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Biodiversity

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  • This dataset contains botanical data from 13 calcareous grassland, 13 heathland and 12 woodland sites within Dorset, UK. The sites were selected to represent a range of habitat types across a condition gradient as measured by levels of degradation from the original habitat. The original habitats were identified as being calcareous grassland, heathland or woodland from a survey conducted in the 1930s. Within heathland and calcareous grassland sites the percentage cover of all plant species were recorded within five 1m quadrat squares. Plants were recorded to species level where possible, or genus where species level was not possible. Covers of bare ground and litter were also recorded. Within woodlands plots, sampling was done slightly differently to enable recording of ground level plants and species within multiple canopy levels. Cover and presence of all herbaceous species were recorded in 2m quadrat squares, cover of tree seedlings (<1.5 m height) were recorded in 5m quadrat squares and ground-level cover of trunk of tree species if necessary were recorded in 10m quadrat squares. Heathland and calcareous grassland sites were visited in summer 2017 and woodland sites were visited in summer 2018. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/8a75395f-7858-40a2-8364-eb3482aeaad1

  • This dataset consists of vegetation abundance data from four experiments investigating the management of arable field options for rare plants. These experiments consisted of a margin management experiment, a herbicide screening experiment, a cereal headland experiment and a crop rotation experiment. All experiments were conducted between 2011 and 2014. The margin management experiment investigated the effects of different cultivation timing and methods and herbicide treatments on the vegetation species composition and abundance within arable field margins. The herbicide screening experiment investigated the effects of different herbicides and their timing of application on the condition of 15 species of rare arable plants. The cereal headland experiment investigated the effects of standard cereal sowing density versus reduced cereal sowing density, and of standard application of N fertilizer vs no application, on sown rare arable species and on the spontaneous weed flora of cereal stands. The crop rotation experiment was designed to provide baseline data for modelling population dynamics of rare arable species in relation to crop rotation scenarios. The data comes from a project funded by Defra (BD5204: Improving the management and success of arable plant options in ELS and HLS). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/4592780d-734f-4f62-9780-87afe27555d2

  • The data set comprises biomass values and mineral nutrient values from experimental plots located at Sourhope, Scotland. On 5 occasions throughout each of the 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002 growing seasons, grass cuttings were collected from a 50 x 50 cm cell area from each of the 4 main sub-plots within each of a set of experimental main-plots, and biomass values calculated. In addition, mineral nutrient analysis was carried out for the July 1999 grass cuttings. The work was part of the NERC Soil Biodiversity Thematic Programme, which was established in 1999 and was centred upon the intensive study of a large field experiment located at the Macaulay Land Use Research Institute (now the James Hutton Institute) farm at Sourhope in the Scottish Borders (Grid reference: NT 8545 1963). During the experiment, the site was monitored to assess changes in above-ground biomass production (productivity), species composition and relative abundance (diversity). The primary aims of the Programme were to achieve simultaneously an understanding of the biological diversity of the soil biota and the functional roles played by soil organisms in key ecological processes. In seeking to achieve these aims, 24 separate research projects were funded to study soil structure, soil processes (such as the carbon and nitrogen cycles) and the roles of micro-fauna and flora (Bacteria, Nematoda, Protozoa and Fungi), microarthropods (including Collembola and Acari), invertebrate root feeders (Tipulid, Bidionid and Scarabeid larvae), meso-fauna (such as Enchytraeidae) and macro-fauna (including Megadrili, Mollusca and Coleoptera). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/1a278fbf-b8b2-472d-9100-5fb432095f63

  • This web map service shows bee nectar plant richness across Great Britain . The source data uses counts of bee nectar plants in Countryside Survey area vegetation plots in 2007 and extrapolates to 1km squares across GB using a generalised additive mixed model. Co-variables used in the model are Broad Habitat (the dominant broad habitat of the 1km square), air temperature, nitrogen deposition, precipitation and altitude. The map has the following layers: plantCount = a modelled estimate of the count of all bee nectar plants within a 1km by 1km square, SEM = a measure of the variance of the plantCount attribute Understanding the distribution of bee nectar plants does provide valuable information on the potential distribution of pollinators and hence pollination.

  • This dataset provides data on the timing of butterfly flight periods for each UK butterfly species across all monitored sites in the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Annual data from over 2,500 sites are presented relating to the timing (first appearance, last appearance, date of peak abundance and mean flight date) and the duration (total number of days, standard deviation around the mean flight date) of the flight period for all UK butterfly species from 1976 to the present year. In addition, this data is divided each year for eleven multi-voltine species to provide separate phenology data for distinct flight periods associated with first and subsequent generations. Phenology change is a widely used measure of the biological impacts of climate change because of the close relationship between temperature and the timing of biological events. This dataset provides an invaluable tool for assessing the impacts of climate change both spatially and temporally. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/4bc7bb9f-4a7a-46ff-aa63-2747e248fd1e

  • The dataset includes data on vegetation composition, flower counts, berry availability over winter, pollinator visitation rates, invertebrate, hedge structure and hedgerow regrowth from a set of long running hedgerow experiments. There were three experiments in total. Experiment 1 was based in Monks Wood, Cambridgeshire, and was used to investigate the long-term effects of timing and frequency of cutting on resource provision for wildlife. Experiment 2 was based at 5 sites across Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire and Devon and was used to investigate the effect of timing, intensity and frequency of hedgerow cutting. Experiment 3 was based at 5 sites across Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire and was used to investigate the effects of different rejuvenation techniques on hedgerows. All three experiments were randomised plot experiments (full details of plots and their treatments can be found in the supporting documentation. The majority of the data was collected between 2010 and 2016 but for one experiment there is data from 2005. The long running hedgerow experiments had two linked aims focused on management to maintain and restore the hedgerow resource under the agri-environment schemes: • to examine the effects of simple cutting management regimes promoted by Entry Level Stewardship (ELS) and Higher Level Stewardship (HLS) on the quality and quantity of wildlife habitat, and food resources in hedgerows; and • to identify, develop and test low-cost, practical options for hedgerow restoration and rejuvenation applicable at the large-scale under both ELS and HLS. This research was funded by Defra (project number BD2114: Effects of hedgerow management and restoration on biodiversity) and managed by the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (UKCEH). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/95259623-f0b6-4328-a0e3-4aec09ede5b5

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. This dataset contains vegetation survey data from an upland heath site in the Clocaenog Forest. Vegetation was surveyed in the experimental plots at the Climoor site in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012. The vegetation at the site is a typical UK upland heathland, dominated by Calluna vulgaris, with Vaccinium myrtillus and Empetrum nigrum also being present in the vegetation understory. In each year, measurements were taken at a time period of maximum growth, which was late August/early September. This was done by pin point methodology, and data includes both pin hits as well as measurements converted into plant biomass. Individual species can be examined, as well as the different components of the higher plants (i.e. leaf, stem, flower). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/143e1a69-d4d7-4ae0-9650-6ffad9fd75b2

  • The data set comprises vegetation species and abundance information, surveyed using a 50 x 50 cm point quadrat, from a selection of the plots within an experimental site at Sourhope, Scotland. The surveys were carried out in the summers of 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002. The data were collected as part of the NERC Soil Biodiversity Thematic Programme, established in 1999 and centred upon the intensive study of a large field experiment located at the Macaulay Land Use Research Institute (now the James Hutton Institute) farm at Sourhope in the Scottish Borders (Grid reference: NT8545019630). During the experiment, the site was monitored to assess changes in above-ground biomass production (productivity), species composition and relative abundance (diversity). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/c730867f-ffd7-4d2d-9dd0-e2f30a7dbbf6

  • This data set includes longitudinal occurrence of bird species at 36 forest plots – half of which burned during the 2015-16 El Niño drought – distributed across a gradient of prior human disturbance in the Brazilian Amazon. Data was collected in 2010 and 2016 (around 6 years before, and one year after the 2015-16 El Niño, respectively) as part of the projects 'Assessing ENSO-induced Fire Impacts in tropical Rainforest Ecosystems' (AFIRE) and 'Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning in degraded and recovering Amazonian and Atlantic Forests' (ECOFOR), within the NERC Human-Modified Tropical Forest (HTMF) programme. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/4b05caee-a3c8-46a7-b675-e5a94554bd9f

  • This dataset consists of stock (area) data for Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) Broad Habitats across Great Britain in 1978. Data are presented as areas of Broad (or Priority) Habitats within a set of 256 1km squares across Great Britain. The Countryside Survey is a unique study or 'audit' of the natural resources of the UK's countryside. The sample sites are chosen from a stratified random sample, based on a 15 by 15 km grid of GB. Surveys have been carried out in 1978, 1984, 1990, 1998 and 2007 by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, with repeated visits to the majority of squares. The countryside is sampled and surveyed using rigorous scientific methods, allowing us to compare new results with those from previous surveys. In this way we can detect the gradual and subtle changes that occur in the UK's countryside over time. In addition to habitat areas, vegetation species data, soil data, linear habitat data, and freshwater habitat data are also gathered by Countryside Survey. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/86c017ba-dc62-46f0-ad13-c862bf31740e