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  • This dataset consists of change data for areas of Broad Habitats across Great Britain between 1998 and 2007. The data are national estimates generated by analysing the sample data from up to 591 1km squares and scaling up to a national level. The data are summarized as percentage increase or decrease in habitat area per Land Class (areas of similar environmental characteristics) and are in a vector format. The sample sites are chosen from a stratified random sample, based on a 15 by 15 km grid of GB and using the 'ITE Land Classification' as a method of stratification. The data were collected as part of Countryside Survey, a unique study or 'audit' of the natural resources of the UK's countryside. The Survey has been carried out at regular intervals since 1978 by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. The countryside is sampled and surveyed using rigorous scientific methods, allowing us to compare new results with those from previous surveys. In this way we can detect the gradual and subtle changes that occur in the UK's countryside over time. Surveys have been carried out in 1978, 1984, 1990, 1998 and 2007 with repeated visits to the majority of squares. In addition to habitat areas, vegetation species data, soil data, linear habitat data, and freshwater habitat data are also gathered by Countryside Survey. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/d83a0f9e-00c9-4d2d-9d0a-e92a16dcb334

  • Data on long term trends in Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) eggs. Samples were selected from the Predatory Bird Monitoring Scheme (PBMS) Archive. Failed or abandoned sparrowhawk eggs were taken from nests by licensed egg collectors and archived as part of the monitoring activities of the PBMS in the UK. The period studied was 1985 to 2007. Data are presented in three tables including detected PBDEs, interpolated PBDEs and sample properties which are described in a metadata file. The Predatory Bird Monitoring Scheme (PBMS) is a long-term, national monitoring scheme that quantifies the concentrations of contaminants in the livers and eggs of selected species of predatory and fish-eating birds in Britain. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/5fdccbe5-066b-4130-8431-d6389c31cea2

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. The Land Cover Map of Great Britain 1990 (1km dominant target class, GB), is a raster digital dataset, providing classification of land cover types into 25 classes, at a 1km resolution. The dataset consists of a 1km grid with a full set of the 25 target classes (or 'sub' classes). Each 1km contains the dominant habitat class, derived from a higher resolution (25m) dataset. The map was produced using supervised maximum likelihood classifications of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper satellite data. The 25 mapped classes include sea and inland waters, bare, suburban and urban areas, arable farmland, pastures and meadows, rough grass, grass heaths and moors, bracken, dwarf shrub heaths and moorland, scrub, deciduous and evergreen woodland, and upland and lowland bogs. It can potentially be used to plan, manage or monitor agriculture, ecology, conservation, forestry, environmental assessment, water supplies, urban spread, transport, telecommunications, recreation and mineral extraction. The map was produced in the early 1990s by a forerunner of the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, at Monks Wood. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/4e3fe599-1ae9-4dbb-9476-bfc74fe90b4e

  • This dataset provides linear trends, over varying time periods, for the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS) Collated Indices of individual butterfly species across the UK. The main statistical values derived from a linear regression (slope, standard error, P-value) are presented for the entire time series for each species (1976 to 2011), for the last 20 years, and for the last decade. In addition a trend class, based on slope direction and its significance, and a percentage change for that time period are provided to describe the statistical trends. These trend data are provided for 59 UK butterfly species. Trends across different time series allow us to determine the long and short-term trends for individual species. This is enables us to focus conservation and research and also to assess species responses to conservation already in place. The Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) and Butterfly Conservation (BC) are responsible for the calculation and interpretation of this trend datasets. The collection of the underlying UKBMS data is reliant on a large volunteer community. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is funded by a consortium of organisations led by the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). This dataset is updated annually and a more recent version of the UKBMS species trends (2012) is now available. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/cad2af6c-0c97-414c-8d5f-992741b283cf

  • This dataset provides linear trends, over varying time periods, for the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS) Collated Indices of individual butterfly species across the UK. The main statistical values derived from a linear regression (slope, standard error, P-value) are presented for the entire time series for each species (1976 to 2014), for the last 20 years, and for the last decade. In addition a trend class, based on slope direction and its significance, and a percentage change for that time period are provided to describe the statistical trends. These trend data are provided for 59 UK butterfly species. Trends across different time series allow us to determine the long and short-term trends for individual species. This enables us to focus conservation and research and also to assess species responses to conservation already in place. The Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) and Butterfly Conservation (BC) are responsible for the calculation and interpretation of this trend datasets. The collection of the underlying UKBMS data is reliant on a large volunteer community. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is funded by a consortium of organisations led by the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). This dataset is updated annually and a more recent version of the UKBMS species trends (2015) is now available. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/93c14e8e-0353-469b-8adc-420c227ac8f4

  • This is a long-term monitoring dataset of surface temperature, surface oxygen, water clarity, water chemistry and phytoplankton chlorophyll a from weekly to fortnightly sampling at Esthwaite Water in Cumbria, England that began in 1945 for some variables. The data were initially collected by the Freshwater Biological Association but have been collected by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) and its predecessor Institute of Freshwater Ecology since 1989. The data available to download comprise surface temperature (TEMP) in degree Celsius, surface oxygen saturation (OXYG) in % air-saturation, Secchi depth (SECC) in metres, alkalinity (ALKA) in µg per litre as CaCO3 and pH. Ammonium (NH4N), nitrate (NO3N), soluble reactive phosphate (PO4P), total phosphorus (TOTP), dissolved reactive silicon expressed as SiO2 (SIO2) and phytoplankton chlorophyll a (TOCA) are all given in µg per litre. Water samples are based on a sample integrated from 0 to 5 m. Measurements are made from a boat at a marked location (buoy) at the deepest part of the lake. When it was not possible to visit the buoy, samples were taken from the shore, thus water samples were not integrated on these occasions, marked as Flag 2. All data are from April 1945 until the end of 2013 Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/87360d1a-85d9-4a4e-b9ac-e315977a52d3

  • This dataset consists of hourly air temperature and wind speed data from a meteorological station sited on top of a boat house, located in Cumbria, England, next to Esthwaite Water. Measurements were taken every 4 minutes and calculated as hourly averages. The data were collected by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology between 2012 and 2015 inclusive. This dataset has been used in various publications, please see supporting documentation for more detail. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/40f5f2b4-4ebd-4dcd-8b45-3b6a46251161

  • This dataset comprises individual site indices for UK butterfly species calculated from data from the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Site indices are a relative rather than an absolute measure of the size of a population, and have been shown to relate closely to other, more intensive, measures of population size such as mark, release, recapture (MRR) methods. The site index can be thought of as a relative measure of the population size, being a more or less constant proportion of the number of butterflies present. The proportion seen is likely to vary according to species; some butterfly species are more conspicuous and thus more easily detected, whereas others are much less easy to see. Site indices are only calculated at sites with sufficient monitoring visits throughout the season, or for targeted reduced effort surveys (timed observations, larval web counts and egg counts) where counts are generally obtained as close to the peak of the flight period as possible and are subsequently adjusted for the time of year and size of the site (area of suitable habitat type for a given species). Wider Countryside Butterfly Survey (WCBS) sites are thus excluded because they are based on very few visits from which indices of abundance are not calculated. For transect sites, a statistical model (a General Additive Model, 'GAM') is used to impute missing values and to calculate a site index. Each year most transect sites (over 90%) produce an index for at least one species and in recent years site indices have been calculated for over 2,000 sites across the UK. Site indices are subsequently collated to contribute to the overall 'Collated Index' for each species, which are relative measures of the abundance of each species across a geographical area, for example, across the whole UK or at country level for England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. Individual site indices are important in informing conservation management as not all sites show the same patterns for each species and likely reflect a combination of local climate and habitat management at the site. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (UKCEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/b77561d8-20ee-45ad-9221-7a8885d5ac8e

  • The dataset contains measurements of temperature (°C) and light availability (Lux) in rivers in the Hampshire Avon catchment (UK). Six rivers within sub-catchments of contrasting geology (clay, sand, chalk) were investigated. The stream sites monitored were chosen to reflect a gradient of base flow index. Data were obtained via direct, field-based measurements every 15 minutes from February 2013 to (max) December 2014 with sensors tethered to the bed of the river at each site. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/9b6a6233-85ad-44f4-ba83-4905b8c48713

  • This dataset provides data on the timing of butterfly flight periods for each UK butterfly species across all monitored sites in the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Annual data from over 2,500 sites are presented relating to the timing (first appearance, last appearance, date of peak abundance and mean flight date) and the duration (total number of days, standard deviation around the mean flight date) of the flight period for all UK butterfly species from 1976 to the present year. In addition, this data is divided each year for eleven multi-voltine species to provide separate phenology data for distinct flight periods associated with first and subsequent generations. Phenology change is a widely used measure of the biological impacts of climate change because of the close relationship between temperature and the timing of biological events. This dataset provides an invaluable tool for assessing the impacts of climate change both spatially and temporally. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (UKCEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/b13ffd72-62bf-47d1-948b-d9d84dd12af7