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Heat fluxes between the water column and the atmosphere

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  • A time series of ocean circulation in the North Atlantic from 1900-2018 was calculated using a number of gridded data products. These comprise the EN4.2.1 gridded temperature and salinity dataset (Good et al. 2013), using Gouretski and Reseghetti (2010) corrections (https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs/en4/download-en4-2-1.html), gridded satellite altimetry from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS, http://marine.copernicus.eu) and gridded wind stress fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF, https://www.ecmwf.int). Both ERA-20C and ERA-Interim products were obtained to cover the periods 1900-1978 and 1979-2018 respectively.

  • The oceanographic part of the ACSIS (North Atlantic Climate System Integrated Study) project uses sustained observations from the North Atlantic, gathered during other observational programs, such as RAPID, Argo and OSNAP, to generate ocean heat budgets. The overarching objective of the ACSIS project is to enhance the UK’s capability to detect, attribute and predict changes in the North Atlantic Climate System, comprising: the North Atlantic Ocean, the atmosphere above it including its composition, and interactions with Arctic Sea Ice and the Greenland Ice Sheet. The data will be combined with models to develop new products. ACSIS is delivered by a partnership between six NERC Centres, National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), National Oceangraphy Centre (NOC), British Antarctic Survey (BAS), National Centre for Earth Observation (NCEO), Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling (CPOM), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) and the UK Met Office. ACSIS has been fully funded for five years (2016-2021) through the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Long Term Science commissioning, which aims to encourage its research centres to work closely together to tackle major scientific and societal challenges. The oceanographic data are held by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC), the atmospheric, cryospheric and model data are held by the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis (CEDA).

  • This datasets contains a box model of the atmosphere‐ocean to understand surface warming response and explain how surface warming varies in time with carbon emissions. The box model consists of three homogeneous layers: a well‐mixed atmosphere, an ocean mixed layer with 100‐m thickness, and an ocean interior with 3,900‐m thickness, all assumed to have the same horizontal area. The model solves for the heat and carbon exchange between these layers, including physical and chemical transfers, but ignoring biological transfers, and sediment and weathering interactions. The model is forced from an equilibrium by carbon emitted into the atmosphere with a constant rate of 20 PgC/year for 100 years and integrated for 1,000 years. Ocean ventilation is represented by the ocean interior taking up the heat and carbon properties of the mixed layer on an e-folding time scale of 200 years. The model was generated as part of Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Discovery Science project “Mechanistic controls of surface warming by ocean heat and carbon uptake” standard grant reference NE/N009789/1 lead by Principal Investigator Professor Ric Williams.Model code and associated metadata are held in the archives at the British Oceanographic Data Centre. Other datasets generated by this grant are discoverable via EDMED 6712.

  • This dataset contains derived annual mean globally averaged variables from an existing global coupled carbon-climate Earth System Model and a novel atmosphere-ocean box model to understand surface warming response in terms of changes in global carbon inventories, empirical heat budget, and variation in time with carbon emissions. The source model outputs were generated by Thomas Froelicher in 2015 using a 1000-year simulation of the global coupled carbon-climate Earth System Model developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL ESM2M). A scenario was forced of a 1% annual rate increase in carbon dioxide from preindustrial levels until global mean surface air temperature increased by 2 degrees Celsius since the preindustrial, after this point emissions of carbon were set to zero and all other non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gases were kept at preindustrial levels. Output parameters included: ocean temperature; salinity; dissolved inorganic carbon; ocean alkalinity; dissolved inorganic phosphate; surface air temperature; atmospheric carbon dioxide and cumulative carbon emission. Annual mean variables were then derived from these data. This was determined by calculated changes in: ocean carbon inventory; ocean carbon under saturation; saturated dissolved inorganic carbon; ocean dissolved inorganic carbon; radiative forcing from carbon dioxide; and ocean heat uptake. Additionally the dependence of radiative forcing on carbon emissions, dependence of surface warming on radiative forcing and surface warming dependence on radiative forcing were determined. The box model consists of three homogeneous layers: a well‐mixed atmosphere; an ocean mixed layer with 100‐m thickness; and an ocean interior with 3,900‐m thickness, all assumed to have the same horizontal area. The model solves for the heat and carbon exchange between these layers, including physical and chemical transfers, however ignoring biological transfers, and sediment and weathering interactions. The model is forced from an equilibrium by carbon emitted into the atmosphere with a constant rate of 20 PgC/year for 100 years and integrated for 1,000 years. Ocean ventilation is represented by the ocean interior taking up the heat and carbon properties of the mixed layer on an e-folding time scale of 200 years. These datasets were generated as part of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Discovery Science project “Mechanistic controls of surface warming by ocean heat and carbon uptake” standard grant reference NE/N009789/1 lead by Principal Investigator - Professor Ric Williams, University of Liverpool and Co-Investigator - Dr Philip Goodwin, University of Southampton. Data are acrvhived at the British Oceanographic Data Centre.

  • The dataset contains physical, biogeochemical and biological data, including measurements of water temperature, salinity, fluorescence, dissolved gases and current velocities; plankton samples from nets and plankton recorders; water samples for analysis of nutrients, phytoplankton, radioactivity and biogeochemical parameters; benthic cores; meteorological time series (pressure, temperature, humidity, wind velocities); atmospheric samples and ocean-atmosphere fluxes; and results from incubation experiments. The data were collected north of the Crozet Plateau in the Southern Ocean/Southwest Indian Ocean on RRS Discovery cruises D285 (3rd November - 10th December 2004) and D286 (13th December 2004 - 21st January 2005). Much of the data collection focussed on a series of Major Stations (called M1 to M10), with measurements being collected at these stations every two or three days. Conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) casts were undertaken at each station, providing both hydrographic data and water samples from a range of depths. Other work at each Major Station included zooplankton nets, Longhurst-Hardy Plankton Recorder (LHPR) tows, sediment coring and Argo float deployment. In between Major Stations some additional CTD casts were undertaken. The SeaSoar oceanographic undulator provided further hydrographic data, while hull-mounted acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) provided current velocity data across the survey area. In addition, continuous underway measurements of hydrographic and meteorological parameters and surface water samples were collected along the cruise track. Five moorings were deployed, one of which was recovered at the end of D286. The other four, including sediment traps, current profilers and CTDs were deployed for one year. CROZEX (CROZet circulation, iron fertilization and Export production experiment) is a complex, multidisciplinary project to examine, from surface to sediment, the structure, causes and consequences of a naturally occurring annual phytoplankton bloom that forms. This collaborative project involved researchers in Ireland and the UK, and was administered by the National Oceanography Centre (NOC), Southampton. Data are managed by the British Oceanographic Data Centre. Much of the CROZEX data processing is ongoing and a number of datasets have yet to be submitted to BODC. The data described here are those presently held by BODC, with the exception of the Argo floats (these data are not expected by BODC and should be accessible via the Argo website) and the four year-long mooring deployments (data from these will be submitted to BODC in the future).

  • The UK Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (UK SOLAS) marine fieldwork data set comprises all data, marine or otherwise, collected during sea-going activities. The fieldwork included eight dedicated research cruises in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, spanning the period 2006-2008. These cross-disciplinary missions resulted in a diverse data catalogue. This includes meteorology (3-D wind speed and direction, total irradiance, Photosynthetically Active Radiation/PAR, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, aerosol optical thickness); atmospheric composition (carbon dioxide concentration, aerosol particle counts and size spectra, chemical analyses of aerosol particle composition, cloud condensation nuclei/CCN, concentrations of pollutants such as black carbon, concentrations of free radical species such as iodine monoxide and nitrate radicals); chemical and energy-fluxes across the air-sea boundary (dust deposition rates, oxygen and nitrogen fluxes, carbon dioxide fluxes, sensible heat fluxes, latent heat fluxes, momentum fluxes); biological, chemical and physical properties and processes in the sea surface micro-layer (chlorophyll concentration, bacterial production, phytoplankton and bacterial speciation, concentrations of biogenic trace compounds such as halocarbons, nitrous oxide, dimethyl sulphide/DMS and alcohols, surfactant concentrations, halogen concentrations such as iodine, iodide and iodate); biological, chemical and photochemical properties and processes in the ocean subsurface (primary productivity, trace gas production, plankton community composition, nutrient concentration, concentrations of trace metals such as iron, aluminium, manganese, magnesium and cobalt, ligand and complex metal chemistry parameters such as heme, dust dissolution, salinity, temperature, amino acids and urea, carbonate system chemistry including alkalinity); and sea-state physics (breaking waves, wave slope, whitecaps, bubble size spectra, aerosol formation, subsurface acoustics). Additionally, time series of air-sea fluxes were measured from the Norwegian weather ship, Polarfront, between 2006 and 2009. UK SOLAS scientists also participated in the Bergen Mesocosm experiment during 2008. This simulated gas exchanges and biological, chemical and photochemical properties and processes in the sea surface micro-layer under controlled conditions. The study united atmospheric and marine scientists from institutions across the UK and international collaborators. The UK SOLAS data set was intended to advance understanding of the mutual interactions between the atmosphere and the oceans, especially the chemical exchanges that affect ocean productivity, atmospheric composition and climate. It was funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council, as the UK's contribution to the international Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS). The data are held at the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) and have been incorporated into the National Oceanographic Database (NODB). Data collected from non-ship based activities, for example land-based atmospheric data and data resulting from campaigns using the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) aircraft are held at the British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC).

  • The data set comprises a diverse collection of physical, chemical and biological measurements, encompassing over 1000 parameters. There are data from over 1650 conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD)/rosette stations, over 300 core profiles, over 370 sediment trap samples and much, much more. Most of this effort was directed at the region of the east Atlantic margin between La Chapelle Bank and the Goban Spur (between France and Ireland). In addition, there were two secondary areas of interest: the Norwegian Shelf Break just off Tromso and the Iberian Margin, either off Vigo or in the vicinity of the Tagus estuary. Measurements were collected from April 1993 until the end of December 1995 during 55 research cruise legs. Data were collected using a variety of equipment and techniques, including expendable bathythermography (XBTs), CTDs and oceanographic undulators with auxiliary sensors. These hydrographic profiles were accompanied by net hauls, plankton recorder deployments, sediment cores and comprehensive water and air sampling programmes during which a wide variety of chemical and biological parameters were measured. The station data were supplemented by underway measurements of oceanographic and meteorological properties. Results from production and trace metal experiments are also included in the dataset, as are bathymetric data from the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) GEBCO digital Atlas, air-sea flux measurements and data from moored instruments and benthic landers that were deployed for periods from a few weeks to a year. The dataset also includes imagery from satellites, water column and seabed photography, scanning electron micrographs and X-ray photographs. FORTRAN source code for biogeochemical models developed during OMEX I is also included. The aim of the project was to study biogeochemical processes at the shelf break and to quantify the fluxes of material between the shelf and the open ocean. OMEX I involved scientists from 30 institutions in 10 countries. BODC is assembling the data sets collected during OMEX I into its database system and the data are also available on CD-ROM.