ship- and aircraft-mounted sensors. Hydrographic data were collected via shipboard deployment of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor packages (both standard and yoyo profiles), towed thermistor chains, ship-mounted wave recorders and moored temperature and current meters. The JASIN Project was designed to study the interaction of the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers with the large scale motions of the sea and air. The multiplicity of processes sampled necessitated a large experiment and involved more than 50 teams of investigators from nine countries. The data are held at the British Oceanographic Data Centre and many series are available via BODC's online data delivery portal.

  • This dataset comprises hydrographic and meteorological data transmitted in near real time from unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). Also included are hydrographic profiles through the water column obtained from submarine Slocum gliders, upon recovery. Data from these platforms have been converted into the international 'Everyone's Gliding Observatories (EGO)' exchange format. The dataset is supported by barotrophic tidal current imagery. Hydrographic data were obtained from two geographical regions. Firstly, from a transect extending from the Isles of Scilly out to the moored Carbon And Nutrient Dynamics and Fluxes Over Shelf Systems ('Candyfloss') Array in the Celtic Sea. Subsequently, a more localised survey was carried out in the English Channel, south of Plymouth. The tidal image data span the period 1st October to 21st November 2014 (15 minute intervals). Autonomous platforms were deployed between 1st and 26th October 2014 (Phase One, Celtic Sea), subsequently between 4th and 7th November 2014 (Phase Two, English Channel). Data were collected as part of Marine Autonomous Systems in Support of Marine Observations ('MASSMO'), contributing to the Exploring Ocean Fronts project. Tidal images are a product of Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Ocean Modelling System (POLCOMS) simulation runs. MASSMO was carried out as a trial of new autonomous technologies and to collect scientific data, including observation of marine life. The dataset acquired provides valuable oceanographic and meteorological measurements including a traverse of an ocean front. MASSMO was a collaborative effort involving various UK laboratories and commercial organisations, coordinated by the National Oceanography Centre (NOC). This data archive consists of measurements made by wavegliders operated by NOC and the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), the MOST Autonaut and Slocum glider units 398 and 400, operated by NOC.

  • This dataset consists of measurements of underway meteorology, navigation and sea surface hydrography. The data were collected on RRS Discovery cruise DY051 through the Goban Spur and Rockall Trough areas of the North East Atlantic. The cruise spanned the 13th of May to the 3rd of June 2016. Navigation data were collected using an Applanix POSMV system and meteorology and sea surface hydrography were collected using the NMF Surfmet system. Both systems were run through the duration of the cruise, excepting times for cleaning, entering and leaving port, and while alongside. The data were collected as part of the MAC-EXP: Development of a pressurised sampling, experimentation and cultivation system for deep-sea sediments project. The project aims to develop a flexible, cost-effective alternative to in situ experimentation: a pressure-coring, experimentation and cultivation system that enables studies of deep-sea prokaryote biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, under ambient or manipulated pressure, temperature and oxygen conditions from any medium sized ocean going research ship with coring capability. This Multiple-Autoclave-Coring and Experimentation system (MAC-EXP) will aim to provide the possibility to systematically test the influence of environmental parameters, such as pressure, oxygen availability or pH on deep-sea organisms and their biochemistry, as well as on rates and pathways of biogeochemical and geomicrobial processes. The system will also aim to allow pioneering work in the field of marine biodiscovery: secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms are a rich source of chemical diversity and several marine-microbe derived compounds are now in clinical trials. Funding was provided by NERC Standard grants NE/I023465/1 (lead) and NE/I024232/1. The lead grant covered 01 February 2013 to 31 December 2016 and the child grant covered 01 April 2012 to 31 March 2015. Professor Ursula Witte of University of Aberdeen, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences was the principal investigator for the lead grant. Professor Ronald J Parkes of Cardiff University School of Earth and Ocean Sciences was the principal investigator for the child grant. The underway navigation, meteorology and sea surface hydrography data have been received by BODC as raw files from the RRS Discovery, processed and quality controlled using in-house BODC procedures and will be made available online in the near future.

  • This dataset consists of physical oceanographic and meteorological data collected in the South Orkney Islands, Southern Ocean, onboard the RRS James Clark Ross during the period of 25 February 2016 until 25 March 2016 on JR15005 a South Orkney State of the Antarctic Ecosystem (SO-AntEco) cruise. Measurements were taken using conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profilers with attached auxiliary sensors, expendable bathythermographs (XBTs) and the ships underway monitoring system. Hydrographic profiles provide measurements of the water column, temperature, salinity, depth, conductivity, transmittance, fluorescence, irradiance, altimetry and dissolved oxygen. Underway measurements include meteorological, surface hydrography and navigational data. The data have been collected as part of the SO-AntEco project, a British Antarctic Survey (BAS) funded programme from 20 August 2015 to 24 August 2016 lead by Dr Huw Griffiths (BAS). This involved international collaboration with scientists from BAS, Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR), Universities (Bristol, Hull, Liverpool and Oxford) and the Natural History Museum (NHM), London. This project was part of the wider SCAR biological research programme - State of the Antarctic Ecosystem (AntEco). The British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) hold CTD, XBT, navigation, meteorological and surface hydrographic data. The Polar Data Centre (PDC) at BAS are responsible for the long-term management of other datasets collected on cruise JR15005.

  • This dataset consists of measurements of underway meteorology, navigation and sea surface hydrography as well as underway discrete salinity samples. A comprehensive survey of the Tropical Atlantic was undertaken between June and August 2017. Data were collected on RRS James Cook cruise JC150. Navigation data were collected using an Applanix POSMV system and meteorology and sea surface hydrography were collected using the NMF Surfmet system. Both systems were run through the duration of the cruise, excepting times for cleaning, entering and leaving port, and while alongside. 65 salinity samples were taken from the non-toxic underway supply. The non-toxic, pumped seawater supply intake was located 5.5 m below the sea surface. Sample analysis was completed using a Guildline ‘Autosal’ salinometer. This cruise formed the field component of NERC Discovery Science project "Zinc, Iron and Phosphorus co-Limitation in the Ocean (ZIPLOc)". The data were collected in order to determine the prevalence of zinc and iron limitation of APA in the phosphate deplete subtropical North Atlantic Ocean; to quantify the impact of zinc-phosphorous and iron phosphorous co-limitation on biological activity, specifically phytoplankton growth, primary production and nitrogen fixation; and to quantify the significance of zonc-phosphorous and iron-phosphorous co-limitation in driving phytoplankton productivity over basin scales and multi-decadal time scales. The Discovery Science project was composed of Standard Grant reference NE/N001079/1 as the lead grant with child grant NE/N001125/1. The lead grant runs from 02 January 2017 to 03 February 2017 and the child grant runs from 01 February 2017 to 31 July 2019. Dr Claire Mahaffey of University of Liverpool, Earth, Ocean and Ecological Sciences was the principal investigator of the lead grant of this project. Prof Maeve C. Lohan of University of Southampton, School of Ocean and Earth Science was the principal investigator of the child grant. The underway discrete salinity samples data and the underway navigation, meteorology and sea surface hydrography data have been received by BODC as raw files from the RRS James Cook, processed and quality controlled using in-house BODC procedures and are will be made available online in the near future.