Carbon capture and storage
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UKCCSRC Grant EP/P026214/1. The UKCCSRC Summer Web Series ran from 21st July to 3rd September 2020 relating to various aspects of carbon capture and storage. For more information see https://ukccsrc.ac.uk/web-series/ukccsrc-summer-web-series/.
Technical report. Ove Arup & Partners Limited (Arup) and their partners Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage (SCCS) were commissioned in December 2009 by the European Commission Directorate-General Energy and Transport (DG-TREN) to undertake a feasibility study for Europe-wide CO2 infrastructures. The purpose of the study was to develop a complete and integrated database of European CO2 sinks and sources and identify the main outline of a CO2 transport infrastructure for different scenarios. Available for download at http://hdl.handle.net/1842/15686.
This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 2 project, The Development and Demonstration of Best Practice Guidelines for the Safe Start-up Injection of CO2 into Depleted Gas Fields, was presented at the Cardiff Biannual, 10.09.14. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-183.
This data contains the output from the first Flexible CCS Network Development (FleCCSnet) workshop of stakeholders discussing the development of CO2 networks in the UK. The first was held on the 30 April 2014 at the University of Edinburgh, UK. The purpose of Workshop 1 was to identify and confirm the key questions to be considered in order to understand the most likely impacts of variability in the CO2 sources and variability in CO2 sinks on CO2 transport system design and operation. There were a total of 21 attendees including 7 representatives from PSE, Scottish Power, BP, SCCS, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Element Energy, and AMEC. The dataset consists of two reports. The first report, 'Developing CO2 networks: Key lessons learnt from the first Flexible CCS Network Development (FleCCSnet) project workshop', summarises the workshop findings, which have been used to create a series of scenarios that were investigated by transient simulation. The scenarios developed are described in the second report, 'Developing CO2 networks: Scenarios building on the first Flexible CCS Network Development (FleCCSnet) project workshop'.
A sub-seabed release of carbon dioxide (CO2) was conducted to assess the potential impacts of leakage from sub-seabed geological CO2 Capture and Storage CCS) on benthic macrofauna. CO2 gas was released 12 m below the seabed for 37 days, causing significant disruption to sediment carbonate chemistry. Regular macrofauna samples were collected from within the area of active CO2 leakage (Zone 1) and in three additional reference areas, 25 m, 75 m and 450 m from the centre of the leakage (Zones 2, 3 and 4 respectively). Macrofaunal community structure changed significantly in all zones during the study period. However, only the changes in Zone 1 were driven by the CO2 leakage with the changes in reference zones appearing to reflect natural seasonal succession and stochastic weather events. The impacts in Zone 1 occurred rapidly (within a few days), increased in severity through the duration of the leak, and continued to worsen after the leak had stopped. Considerable macrofaunal recovery was seen 18 days after the CO2 gas injection had stopped. In summary, small short-term CCS leakage events are likely to cause highly localised impacts on macrofaunal communities and there is the potential for rapid recovery to occur, depending on the characteristics of the communities and habitats impacted. This is a publication in QICS Special Issue - International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Stephen Widdicombe et. al. Doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.01.003.
This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 2 project Flexible CCS operations combined with online solvent monitoring: A pilot-scale study was presented at the CSLF Call project poster reception, London, 27.06.16. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-214. This project focuses on enhancing the flexibility of amine based post-combustion capture systems 1. To evaluate the flexible operation capabilities of current post-combustion CCS plant designs via dynamic scenario testing at pilot scale. 2. To identify hardware bottlenecks to dynamic operation and suggest improvements. 3. To develop new instrumentation, operating strategies and control systems which will enhance operational flexibility. 4. To obtain real plant data to complement dynamic modelling efforts.
The emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere has caused huge concerns around the world, in particular because it is widely believed that the increase in its concentration in the atmosphere is a key driver of climate change. If the current trend in the release of carbon dioxide continues, global temperatures are predicted to increase by more than 4 degrees centigrade, which would be disastrous for the world. With the increase in world population, the energy demand is also increasing. Coal-fired and gas-fired power plants still play a central role in meeting this energy demand for the foreseeable future, even though the share of renewable energy is increasing. These power plants are the largest stationary sources of carbon dioxide. Carbon capture is a technique to capture the carbon dioxide that is emitted in the flue gas from these power plants. This proposal seeks to make a significant improvement in the methods used for carbon capture in order to reduce the total costs. Post-combustion CO2 capture by chemical absorption using solvents (for example, monoethanolamine - MEA) is one of the most mature technologies. The conventional technology uses large packed columns. The cost to build and run the capture plants for power plants is currently very high because: (1) the packed columns are very large in size; (2) the amount of steam consumed to regenerate solvents for recirculation is significant. If we can manage to reduce the size of packed columns and the steam consumption, then the cost of carbon capture will be reduced correspondingly. From our previous studies, we found that mass transfer in the conventional packed columns used for carbon capture is very poor. This proposed research is expected to make very significant improvements in mass transfer. The key idea is to rotate the packed column so that it spins at hundreds of times per minute - a so-called rotating packed bed (RPB). A better mass transfer will be generated inside the RPB due to higher contact area. With an intensified capture process, a higher concentration of solvent can be used (for example 70 wt% MEA) and the quantity of recirculating solvent between intensified absorber and stripper will be reduced to around 40%. Our initial analysis has been published in an international leading journal and it indicates that the packing volume in an RPB will be less than 10% of an equivalent conventional packed column. This proposal will investigate how to design and operate the RPB in order to separate carbon dioxide most efficiently from flue gas. The work will include design of new experimental rigs, experimental study, process modelling and simulation, system integration, scale-up of intensified absorber and stripper, process optimisation, comparison between intensified capture process and conventional capture process from technical, economical and environmental points of view. The research will include an investigation into the optimum flow directions for the solvent and flue gas stream (parallel flow or counter-current) for intensified absorber and the optimum design of packing inside the RPB. The proposal will also compare the whole system performance using process intensification vs using conventional packed column for a CCGT power plant. Based on this, an economic analysis will be carried out to quantify the savings provided by this new process intensification technology. Grant number: EP/M001458/1.
The dynamic characteristics of CO2 bubbles in Scottish seawater are investigated through observational data obtained from the QICS project. Images of the leaked CO2 bubble plume rising in the seawater were captured. This observation made it possible to discuss the dynamics of the CO2 bubbles in plumes leaked in seawater from the sediments. Utilising ImageJ, an image processing program, the underwater recorded videos were analysed to measure the size and velocity of the CO2 bubbles individually. It was found that most of the bubbles deform to non-spherical bubbles and the measured equivalent diameters of the CO2 bubbles observed near the sea bed are to be between 2 and 12 mm. The data processed from the videos showed that the velocities of 75% of the leaked CO2 bubbles in the plume are in the interval 25-40 cm/s with Reynolds numbers (Re) 500-3500, which are relatively higher than those of an individual bubble in quiescent water. The drag coefficient Cd is compared with numerous laboratory investigations, where agreement was found between the laboratory and the QICS experimental results with variations mainly due to the plume induced vertical velocity component of the seawater current and the interactions between the CO2 bubbles (breakup and coalescence). The breakup of the CO2 bubbles has been characterised and defined by Eötvös number, Eo, and Re. This is a publication in QICS Special Issue - International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Nazmi Sellami et. al. Doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.02.011.
The images in this dataset are a sample of Doddington Sandstone from a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scan acquired with a voxel resolution of 6.4µm. This dataset is part of a study on the effects of Voxel Resolution in a study of flow in porous media. A brief overview of this study summarised from Shah et al 2015 follows. A fundamental understanding of flow in porous media at the pore-scale is necessary to be able to upscale average displacement processes from core to reservoir scale. The study of fluid flow in porous media at the pore-scale consists of two key procedures: Imaging reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) pore space images; and modelling such as with single and two-phase flow simulations with Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) or Pore-Network (PN) Modelling. Here we analyse pore-scale results to predict petrophysical properties such as porosity, single phase permeability and multi-phase properties at different length scales. The fundamental issue is to understand the image resolution dependency of transport properties, in order to up-scale the flow physics from pore to core scale. In this work, we use a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanner to image and reconstruct three dimensional pore-scale images of five sandstones and five complex carbonates at four different voxel resolutions (4.4ìm, 6.2ìm, 8.3ìm and 10.2ìm, scanning the same physical field of view. S.M.Shah, F. Gray, J.P. Crawshaw and E.S. Boek, 2015. Micro-Computed Tomography pore-scale study of flow in porous media: Effect of Voxel Resolution. Advances in Water Resources July 2015 doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2015.07.012 We gratefully acknowledge permission to publish and funding from the Qatar Carbonates and Carbon Storage Research Centre (QCCSRC), provided jointly by Qatar Petroleum, Shell, and Qatar Science & Technology Park. Qatar Petroleum remain copyright owners
Carbon capture and storage is a mitigation strategy that can be used to aid the reduction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. This process aims to capture CO2 from large point-source emitters and transport it to a long-term storage site. For much of Europe, these deep storage sites are anticipated to be sited below the sea bed on continental shelves. A key operational requirement is an understanding of best practice of monitoring for potential leakage and of the environmental impact that could result from a diffusive leak from a storage complex. Here we describe a controlled CO2 release experiment beneath the seabed, which overcomes the limitations of laboratory simulations and natural analogues. The complex processes involved in setting up the experimental facility and ensuring its successful operation are discussed, including site selection, permissions, communications and facility construction. The experimental design and observational strategy are reviewed with respect to scientific outcomes along with lessons learnt in order to facilitate any similar future. This is a publication in QICS Special Issue - International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Peter Taylor et. al. Doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.09.007.