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England

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  • Data on long term trends in Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) eggs. Samples were selected from the Predatory Bird Monitoring Scheme (PBMS) Archive. Failed or abandoned sparrowhawk eggs were taken from nests by licensed egg collectors and archived as part of the monitoring activities of the PBMS in the UK. The period studied was 1985 to 2007. Data are presented in three tables including detected PBDEs, interpolated PBDEs and sample properties which are described in a metadata file. The Predatory Bird Monitoring Scheme (PBMS) is a long-term, national monitoring scheme that quantifies the concentrations of contaminants in the livers and eggs of selected species of predatory and fish-eating birds in Britain. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/5fdccbe5-066b-4130-8431-d6389c31cea2

  • This dataset consists of change data for areas of Broad Habitats across Great Britain between 1998 and 2007. The data are national estimates generated by analysing the sample data from up to 591 1km squares and scaling up to a national level. The data are summarized as percentage increase or decrease in habitat area per Land Class (areas of similar environmental characteristics) and are in a vector format. The sample sites are chosen from a stratified random sample, based on a 15 by 15 km grid of GB and using the 'ITE Land Classification' as a method of stratification. The data were collected as part of Countryside Survey, a unique study or 'audit' of the natural resources of the UK's countryside. The Survey has been carried out at regular intervals since 1978 by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. The countryside is sampled and surveyed using rigorous scientific methods, allowing us to compare new results with those from previous surveys. In this way we can detect the gradual and subtle changes that occur in the UK's countryside over time. Surveys have been carried out in 1978, 1984, 1990, 1998 and 2007 with repeated visits to the majority of squares. In addition to habitat areas, vegetation species data, soil data, linear habitat data, and freshwater habitat data are also gathered by Countryside Survey. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/d83a0f9e-00c9-4d2d-9d0a-e92a16dcb334

  • [This dataset is embargoed until September 30, 2023]. The dataset contains: (i) estimates of zinc tolerance for 50 populations of Silene uniflora in the UK and Ireland generated between 03/2021 and 09/2021. The data were collected using cuttings from wild collected specimens. Root growth of cuttings in zinc rich media was assessed using deep water culture experiments. The data set contains the zinc tolerance (mean and standard deviations of root growth scores) and the number of cuttings assessed for each population; (ii) GPS positions describing the locations of 56 populations of Silene uniflora in the UK and Ireland which were observed between 2018 and 2021. Basic habitat type (montane, serpentine, mine, coastal) information is also included. The work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council NE/R001081/1. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/af4735e3-b5ba-4e0b-8a41-503eeff89a82

  • The dataset contains time series of dissolved oxygen dynamics and near-streambed light availability from selected riverine sites within the Hampshire Avon catchment (UK). Six rivers within sub-catchments of contrasting geology (clay, greensand, chalk) and associated river morphology were investigated. Data were obtained from field-based measurements in seasonal campaigns conducted between spring 2013 and winter 2014. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/c1f14c54-ffe1-4581-b479-897ff9262e98

  • Collated indices are a relative measure of butterfly abundance across sites monitored as part of the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. Data from all survey sites (standard UKBMS transects, Wider Countryside Survey transects and targeted species surveys such as timed, larval web and egg counts) are used in the calculation of these indices. The statistics are presented as log10 values. These values are centred round an arbitrary value of 2 as a mean for the time series in order to help show which years are below or above average. Collated indices are calculated annually for each individual butterfly species that has been recorded on five or more sites in that year. Indices are calculated at UK level and at individual country level for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland where sufficient data are available. Based on this criterion, collated indices have been calculated for the entire time series from 1976 (UK, England and Wales), 1979 (Scotland) and 2004 (Northern Ireland) to the current year for the majority of species, but for some rarer species this has not been possible in some years, particular those in the first part of the time series. Collated indices are calculated using a log-linear model incorporating individual site indices from all monitored sites across the UK or country for a given species in a given year. The number of sites for each species ranges from 5 to several hundred or more and fluctuates from year to year. By 2010 almost 2,000 sites were monitored in total across the UK, with this number rising to more than 3,000 over the next decade. Collated indices are calculated so that we can determine how butterfly populations are changing over time across the UK. This data can be used, for example, to determine where to target conservation efforts and more generally the condition of the UK countryside. Butterflies are recognised as important indicators of biodiversity and environmental change, for example in UK and country Biodiversity Indicators, and have been used in numerous studies of the impacts of climate and habitat change on biodiversity. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (UKCEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/f00fb86d-25c2-4f98-b882-c661511c93ac

  • This dataset provides data on the timing of butterfly flight periods for each UK butterfly species across all monitored sites in the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Annual data from over 2,500 sites are presented relating to the timing (first appearance, last appearance, date of peak abundance and mean flight date) and the duration (total number of days, standard deviation around the mean flight date) of the flight period for all UK butterfly species from 1976 to the present year. In addition, this data is divided each year for eleven multi-voltine species to provide separate phenology data for distinct flight periods associated with first and subsequent generations. Phenology change is a widely used measure of the biological impacts of climate change because of the close relationship between temperature and the timing of biological events. This dataset provides an invaluable tool for assessing the impacts of climate change both spatially and temporally. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (UKCEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/b13ffd72-62bf-47d1-948b-d9d84dd12af7

  • Collated indices are a relative measure of butterfly abundance across monitored sites in the UK, calculated from data collected by the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Collated indices are calculated annually for each individual butterfly species that has been recorded on five or more sites in that year. Based on this criterion collated indices have been calculated for the entire UKBMS time series from 1976 to the current year for the majority of species. For some rarer species the time series starts in a later year due to lack of data. Collated indices are calculated using a statistical model that accounts for missing data. The number of sites for each species ranges from 5 to several hundred and varies from year to year. Since 2008 more than 1,000 sites have been monitored across the UK each year. Collated indices are calculated so that we can determine how butterfly populations are changing over time across the UK. This data can be used, for example, to determine where to target conservation efforts and to measure the condition of the UK countryside. Butterflies are recognised as important indicators of biodiversity and environmental change (e.g. as official UK Biodiversity Indicators), and have been used in numerous research studies to understand the impacts of changes in climate and the extent and condition of habitats. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/37cc9541-0e15-4fb8-97ea-685f306228d5

  • This is a web map view service for the Integrated Hydrological Units (IHU) of the United Kingdom. The IHU define geographical reference units for hydrological purposes including river flow measurement and hydrometric data collection in the UK. The layers in this service represent the following component polygon layers: Hydrometric Areas with Coastline; Hydrometric Areas without Coastline; Groups; Sections; and Catchments. Each layer represents a different level of spatial detail. The coarsest level, Hydrometric Areas, is provided in two versions to meet differing user needs. Each Hydrometric Area is made up of one or more Groups. Each Group carries a name constructed from names of the major river flowing through the Group, the major river flowing into the Group, the major river into which the Group flows, and in some cases also from local county names. Each Group is made up of smaller units called Sections. A Section is the drainage area of a watercourse between two confluences. Only confluences of named watercourses were considered. Similarly to Groups, each Section carries a name constructed from names of the major river flowing through the Section, the major river flowing into the Section, and the major river into which the Section flows. Catchments represent the full area upstream from an outlet of every Section. Polygons within each layer do not have gaps and, with the exception of Catchments, polygons within one layer do not overlap. There are scale dependencies on this web map service which means that the Sections and Catchments layers are visible only at scales less than 1:250,000. The Hydrometric Areas with Coastline layer covers Great Britain and Northern Ireland, but all other layers currently cover Great Britain only as no dataset with river geometries and names with suitable detail is available for Northern Ireland.

  • This dataset provides data on the timing of butterfly flight periods for each UK butterfly species across all monitored sites in the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Annual data from over 2,500 sites are presented relating to the timing (first appearance, last appearance, date of peak abundance and mean flight date) and the duration (total number of days, standard deviation around the mean flight date) of the flight period for all UK butterfly species from 1976 to 2021. In addition, this data is divided each year for eleven multi-voltine species to provide separate phenology data for distinct flight periods associated with first and subsequent generations. Phenology change is a widely used measure of the biological impacts of climate change because of the close relationship between temperature and the timing of biological events. This dataset provides an invaluable tool for assessing the impacts of climate change both spatially and temporally. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (UKCEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/0c59eb20-26e3-4066-86f5-418afae18769

  • This dataset consists of a 1km resolution raster version of the Land Cover Map 2007 for Great Britain. The raster consists of 23 bands. Within each band, each 1km pixel represents a percentage cover value for one of 23 target classes, broadly representing Broad Habitats (see below). The dataset is part of a series of data products produced by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology known as LCM2007. LCM2007 is a parcel-based thematic classification of satellite image data covering the entire United Kingdom. The map updates and upgrades the Land Cover Map of Great Britain (LCMGB) 1990 and LCM2000. Like the earlier 1990 and 2000 products, LCM2007 is derived from a computer classification of satellite scenes obtained mainly from Landsat, IRS and SPOT sensors and also incorporates information derived from other ancillary datasets. LCM2007 was classified using a nomenclature corresponding to the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) Broad Habitats, which encompasses the entire range of UK habitats. In addition, it recorded further detail where possible. The series of LCM2007 products includes vector and raster formats, with a number of different versions containing varying levels of detail and at different spatial resolutions. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/fdf8c8d3-5998-45a5-8431-7f5e6302fc32