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Environmental Monitoring Facilities

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  • This dataset contains modelled ammonia recapture by shelterbelts downwind of an ammonia source. The runs were located in the UK with ten years of averaged meteorological data for the different seasons of the year. Several tree species and tree heights were also taken into consideration and predictions of recapture were made for the year 5, 15, 25 and 50 after planting . Two models were coupled to obtain this dataset; Open-source Field Operation And Manipulation (OpenFOAM) and MOdel of Dispersion and Deposition of Ammonia over the Short-range in two dimensions (MODDAS-2D). This dataset was created by the Modelling Uncertainty for Decision Making on Ammonia mitigation with Trees in the landscape (MUDMAT) project funded by NERC. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/83a2a25c-dbb7-4760-ae3d-21904f3dd278

  • This dataset provides data on the timing of butterfly flight periods for each UK butterfly species across all monitored sites in the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Annual data from over 2,500 sites are presented relating to the timing (first appearance, last appearance, date of peak abundance and mean flight date) and the duration (total number of days, standard deviation around the mean flight date) of the flight period for all UK butterfly species from 1976 to the present year. In addition, this data is divided each year for eleven multi-voltine species to provide separate phenology data for distinct flight periods associated with first and subsequent generations. Phenology change is a widely used measure of the biological impacts of climate change because of the close relationship between temperature and the timing of biological events. This dataset provides an invaluable tool for assessing the impacts of climate change both spatially and temporally. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/4bc7bb9f-4a7a-46ff-aa63-2747e248fd1e

  • Data comprise reservoir inflows and release data (including spills), evaporation loss and optimised monthly rule curve ordinates (upper, lower and critical) for Pong and Bhakra reservoirs in Northern India. Also included in the rule curve data are associated reservoir rationing ratios that can be applied to gross demand when rationing is also indicated. Data contain monthly Inflows, net-evaporation loss and release (all in million cubic metres, i.e. x 10^6 m^3) as simulated by WEAP for the Pong and Bhakra reservoir for the baseline (1989 - 2008); mid-century (2032-2050) and end-century (2082-2100) periods. The future inflows were based on forcing the WEAP model of the basin with climate projections of the GFDL-CM3 CMIP model The data were collected by Heriot-Watt University under the Sustaining Himalayan Water Resources in a Changing Climate (SusHi-Wat) project funded by NERC. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/46135938-cc6c-44a0-b35b-f6e5f5dd1221

  • This dataset includes litterfall data from the experimental plots at the Climoor field site in the Clocaenog forest, NE Wales. Litterfall (natural senesced plant material) was collected in litterfall traps (12 x 7.5cm pots standing slightly proud of the soil/litter surface, emptied monthly). Litterfall was calculated by drying the contents of the traps and weighing the samples; values were calculated for each quadrat (total weight (g) only) and for each plot (total weight (g) and weight per metre squared (g/m2)). Data spans the periods Oct 1999 to Jan 2004 and July 2008 to June 2011. Data was collected by CEH staff and PhD students trained in the use of the methods. Climoor is a climate change manipulation experiment that utilises automated roof technology to produce drought and warming experimental treatments that reflect climate change predictions for the next 20-30 years. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/f200ea72-574d-44da-955c-de0fb024eafe

  • This dataset contains botanical data from 13 calcareous grassland, 13 heathland and 12 woodland sites within Dorset, UK. The sites were selected to represent a range of habitat types across a condition gradient as measured by levels of degradation from the original habitat. The original habitats were identified as being calcareous grassland, heathland or woodland from a survey conducted in the 1930s. Within heathland and calcareous grassland sites the percentage cover of all plant species were recorded within five 1m quadrat squares. Plants were recorded to species level where possible, or genus where species level was not possible. Covers of bare ground and litter were also recorded. Within woodlands plots, sampling was done slightly differently to enable recording of ground level plants and species within multiple canopy levels. Cover and presence of all herbaceous species were recorded in 2m quadrat squares, cover of tree seedlings (<1.5 m height) were recorded in 5m quadrat squares and ground-level cover of trunk of tree species if necessary were recorded in 10m quadrat squares. Heathland and calcareous grassland sites were visited in summer 2017 and woodland sites were visited in summer 2018. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/8a75395f-7858-40a2-8364-eb3482aeaad1

  • The datasets contains monthly Leica LS15 precise levelling data which is used to measure monthly peat surface motion from 49 points in 1km2 of upland (RSPB Forsinard Knockfin Heights) and 49 points in a 1km2 of lowland (Plantlife Munsary) blanket peatland within the Flow Country, Caithness and Sutherland. Data was obtained between August 2017 and February 2019 covering the 2018 European Drought Event. Also included are loop closures and measurement standard deviation data. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/f4f79d46-dac7-4628-a0b3-7427761737a6

  • This dataset consists of freshwater pond quality data for sites across Great Britain in 2007. Data include macrophyte species records, chemistry and water quality, and environmental variables such as pollution, grazing and management, from ponds surveyed within a set of 591 1km squares across Great Britain (note - not all squares contained ponds). The survey was part of Countryside Survey, a unique study or 'audit' of the natural resources of the UK's countryside, and was carried out by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and Pond Conservation. The sample sites are chosen from a stratified random sample, based on a 15 by 15 km grid of GB. The countryside is sampled and surveyed using rigorous scientific methods, allowing us to compare new results with those from previous surveys. In this way we can detect the gradual and subtle changes that occur in the UK's countryside over time. In addition to freshwater habitat data, habitat areas, vegetation species data, soil data and linear habitat data are also gathered by Countryside Survey. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/cbb9ee99-8078-4dc4-87de-ee99390e579e

  • Collated indices are a relative measure of butterfly abundance across sites monitored as part of the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. Data from all survey sites (standard UKBMS transects, Wider Countryside Survey transects and targeted species surveys such as timed, larval web and egg counts) are used in the calculation of these indices. The statistics are presented as log10 values. These values are centred round an arbitrary value of 2 as a mean for the time series in order to help show which years are below or above average. Collated indices are calculated annually for each individual butterfly species that has been recorded on five or more sites in that year. Indices are calculated at UK level and at individual country level for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland where sufficient data are available. Based on this criterion, collated indices have been calculated for the entire time series from 1976 (UK, England and Wales), 1979 (Scotland) and 2004 (Northern Ireland) to the current year for the majority of species, but for some rarer species this has not been possible in some years, particular those in the first part of the time series. Collated indices are calculated using a log-linear model incorporating individual site indices from all monitored sites across the UK or country for a given species in a given year. The number of sites for each species ranges from 5 to several hundred or more and fluctuates from year to year. By 2010 almost 2,000 sites were monitored in total across the UK, with this number rising to more than 3,000 over the next decade. Collated indices are calculated so that we can determine how butterfly populations are changing over time across the UK. This data can be used, for example, to determine where to target conservation efforts and more generally the condition of the UK countryside. Butterflies are recognised as important indicators of biodiversity and environmental change, for example in UK and country Biodiversity Indicators, and have been used in numerous studies of the impacts of climate and habitat change on biodiversity. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/657a64b2-8c34-43d2-a0f0-662ddf73c720

  • The data set comprises vegetation species and abundance information, surveyed using a 50 x 50 cm point quadrat, from a selection of the plots within an experimental site at Sourhope, Scotland. The surveys were carried out in the summers of 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002. The data were collected as part of the NERC Soil Biodiversity Thematic Programme, established in 1999 and centred upon the intensive study of a large field experiment located at the Macaulay Land Use Research Institute (now the James Hutton Institute) farm at Sourhope in the Scottish Borders (Grid reference: NT8545019630). During the experiment, the site was monitored to assess changes in above-ground biomass production (productivity), species composition and relative abundance (diversity). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/c730867f-ffd7-4d2d-9dd0-e2f30a7dbbf6

  • This dataset reports the responses of annual river flow to forestation in 43 catchments and contains 770 data points. Data shows the change in river flow following forestation at annual time scales, along control river flow measurements and associated metadata from primary and secondary sources. Data collection, processing and interpretation were performed by Laura Bentley and David A. Coomes between January 2018 and October 2019. Forestation was defined as a change in land cover from a stable, non-forested state to a forested one, independent of the long-term history of forest cover. Paired measurements of annual river flow following forestation (mm) and river flow under control land cover conditions (mm) are provided for each year that the catchment dataset satisfied our inclusion criteria. River flow response is provided as both an absolute difference (mm) and as a percentage of control flow in the same year. Estimates of catchment annual precipitation, annual potential evapotranspiration, forest age, forest area, and the year of study are provided for each river flow response data point. Metadata are provided concerning catchment land cover history, land use history, catchment area, forest type, average climate and the method of forest establishment. The dataset contains catchments that were planted with trees and catchments in which forest cover regenerated without planting. Historical forest cover was reported in some catchments, and not reported in others. The 43 catchments a distributed unevenly across the globe, in 13 countries. The length of time series for each catchment varies from 2 years to 57 years, with and average duration of 19 years. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/5baa5d91-d552-4fc6-8a8c-29ae45192d77