Optical backscatter

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  • The Marine Autonomous Systems in Support of Marine Observations (MASSMO) campaign 4 dataset includes data collected by 8 submarine gliders, 2 wavegliders and one autonomous surface vehicle. The dataset comprises recovery version data. i.e. the data downloaded from a vehicle at the end of its mission. The data obtained from gliders operated by the University of East Anglia (UEA) is fully quality controlled. No quality control procedures have been applied to the data obtained from all other autonomous vehicles. Parameters observed include, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, optical backscatter, oxygen, acoustic noise and video data. The dataset was collected within the UK sector of the Faroe-Shetland Channel, focussing on the outer shelf and upper shelf. The work area had a bounding box of 58-62 degrees north and 2-9 degrees west. The MASSMO 4 campaign was run between 1st June 2017 until 7th June 2017 while platforms were deployed they were collecting data continuously. The dataset was collected using a mixture of three autonomous surface vehicles and eight submarine gliders. Glider sensor suites included CTD, bio-optics, oxygen optodes, and passive acoustic sensors. Additionally the surface vehicles were equipped with meteorological sensors and cameras. The campaign comprised a range of oceanographic data collection, but had a particular focus on passive acoustic monitoring of marine mammals and oceanographic features, and included development of near-real-time data delivery to operational data users. MASSMO 4 was co-ordinated by the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) in partnership with University of East Anglia (UEA), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) and Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS). The mission was sponsored by Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) and involved close co-operation with the NATO Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE) and UK Royal Navy, and was supported by several additional commercial, government and research partners.

  • The MASSMO 5 dataset includes the near real time transmitted EGO (Everyone’s Gliding Observatories) NetCDF versions of glider data collected by five submarine gliders across three deployment campaigns. Recovery versions of data downloaded from the all gliders with no quality assurance are also available on request. Glider sensor suites included CTD, bio-optics, and oxygen optodes. Parameters observed include, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, optical backscatter, and oxygen data. The MASSMO 5a mission focused on the period 23 Jun 2018 to 06 Jul 2018 and included three submarine glider deployments (UK glider deployments only are included in this dataset). All assets were deployed from NRV Alliance in partnership with NATO-CMRE, but were recovered prematurely due to vessel technical issues. The primary geographic focus of MASSMO 5 was the outer shelf and upper slope off northern Norway, in the region between Bear Island and southern Spitsbergen, but outside the 12 mile territorial limits of these islands. The MASSMO 5b mission occurred within the period 17-24 Oct 2018, a total of three ocean gliders were deployed. The primary geographic focus of MASSMO5b was the northern North Sea to the east of the Orkney archipelago. The MASSMO 5c mission was aborted and no data were collected. The MASSMO 5d mission occurred within period 26 Apr 2019 to 6 May 2019, there was deployment of a single ocean glider. The primary geographic focus of MASSMO 5d was the Faroe Shetland Channel. MASSMO 5 was co-ordinated by the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) in partnership with University of East Anglia (UEA), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) and Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS). The mission was sponsored by Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) and involved close co-operation with the NATO Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE) and UK Royal Navy, and was supported by several additional commercial, government and research partners.

  • A dataset collected by investigators of the University of East Anglia during January - February 2020 in the tropical North Atlantic. Gliders SG620 and SG637 were deployed from the RV Meteor during cruise M161 as part of the EUREC4A oberservational campaign. Glider SG579 was deployed by the autonomous surface vehicle Caravela. All gliders were recovered by the Meteor. SG620 and SG637 occupied a bowtie pattern 10 km across centered at 14'10''N 57'20''W. The two gliders were deployed with CT sails measuring conductivity and temperature and completed 131 and 155 dives respectively. SG579 was deployed at 13'21''N 58'50''W and travelled 200 km to the bowtie over 10 days conducting 75 dives. Once onsite, SG579 conducted a further 220 dives. In addition to a CT sail, SG579 carried a PAR sensor and Wetlabs sensor measuring backscatter, chlorophyll a and CDOM. Data were processed using the UEA Seaglider Toolbox.

  • This dataset consists of observations from two autonomous underwater gliders deployed by the University of East Anglia, UK and Sultan Qaboos University, Oman. The two Seagliders, Humpback serial number SG579 and Orca serial number SG510, collected data to investigate physical-biological interactions in the water column. The gliders were deployed in the Gulf of Oman approximately 10 km from Muscat, at the 120 m isobath. Both gliders repeatedly surveyed a 76 km section across the shelf, continental slope and open ocean between 24°15’ N, 59° E and 23°39.5’ N, 58°39’ E. Humpback, SG579 obtained 1,424 vertical profiles over a 91 day period (4 March 2015 to 3 June 2015), repeating the section 24 times. Orca, SG510 obtained 1,646 vertical profiles over a 109 day period (9 December 2015 to 27 March 2016), repeating the section 28 times. The glider data were processed using the UEA Seaglider Toolbox and standard techniques were used for calibration of the data. The data are held at BODC as a series of netCDF, .eng and .log files alongside a .mat file containing all processed data.

  • This dataset consists of 50 CTD casts and 330 salinity samples from 44 CTD stations collected aboard RRS James Cook cruise JC011, which ran between Southampton and Fairlie from the 13th of July 2007 to the 18 of August 2007. Data were collected using a ship-deployed stainless steel CTD frame mounted with the following equipment: • Sea-Bird 9/11 plus CTD System with dual TC pairs • 24 by 10L Ocean Test Equipment External Spring Water Samplers • Sea-Bird 43 Oxygen Sensor • Chelsea MKIII Aquatracka Fluorometer • Chelsea MKII Alphatracka 25cm path Transmissometer • OED LADCP Pressure Case Battery Pack • RD Instruments Workhorse 300 KHz Lowered ADCP (downward-looking master configuration) • RD Instruments Workhorse 300 KHz Lowered ADCP (upward-looking slave configuration) • Benthos Altimeter • Wetlabs BBRTD backscatter sensor This cruise formed part of the fieldwork component of NERC Discovery Science project ‘Ecosystems of the Mid-Atlantic Ride - ECOMAR’, the UK component of ‘MAR-ECO A field project of the Census of Marine life’. The main objectives of the project are to: • To describe the physical flow regimes, both at the surface and the seafloor, across four sites located to either side of the sub-polar front, with reference to their specific role in mixing mutrients and influencing the down-ward transport of organic carbon. • By remote sensing, produce regional estimates of surface promary production and liekly export flux over the study area. - Measure the export flux of organic matter to the seafloor using sediment trap moorings located at each of the four study sites. • Compare the distribution and abundance of pelagic biomass in relation to the position of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at either side of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone and to the accompanying varying regimes of primary production encountered either side of the Sub-Polar Front. • Measure benthic biodiversity and biomass comparing species composition with similar depths at East and West Atlantic margins using traps, suspended camera systems, landers and targeted ROV-based survey and sampling. • Assess the possible boundaries to gene flow at the MAR and Sub-Polar Front and genetic population structure of target species in comparison with the East and West Atlantic margins. Representative vertebrate and invertebrate species with different life histories will be compared to test hypotheses about the relationship between MAR ecology, physical oceanographic factors and genetic dispersal. The Discovery Science project was led by NERC grant reference NE/C512961/1 with principal investigator Professor Imants George Priede of University of Aberdeen, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences. Grants held within this were NE/C51300X/1, NE/C512988/1, NE/C512996/1, NE/C513018/1 and NE/C51297X/1 with a collective funding period from 01 October 2006 to 30 September 2012. The CTD and CTD sample data have been received by BODC as raw files from the RRS James Cook, processed and quality controlled using in-house BODC procedures and are available to download from the BODC website.

  • This collection comprises physical measurements of the water column and surface waters, together with supporting discrete chemical and biological datasets. The data were obtained from the Irish Sea and in the sea off western Scotland over 4 periods: 17 and 23 August 2011 and 06 - 07 March 2012, all collected on Seiont IV cruises and 15 - 22 June 2012 obtained using the RV Prince Madog. These datasets and their collection methods are as follows: 1) LISST particle size data - A LISST 100X type C laser diffraction instrument was lowered in a frame from the ship and the depth-averaged volumes of particles in 32 size classes in a water column from the surface to a depth of 10 m (or the bottom, where shallower) were measured. 2) CTD profiles of conductivity, temperature, sigma-theta and salinity. At each station, a CTD with attached rosette was lowered, with data measurements taken. 3) SPM, mineral SPM, chlorophyll and CDOM water sample data. At each station a surface water sample was collected either in a bucket or in a rosette sampler on the CTD and triplicate sub-samples were filtered and subsequently dried and weighed, baked (at 500°C for 3 hours to remove organic material) and weighed again. 4) CDOM discrete samples taken from CTD and underway. Surface water samples collected at each station were filtered through 0.2 μm filters and the spectral variation of the absorption coefficient of the dissolved material in the filtrate was measured in a 10 cm cell in a Shimadzu 1600 dual-beam spectrophotometer, using distilled water as a reference.. 5) Water column inherent optical property profiles. Measurements of beam attenuation were made using a Sea Tech T1000 transmissometer (20cm pathlength) fixed to the CTD on the RV Prince Madog. At some stations, vertical profiles of downwelling irradiance and upwelling radiance were made with a PRR radiometer. These cruises formed the fieldwork component of the NERC-funded project “Measurement of the abundance and optical significance of sub-micron sized particles in the ocean”. The project aimed to use different magnifications and commercially available in-situ particle sizing instruments to create a package of instruments for measuring the undisturbed particle size distributions from 0.2 μm to 1 mm. This package will first be used in a turbulence tank to 'film' the flocculation process. The insight this gives will be used to construct new theoretical models of the particle size distribution. Because the camera also measures the shape of the particles, differences between observed and calculated optical properties can be compared, for the first time, to particle shape. Finally, the complete dataset will be collated to determine what size particles, under what conditions, are primarily responsible for the signals seen in visible band satellite images of the oceans. The NERC-funded project was held under lead grant reference NE/H022090/1 with child grants NE/H020853/1 and NE/H021493/1. The lead grant was held at Bangor University, School of Ocean Sciences by Professor David Bowers and ran from 01 April 2011 to 31 March 2014. Grant NE/H020853/1 was held at the University of Plymouth, School of Marine Science and Engineering by Dr. William Alexander Nimmo Smith and ran from 01 October 2010 to 30 September 2013. Finally, grant NE/H021493/1 was held at the University of Strathclyde Physics Department by Dr. David McKee and ran from 01 April 2011 to 31 March 2014. All data have been received by BODC as raw files from the RV Prince Madog and Seiont IV, processed and quality controlled using in-house BODC procedures.

  • This dataset consists of near real-time ocean observations from an autonomous underwater glider, sampling at the Joint North Sea Information System (JONSIS) hydrographic section (2.23°W to 0° at 59.28°N) between 12th October and 2nd December 2013. The measurements were made by a Seaglider (serial number 502) and consist of full-depth temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll and optical backscatter observations. Dive-average current observations were also collected. This dataset contains standard raw NetCDF (.nc), engineering (.eng) and log (.log) files captured using Seaglider base station version V2.05. The glider deployment was a collaborative effort between the University of East Anglia (UEA) and Marine Scotland Science. Deployment took place from Research Ship MRV Scotia, whilst recovery utilised MPV Jura. The JONSIS repeat section crosses the path of the Fair Isle Current and the East Shetland Atlantic Inflows, key routes by which Atlantic water enters the northern North Sea.

  • Five ocean gliders were deployed during cruise SSD-024 as part of the Bay of Bengal Boundary Layer Experiment (BoBBLE), a collaborative project between India and the UK, funded jointly by Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Government of India, and Natural Environmental Research Council, UK, through the “Drivers of Variability in the South Asian Monsoon” programme. The major objective of this project is to understand the east-west contrast in the upper layer characteristics of the southern Bay of Bengal and its interaction with the summer monsoon. The major observational objectives of SSD-024 were to profile the hydrography along 8°N in international waters and to carry out a 10-day time series at 8°N, 89°E. 14 scientists from India and 8 from the UK made up the scientific contingent of SSD-024. Five Seagliders were successfully deployed in the southern Bay of Bengal from ORV Sindhu Sadhana during the BoBBLE cruise. These autonomous underwater vehicles fly in a continuous repeating sawtooth pattern from the surface down to a maximum depth of 1000 m. They are all equipped with conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensors. Additional sensors include dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence and backscatter, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and microstructure sensors. Three Seagliders (including one microstructure enabled glider) are from the University of East Anglia (UEA), UK glider facility. The remaining two Seagliders are from the Marine Autonomous Robotics Systems (MARS) national UK facility. All five Seagliders were deployed and piloted by UEA and associated personnel.

  • This dataset contains a variety of oceanographic and atmospheric measurements including time series of temperature, salinity, current speed and direction and discrete samples of salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotope and trace gas concentrations of the water column. It also includes atmospheric measurements including temperature, humidity and wind speed and direction. The data were collected in the Amundsen Sea region of the Antarctic between 2012 and 2017. The majority of the data were collected during RRS James Clark Ross cruise JR20140126 from January to March 2014. Moorings were deployed in 2012 and redeployed in 2014, most collected data until 2016. Measurements were taken using a variety of instrumentation, including conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profilers with attached auxiliary sensors, acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs), Radiosondes and Microstructure profilers (MVP). Discrete water samples were also taken and analysed for salinity, dissolved oxygen and oxygen isotope concentration and trace gas concentrations. Measurements were also taken by CTD profilers, current meters and ADCPs deployed on moorings and by CTDs deployed on tags on seals. The project was designed to discover how and why warm ocean water gets close to the ice shelf in Antarctica (and in particular the Amundsen Sea) and is part of the wider iSTAR programme. The principal investigator for this project is Professor Karen Heywood, University of East Anglia and the project was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council. Data from the project are held at the British Oceanographic Data Centre. BODC do not expect to receive data from the Moving Vessel Profiler (MVP) deployed by the project. The originator has identified data quality issues with these datasets and has indicated that they won't be supplied. We expect to receive all other data collected by the project. The Korean Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) collected CTD and Lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiles (LADCP) data in 2012 (cruise ANA02C- report accessible via and 2016 (cruise ANA06B- report not yet available).

  • This dataset consists of measurements of conductivity, temperature, depth, fluorescence, optical backscatter, oxygen, turbulence microstructure collected from gliders, as well as temperature depth measurements from moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler and turbulence microstructure measurements from microstructure profilers. The ADCP was moored to a depth of 476m in Ryder Bay, West Antarctic Peninsula, between 01 March 2016 and 12 December 2016. The mooring was deployed on R/V Lawrence M Gould cruise LMG16-01 and recovered on RRS James Clark Ross cruise JR16003. NOC and BAS Gliders were deployed during the 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 Antarctic field seasons and MSS Microstructure profilers were deployed between February and August 2016 from Rothera, within the Ryder Bay area. This cruise formed the field component of NERC Discovery Science project ‘What controls the influx and mixing of warm waters onto the polar ocean shelves?’ The main objectives of the project are: 1. To quantify, describe and understand the spatial and time-varying patterns of lateral and vertical mixing on the West Antarctic Peninsula shelf. 2. To resolve the dominant mechanisms driving lateral and vertical heat fluxes, with a specific focus on understanding how and where heat from the deep ocean waters is transferred to the upper ocean. 3. To understand the role of key shelf-edge processes in controlling these phenomena, in particular by understanding and quantifying the importance of these processes in causing intrusions of warm, saline deep-ocean waters onto polar shelves. To deliver on these objectives, the project used data from both traditional and novel oceanographic platforms, with the aim of describing how warm waters move from shelf edges to coasts, where land-based melting of ice can occur. Discovery Science Research Fellowship grant NE/L011166/1 was led by Dr James Alexander Brearley at the National Environmental Research Council (NERC), British Antarctic Survey (BAS), Science Programmes. Funding runs from 09 June 2014 to 08 June 2019. Glider, moored ADCP and MSS microstructure profiler data have been received by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC).