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Europe

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  • The Met Office European synoptic stations reported hourly surface data from 141 European stations for the period 1990-1996. The dataset includes parameters such as temperature, wind, rainfall, cloud cover, past and present weather, and visibility. Note - this has been superseded by the MIDAS Land Surface Station Dataset.

  • The Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites, operated by EUMETSAT (The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites), provide almost continuous imagery to meteorologists and researchers in Europe and around the world. These include visible, infra-red, water vapour, High Resolution Visible (HRV) images and derived cloud top height, cloud top temperature, fog, snow detection and volcanic ash products. These images are available for a range of geographical areas. This dataset contains cloud top temperature product images from MSG satellites over Europe and the North Atlantic. Imagery available from March 2005 onwards at a frequency of 15 minutes (some are hourly) and are at least 24 hours old. The geographic extent for images within this datasets is available via the linked documentation 'MSG satellite imagery product geographic area details'. Each MSG imagery product area can be referenced from the third and fourth character of the image product name giving in the filename. E.g. for EEAO11 the corresponding geographic details can be found under the entry for area code 'AO' (i.e West Africa).

  • This dataset contains the output of three fully coupled seasonal forecast experiments performed as a case study of summer 2022, using the same model setup as ECWMF seasonal forecast system 5 (SEAS5), as presented in the paper Patterson, M., Befort, D., O'Reilly, C., Weisheimer, A. "The ECMWF SEAS5 seasonal forecast of the hot and dry European summer of 2022" Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, (under review) ​ ​The three experiments are: 1) CONTROL A coupled hindcast ensemble with perturbed initial conditions for the 2022 summer, identical to the operational hindcast with the start date 1st May, but for 200 members rather than 51. 2) ATMOS-IC-2022 Similar to the CONTROL with 2022 initial conditions for the atmosphere and land surface and 2022 concentrations of carbon dioxide, but with ocean initial conditions taken from a year in 1981-2021. Five perturbed initial condition states taken for each year hence, 41 x 5 = 205 members. 3) OCEAN-IC-2022 Similar to CONTROL with 2022 initial conditions for the ocean, but with initial atmosphere, land surface and carbon dioxide conditions taken from a year in 1981-2021. Like ATMOS-IC-2022, 41 x 5 = 205 members. ​ The OCEAN-IC-2022 experiments were performed by taking the setup for hindcasts 1981-2021 and swapping the ocean initial conditions for 2022. The time dimension therefore corresponds to the time of the base hindcast taken from 1981-2021. Conversely, the ATMOS-IC-2022 were performed by running the 2022 hindcast and swapping the ocean initial conditions for other years. The time dimension for ATMOS-IC-2022 therefore is identical for all members. Hindcasts are all started on 1st May and run for four months. The data stored is monthly-mean output from the experiments with the following directory structure for variables on pressure levels: [experiment_name]/pl/[experiment_name]_[ensemble_member_number]_pl_[level]hPa.nc and for those on a single level or at the surface: [experiment_name]/sfc/[experiment_name]_[ensemble_member_number]_sfc.nc The files each contain multiple variables. Variables on pressure levels are stored at 700hPa,500hPa and 250hPa levels. Pressure level variables stored are: u (zonal wind), v (meridional wind), t (air temperature), z (geopotential), q (specific humidity) Surface variables stored are: sst (sea surface temperature), swvl1 (Volumetric soil water layer 1), swvl2 (Volumetric soil water layer 2), swvl3 (Volumetric soil water layer 3), swvl4 (Volumetric soil water layer 4), msl (air pressure at mean sea level), t2m (2m temperature), tprate (mean total precipitation rate).

  • The Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites, operated by EUMETSAT (The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites), provide almost continuous imagery to meteorologists and researchers in Europe and around the world. These include visible, infra-red, water vapour, High Resolution Visible (HRV) images and derived cloud top height, cloud top temperature, fog, snow detection and volcanic ash products. These images are available for a range of geographical areas. This dataset contains cloud top height product images from MSG satellites over Europe and the North Atlantic. Imagery available from March 2005 onwards at a frequency of 15 minutes (some are hourly) and are at least 24 hours old. The geographic extent for images within this datasets is available via the linked documentation 'MSG satellite imagery product geographic area details'. Each MSG imagery product area can be referenced from the third and fourth character of the image product name giving in the filename. E.g. for EEAO11 the corresponding geographic details can be found under the entry for area code 'AO' (i.e West Africa).

  • The Met Office European synoptic stations reported hourly surface data from 141 European stations for the period 1990-1996. Parameters for this dataset include: present and past weather, cloud amount, type and base height, wind direction and speed, visibility, temperature measurements, water vapour pressure, relative humidity, mean sea level pressure, rainfall and gust speed and direction. Note - this has been superseded by the MIDAS Land Surface Station Dataset. Additional background information can be found at the Monthly Weather Report: Vol. 108, 1991, ref. UDC 551 506 1(41-1) , produced by the Met Office.

  • The Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites, operated by EUMETSAT (The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites), provide almost continuous imagery to meteorologists and researchers in Europe and around the world. These include visible, infra-red, water vapour, High Resolution Visible (HRV) images and derived cloud top height, cloud top temperature, fog, snow detection and volcanic ash products. These images are available for a range of geographical areas. This dataset contains RGB 'False Colour' 321 product images from MSG satellites over Europe and the East Atlantic. Imagery available from March 2005 onwards at a frequency of 15 minutes (some are hourly) and are at least 24 hours old. RGB images are composite images generated by combining two or more channels and displaying in colour. The naming convention describes which channel is assigned to the red, green and blue colours. For example RGB 321 means that channel 3 (1.6 micron) is on the red, channel 2 (0.8 micron) is on the green and channel 1 (0.6 micron) is on the blue. This combination can then highlight different physical features through the differing amounts of red, green and blue and hence give a unique colour to that feature. In this case, turquoise clouds contain ice crystals, whilst white clouds are water clouds (inc. fog). Vegetation creates a green signal and sandy areas are pink. Snow covered ground is turquoise. Note: a change in product can be seen from a change to software implemented on 25/11/2013 where the scaling and gamma correction of the R, G, and B channels were tuned to give an improved image, in effect lightening the brighter colours in the image image. The geographic extent for images within this datasets is available via the linked documentation 'MSG satellite imagery product geographic area details'. Each MSG imagery product area can be referenced from the third and fourth character of the image product name giving in the filename. E.g. for EEAO11 the corresponding geographic details can be found under the entry for area code 'AO' (i.e West Africa).

  • The HadRM3-PPE-UK experiment was designed to simulate the regional climate for the UK in the period 1950-2100 for historical and medium (SRESA1B) emissions scenario. The model was run for the wider European area and the UK data extracted from it. It was a key dataset used in the generation of the UK-Climate Projections project (UKCP). It consists of an 11-member ensemble, each member driven by the same historical and SRESA1B emissions, with one unperturbed member and 10 members with different perturbations to the atmospheric parametrisations. The standard forcings include historical levels of greenhouse gases (including methane), sulphur (direct and first indirect forcing, sulphur chemistry without natural DMS and SO2 background emissions; anthropogenic SO2 emissions from surface and high level only) and tropospheric/stratospheric ozone. This dataset collection contains output from an ensemble of various variants of the MOHC Regional Climate Model (HadRM3), run from 1950-2099 and used to dynamically downscale global climate model (GCM) results as part of the climate change experiments carried out by the Met Office Hadley Centre for the latest UK Climate Projections report. For these Regional Climate Model (RCM) experiments, transient projections from 11 Medium emissions (SRESA1B) scenario GCM experiments for 1950-2099 were used as boundary conditions. The RCM used contains the same representations of atmospheric dynamical and physical processes as in a global model. It is run at a higher horizontal resolution (25km) but over a sub-global domain (typically 5000km square), and is driven at the boundary of the domain by time series of variables (such as temperature and winds) saved from a GCM projection. Sea surface temperatures and sea-ice extents are also prescribed from the GCM, since HadRM3 (like most RCMs) does not include an interactive ocean component. The purpose of RCMs is to provide a high resolution climate projection consistent with its driving GCM projection at spatial scales skilfully resolved by the latter, but adding realistic detail at finer scales. This is the "downscaling" process referred to above. For the purposes of the UK Climate Projections (UKCP) project, the data corresponding to the UK domain were extracted from the original (larger) domain, and it is these data which are made available here. These data are provided at daily resolution.

  • Meteosat-7 and its predecessors were the first generation of earth observation dedicated geostationary satellites located at 36000 km above the intersection of the Equator and the Greenwich Meridian. Although superseded by MSG-1 (renamed Meteosat-8) in 2005, Meteosat-7 remained as back-up at 0o longitude until 14th June 2006. Meteosat-7 will be moved to 63oE longitude to continue coverage of the Indian Ocean and take over from Meteosat-5. Meteosat-7 was launched by the European Space Agency and operated by Eumetsat. This dataset contains visible images from Meteosat Geostationary Satellites First Generation over Europe.

  • Meteosat-7 and its predecessors were the first generation of earth observation dedicated geostationary satellites located at 36000 km above the intersection of the Equator and the Greenwich Meridian. Although superseded by MSG-1 (renamed Meteosat-8) in 2005, Meteosat-7 remained as back-up at 0o longitude until 14th June 2006. Meteosat-7 will be moved to 63oE longitude to continue coverage of the Indian Ocean and take over from Meteosat-5. Meteosat-7 was launched by the European Space Agency and operated by Eumetsat. This dataset contains water vapour images from Meteosat Geostationary Satellites First Generation satellites over Europe and the North Atlantic.

  • Meteosat-7 and its predecessors were the first generation of earth observation dedicated geostationary satellites located at 36000 km above the intersection of the Equator and the Greenwich Meridian. Although superseded by MSG-1 (renamed Meteosat-8) in 2005, Meteosat-7 remained as back-up at 0o longitude until 14th June 2006. Meteosat-7 will be moved to 63oE longitude to continue coverage of the Indian Ocean and take over from Meteosat-5. Meteosat-7 was launched by the European Space Agency and operated by Eumetsat. This dataset contains visible images from Meteosat Geostationary Satellites First Generation over Europe and the North Atlantic.