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Habitats and Biotopes

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  • This web map service provides a 1km resolution gridded coverage of wooded areas in riparian zones (river- or streamsides) across Great Britain. The areas classified as riparian in this dataset are defined by a 50 metre buffer applied to the CEH 1:50000 watercourse network. Wooded areas within this zone are identified as those classified by the Land Cover Map of Great Britain 2007 as either coniferous or deciduous woodland. The data are aggregated to a 1km resolution.

  • This web map service shows the suitability of climate conditions for infection of Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora kernoviae across the UK. Suitability is mapped for individual years 2007 to 2011; the average and standard deviations for the whole period are also provided. The model is based on laboratory data of environmental responses of these pathogens and hourly temperature and relative humidity regimes in the period, and describes how many times infection could have been completed within running 48 hour periods through the year. This research was funded by the Scottish Government under research contract CR/2008/55, 'Study of the epidemiology of Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora kernoviae in managed gardens and heathlands in Scotland' and involved collaborators from St Andrews University, Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture (SASA), Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH), Forestry Commission, the Food and Environment Research Agency (FERA) and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH).

  • This is a theoretical model of leadership in warfare by exploitative individuals who reap the benefits of conflict while avoiding the costs. In this model we extend the classic hawk-dove model to consider pairwise interactions between groups in which a randomly chosen leader decides whether the group will collectively adopt aggressive or peaceful tactics. We allow for unequal sharing of fitness payoffs among group members such that the leader can obtain either a larger share of the benefits, or pay a reduced share of costs, from fighting compared to their followers. Our model shows that leadership of this kind can explain the evolution of severe collective violence in certain animal societies. Full details about this application can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/7aab999e-cef9-41c2-8400-63f10af798ec

  • 73 ecosystem services variables for 11 Environmental Change Network (ECN) sites throughout the UK mainland. The variables cover provisioning (food, fibre, fuel, genetic resources, biochemical and pharmaceuticals, ornamental), regulating (air quality regulation, climate regulation, water regulation, erosion, human diseases, biological control, pollination, natural hazard, other hazards) and cultural (cultural diversity) service types. The list of variables was agreed at an ECN site manager's workshop as representative of the high level categories defined by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. The variables were calculated from data from three sources (i) data collected for the ECN to standard ECN protocols, (ii) data obtained by site managers from a variety of other sources for their site and (iii) expert knowledge of site managers. The data were from a single year (usually 2009) or were averages of annual measurements. Established in 1992, the ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring and research programme and makes regular measurements of air, soil, water and a range of animals and plants across a network of sites to determine how and why the natural environment is changing. The ECN is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of UK government departments and agencies. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/2c5f823d-0dca-4e66-b021-de3e81131979

  • Phenotypes (growth, phenology and form) for Scots pine trees in a long-term common garden trial grown in three nurseries in Scotland and surveyed from 2007 to 2011. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/29ced467-8e03-4132-83b9-dc2aa50537cd

  • The geospatial dataset maps organic carbon (OC) storage (kg OC m-2) and OC stocks (tonnes OC) of surficial soils across 438 Great British saltmarshes. The OC density for the surficial soils (top 10 cm) is mapped across 451.65 km2 of saltmarshes, identified from current saltmarsh maps of Great Britain’s three constituent countries; Scotland, England and Wales The spatial maps are built upon surficial (top 10 cm) soil bulk density and carbon data produced by the NERC C-Side project and Marine Scotland data combined with existing saltmarsh vegetation maps. The work was carried out under the NERC programme - Carbon Storage in Intertidal Environment (C-SIDE), NERC grant reference NE/R010846/1. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/cb8840f2-c630-4a86-9bba-d0e070d56f04

  • A species by quadrat matrix showing the percentage cover of understory herbaceous plants in ancient and recent woodlands varying in age and isolation. Percentage cover was calculated for each species individually. The data was collected on the Isle of Wight, woodlands spanned the entire island and were not situated in one area. All data was collected in the summer of 2021 over a period of 3 weeks covering the last 2 weeks of may May and the first week of June. This time was chosen as this is when a large subset of woodland plants are in flower. Woodlands were sampled in blocks of three, each block contains an ancient woodland, a recent woodland adjacent to the ancient woodland and another recent woodland of similar age and size but isolated from the ancient woodland. Each woodland had six quadrats taken, systematically placed at four corners and two in the centre. Within each quadrat the percentage cover of all understory herbs was recorded. This data was collected to measure the colonisation credit of recently planted woodlands, and to observe how much this might vary under differing degrees of isolation. This data could also be used to compare all sorts of biodiversity metrics between connected and isolated recent woodlands. It could also be used to compare beta diversity metrics between woodlands of varying degrees of isolation Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/7c2b2878-1d15-4ddd-9d7e-cf50bd65f652

  • The dataset comprises 10 direct measurements in centimetres of plant height taken within a 1metre (m) x 1m quadrat. Also presented are the mean, standard deviation, standard error and coefficient variation values. Sampling was conducted at six salt marsh sites at four spatial scales: 1 m (the minimal sampling unit) nested within a hierarchy of increasing scales of 1-10 m, 10-100 m and 100-1000 m. Three of the sites were in Morecambe Bay, North West England and three of the sites were in Essex, South East England. All samples were taken during the winter and summer of 2013. This data was collected as part of Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS): NE/J015644/1. The project was funded with support from the Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (BESS) programme. BESS is a six-year programme (2011-2017) funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) as part of the UK's Living with Environmental Change (LWEC) programme. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/d8d37579-83f1-4e36-a681-984a086d6b68

  • The dataset details population bioturbation potential (BPp) across 6 intertidal sites in the winter and summer of 2013. The data provide an index of bioturbation potential of invertebrate species populations present within the top 10cm of sediment. Three sites were located in Essex, South East England and the other 3 in Morecambe Bay, North West England. Each site consisted of a saltmarsh habitat and adjacent mudflat habitat. 22 sampling quadrats were placed in each habitat covering 4 spatial scales. 3 replicate cores of sediment were collected at each quadrat. They were sieved on a 0.5mm mesh and the macrofauna was removed, identified to species (or appropriate taxon) and individuals were identified to species (or most appropriate taxon), counted and weighed. The resulting abundance and biomass data were then used to calculate BPp of each individual species present within a sample. BPp data for mudflat habitats across Essex and Morecambe are complete, however, saltmarsh data is only available for one full Essex site (Tillingham Marsh), in one season (winter) and across all sites, at the 1m scale. This data was collected as part of Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS): NE/J015644/1. The project was funded with support from the Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (BESS) programme. BESS is a six-year programme (2011-2017) funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) as part of the UK's Living with Environmental Change (LWEC) programme. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/6d06122c-c856-4127-b7a5-34059d0e48e7

  • This dataset consists of change data for areas of Broad Habitats across Great Britain between 1990 and 1998, between 1990 and 2007, and between 1998 and 2007. The data are national estimates generated by analysing the sample data from up to 591 1km squares and scaling up to a national level. The data are summarized as change in habitat area per Land Class (areas of similar environmental characteristics). The sample sites are chosen from a stratified random sample, based on a 15 by 15 km grid of GB and using the 'ITE Land Classification' as a method of stratification. The data were collected as part of Countryside Survey, a unique study or 'audit' of the natural resources of the UK's countryside. The Survey has been carried out at regular intervals since 1978 by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. The countryside is sampled and surveyed using rigorous scientific methods, allowing us to compare new results with those from previous surveys. In this way we can detect the gradual and subtle changes that occur in the UK's countryside over time. Surveys have been carried out in 1978, 1984, 1990, 1998 and 2007 with repeated visits to the majority of squares. In addition to habitat areas, vegetation species data, soil data, linear habitat data, and freshwater habitat data are also gathered by Countryside Survey. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/7e2981e7-bd4c-4992-b7b0-1b1253bfd20d