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  • Data on long term trends in Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) eggs. Samples were selected from the Predatory Bird Monitoring Scheme (PBMS) Archive. Failed or abandoned sparrowhawk eggs were taken from nests by licensed egg collectors and archived as part of the monitoring activities of the PBMS in the UK. The period studied was 1985 to 2007. Data are presented in three tables including detected PBDEs, interpolated PBDEs and sample properties which are described in a metadata file. The Predatory Bird Monitoring Scheme (PBMS) is a long-term, national monitoring scheme that quantifies the concentrations of contaminants in the livers and eggs of selected species of predatory and fish-eating birds in Britain. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/5fdccbe5-066b-4130-8431-d6389c31cea2

  • This dataset consists of change data for areas of Broad Habitats across Great Britain between 1998 and 2007. The data are national estimates generated by analysing the sample data from up to 591 1km squares and scaling up to a national level. The data are summarized as percentage increase or decrease in habitat area per Land Class (areas of similar environmental characteristics) and are in a vector format. The sample sites are chosen from a stratified random sample, based on a 15 by 15 km grid of GB and using the 'ITE Land Classification' as a method of stratification. The data were collected as part of Countryside Survey, a unique study or 'audit' of the natural resources of the UK's countryside. The Survey has been carried out at regular intervals since 1978 by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. The countryside is sampled and surveyed using rigorous scientific methods, allowing us to compare new results with those from previous surveys. In this way we can detect the gradual and subtle changes that occur in the UK's countryside over time. Surveys have been carried out in 1978, 1984, 1990, 1998 and 2007 with repeated visits to the majority of squares. In addition to habitat areas, vegetation species data, soil data, linear habitat data, and freshwater habitat data are also gathered by Countryside Survey. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/d83a0f9e-00c9-4d2d-9d0a-e92a16dcb334

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. Site indices, as a relative measure of the actual population size, for UK butterfly species calculated from data from the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Site indices are a relative rather than an absolute measure of the size of a population, and have been shown to relate closely to other, more intensive, measures of population size such as mark, release, recapture (MRR) methods. The site index can be thought of as a relative measure of the actual population size, being a more or less constant proportion of the number of butterflies present. The proportion seen is likely to vary according to species; some butterfly species are more conspicuous and thus more easily detected, whereas others are much less easy to see. Site indices are only calculated at sites with sufficient monitoring visits throughout the season, or for targeted reduced effort surveys (timed observations, larval web counts and egg counts) where counts are generally obtained as close to the peak of the flight period as possible and are subsequently adjusted for the time of year and size of the site (area of suitable habitat type for a given species). Wider Countryside Butterfly Survey (WCBS) sites are thus excluded because they are based on very few visits from which accurate indices of abundance cannot currently be calculated. For transect sites a statistical model (a General Additive Model, 'GAM') is used to impute missing values and to calculate a site index. Each year most transect sites (over 90%) produce an index for at least one species and in recent years site indices are calculated for almost 1,500 sites across the UK. Site indices are subsequently collated to contribute to the overall 'Collated Index' for each species, which are relative measures of the abundance of each species across a geographical area, for example, across the whole UK or at country level in England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. Individual site indices are important in informing conservation management as not all sites show the same patterns for each species and likely reflect a combination of local climate and habitat management at the site. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/5c9c946d-34f8-4afb-83e3-f0cbc7123fec

  • This is a web map view service for the Integrated Hydrological Units (IHU) of the United Kingdom. The IHU define geographical reference units for hydrological purposes including river flow measurement and hydrometric data collection in the UK. The layers in this service represent the following component polygon layers: Hydrometric Areas with Coastline; Hydrometric Areas without Coastline; Groups; Sections; and Catchments. Each layer represents a different level of spatial detail. The coarsest level, Hydrometric Areas, is provided in two versions to meet differing user needs. Each Hydrometric Area is made up of one or more Groups. Each Group carries a name constructed from names of the major river flowing through the Group, the major river flowing into the Group, the major river into which the Group flows, and in some cases also from local county names. Each Group is made up of smaller units called Sections. A Section is the drainage area of a watercourse between two confluences. Only confluences of named watercourses were considered. Similarly to Groups, each Section carries a name constructed from names of the major river flowing through the Section, the major river flowing into the Section, and the major river into which the Section flows. Catchments represent the full area upstream from an outlet of every Section. Polygons within each layer do not have gaps and, with the exception of Catchments, polygons within one layer do not overlap. There are scale dependencies on this web map service which means that the Sections and Catchments layers are visible only at scales less than 1:250,000. The Hydrometric Areas with Coastline layer covers Great Britain and Northern Ireland, but all other layers currently cover Great Britain only as no dataset with river geometries and names with suitable detail is available for Northern Ireland.

  • This dataset consists of a 1km resolution raster version of the Land Cover Map 2007 for Great Britain. The raster consists of 10 bands. Within each band, each 1km pixel represents a percentage cover value for one of 10 aggregate classes. The aggregate classes are aggregations of the target classes, broadly representing Broad Habitats (see below). The dataset is part of a series of data products produced by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology known as LCM2007. LCM2007 is a parcel-based thematic classification of satellite image data covering the entire United Kingdom. The map updates and upgrades the Land Cover Map of Great Britain (LCMGB) 1990 and LCM2000. Like the earlier 1990 and 2000 products, LCM2007 is derived from a computer classification of satellite scenes obtained mainly from Landsat, IRS and SPOT sensors and also incorporates information derived from other ancillary datasets. LCM2007 was classified using a nomenclature corresponding to the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) Broad Habitats, which encompasses the entire range of UK habitats. In addition, it recorded further detail where possible. The series of LCM2007 products includes vector and raster formats, with a number of different versions containing varying levels of detail and at different spatial resolutions. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/289805c2-4be7-4fb5-b6ec-1539ed88c43d

  • This dataset consists of hourly lake temperature, air temperature, solar irradiance and wind speed data from an automatic water monitoring buoy on Windermere South Basin, a lake in the North West of England. The lake temperatures are measured in various depths of the lake (see supporting documentation). Measurements were taken every 4 minutes and calculated as hourly averages. The data were collected by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology between 2008 and 2011 inclusive. This dataset has been used in various publications, please see supporting documentation for more detail. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/bd37710e-6a53-49f0-9a07-6973408a3342

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. The Land Cover Map of Great Britain 1990 (1km percentage target class, GB), is a raster digital dataset, providing a classification of land cover types into 25 classes, at a 1km resolution. The dataset consists of a set of 1km bands, each containing one of 25 target classes (or 'sub' classes). Each band of the dataset contains the percentage of the specified habitat class per 1km, derived from a higher resolution (25m) dataset. The map was produced using supervised maximum likelihood classifications of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper satellite data. The 25 mapped classes include sea and inland waters, bare, suburban and urban areas, arable farmland, pastures and meadows, rough grass, grass heaths and moors, bracken, dwarf shrub heaths and moorland, scrub, deciduous and evergreen woodland, and upland and lowland bogs. It can potentially be used to plan, manage or monitor agriculture, ecology, conservation, forestry, environmental assessment, water supplies, urban spread, transport, telecommunications, recreation and mineral extraction. The map was produced in the early 1990s by a forerunner of the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, at Monks Wood. Note: The bands in the dataset run from 1-26, not 0-25 as stated in the documentation. Hence '1' is unclassifed (not '0'), '2' is sea/estuary and so on. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/0172cc8c-8b5c-46cf-b08a-785ab832e88c

  • This dataset consists of change data for areas of Broad Habitats across Great Britain between 1990 and 2007. The data are national estimates generated by analysing the sample data from up to 591 1km squares and scaling up to a national level. The data are summarized as percentage increase or decrease in habitat area per Land Class (areas of similar environmental characteristics) and are in a vector format. The sample sites are chosen from a stratified random sample, based on a 15 by 15 km grid of GB and using the 'ITE Land Classification' as a method of stratification. The data were collected as part of Countryside Survey, a unique study or 'audit' of the natural resources of the UK's countryside. The Survey has been carried out at regular intervals since 1978 by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. The countryside is sampled and surveyed using rigorous scientific methods, allowing us to compare new results with those from previous surveys. In this way we can detect the gradual and subtle changes that occur in the UK's countryside over time. Surveys have been carried out in 1978, 1984, 1990, 1998 and 2007 with repeated visits to the majority of squares. In addition to habitat areas, vegetation species data, soil data, linear habitat data, and freshwater habitat data are also gathered by Countryside Survey. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/4af5abe4-158a-4736-b318-ec660e09e45a

  • [This dataset is embargoed until September 30, 2023]. The dataset contains: (i) estimates of zinc tolerance for 50 populations of Silene uniflora in the UK and Ireland generated between 03/2021 and 09/2021. The data were collected using cuttings from wild collected specimens. Root growth of cuttings in zinc rich media was assessed using deep water culture experiments. The data set contains the zinc tolerance (mean and standard deviations of root growth scores) and the number of cuttings assessed for each population; (ii) GPS positions describing the locations of 56 populations of Silene uniflora in the UK and Ireland which were observed between 2018 and 2021. Basic habitat type (montane, serpentine, mine, coastal) information is also included. The work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council NE/R001081/1. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/af4735e3-b5ba-4e0b-8a41-503eeff89a82

  • This dataset provides linear trends, over varying time periods, for the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS) Collated Indices of individual butterfly species across the UK. The main statistical values derived from a linear regression (slope, standard error, P-value) are presented for the entire time series for each species (1976 to 2011), for the last 20 years, and for the last decade. In addition a trend class, based on slope direction and its significance, and a percentage change for that time period are provided to describe the statistical trends. These trend data are provided for 59 UK butterfly species. Trends across different time series allow us to determine the long and short-term trends for individual species. This is enables us to focus conservation and research and also to assess species responses to conservation already in place. The Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) and Butterfly Conservation (BC) are responsible for the calculation and interpretation of this trend datasets. The collection of the underlying UKBMS data is reliant on a large volunteer community. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is funded by a consortium of organisations led by the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). This dataset is updated annually and a more recent version of the UKBMS species trends (2012) is now available. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/cad2af6c-0c97-414c-8d5f-992741b283cf