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Salinity of the water column

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  • A novel temperature dataset for northern high latitude Seas (ATLAS) is a dataset of three-dimensional temperature derived from combining quality controlled Argo float measurements with marine mammal mounted Satellite Relay Data Loggers (SRDLs) profiles. Using data values gathered from across the North Atlantic region, a 1×1 degree gridded temperature dataset of the average monthly values from January 2004 to December 2008, with 15 vertical layers between 0–700 m was produced. Built as complementary to existing ship-based fields, the ATLAS dataset is a community resource to help determine the impacts of climate change on the Labrador and Nordic Seas regions. The data were collated by the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) and are made available from the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC).

  • Sea surface temperature and salinity data have been collected around British coastal waters and in the North Atlantic between 1963 and 1990. The data were collected by ships regularly plying routes between ports in the British Isles and the Continent, and along routes to the North Atlantic Ocean Weather Stations (OWS). Thirty individual shipping routes have been involved, approximately weekly measurements being taken at intervals ranging from 10 to 50 miles depending on the route. The following list details shipping routes and dates of data collection: Bristol - Finistere (Jan 1963 - Nov 1968); Clyde - OWS Alpha (May 1963 - Feb 1974); Clyde - OWS India (Jan 1963 - Jul 1975); Clyde - OWS Juliet (Jan 1963 - Jul 1975); Clyde - OWS Kilo (Mar 1963 - Dec 1972); Clyde - OWS Lima (Mar 1963 - May 1965, Jul 1975 - Dec 1990); Felixstowe - Rotterdam (Aug 1970 - Dec 1990); Fishguard - Cork (Jan 1963 - Oct 1968); Fishguard - Waterford (Jan 1963 - Dec 1966); Folkstone - Boulogne (Jan 1963 - Aug 1966); Heysham - Belfast (Feb 1965 - May 1977); Holyhead - Kish (Jan 1963 - Feb 1966); Hull - Kristiansand (Jan 1963 - May 1976); Larne - Stranraer (Jan 1963 - Feb 1966, Jan 1971 - Dec 1986); Leith - Bremen (Jan 1963 - Apr 1972); Leith - Copenhagen (Jan 1963 - Mar 1968); Liverpool - Belfast (Dec 1970 - Nov 1978); Liverpool - Douglas (Mar 1965 - Nov 1968); Liverpool - Dublin (Mar 1965 - Aug 1979); Liverpool - Larne (Jan 1987 - Dec 1988); Newhaven - Dieppe (Apr 1963 - Feb 1990); Scilly - Shamrock (May 1967 - Mar 1974); Southampton - Le Havre (Jan 1963 - May 1964); Southampton - St. Malo (May 1963 - Sep 1964); Swansea - Cork (May 1970 - Mar 1979); Weymouth - Channel Islands (Nov 1970 - Nov 1985); Weymouth - Cherbourg (Apr 1986 - Sep 1986); Whitehaven - Anglesey (Feb 1965 - Jan 1969). These observations provide useful information on the seasonal and short-term variability of temperature off-shore, and may enhance our knowledge regarding extreme values. The data were collected on behalf of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft Fisheries Laboratory and are stored at the British Oceanographic Data Centre.

  • The data set comprises temperature and salinity hydrocasts collected across the North Atlantic Ocean between 1910 and 1990. The measurements were collected by nine North Atlantic Ocean Weather Ships (OWS): OWS Alpha (1954 – 1974); OWS Bravo (1928 – 1974); OWS Charlie (1910 – 1982); OWS Echo (1910 – 1979); OWS India (1957 – 1975); OWS Juliet (1950 – 1975); OWS Kilo (1949 – 1973); OWS Lima (1948 – 1990); OWS Mike (1948 – 1982). This data set also includes measurements collected close to the general positions prior to the stationing of the Weather ships for the OWS Bravo, Charlie and Echo stations. Data from OWS Alpha, Bravo, Echo, India, Juliett and Kilo have been taken from the US National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) compilations whereas those from OWS Charlie, Lima and Mike have been constructed from both the US NODC and International Council for the Exploration of the Seas (ICES) data holdings. In addition a daily averaged data set for OWS Charlie is available for the period 1975 - 1985 (supplied by Syd Levitus). This data set was supplied to the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) by ICES. Additional files and more recent data can be acquired from the ICES website.

  • This dataset is comprised of CTD temperature, salinity and potential temperature collected using seal tags. Data were collected as part of the NERC-funded project 'Ocean processes over the southern Weddell Sea shelf using seal tags'. Data were not collected as part of a cruise as seals were used as data activity platforms. 20 Weddell seals were tagged at the eastern end of the shelf-break north of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf between 11 February 2011 and 03 May 2011. The aims of the project were: 1. The resulting data from the seals’ dives will provide the most comprehensive picture to date of the ocean conditions over the southern Weddell Sea continental shelf. 2. By mapping the temperature of the water near the sea floor it will be possible to determine the locations where dense waters leave the shelf, and the processes involved: either a direct flow down the slope under gravity, or initially mixing at the shelf edge with waters from off the shelf before descending down the slope. 3. To determine where the source waters come onto the shelf. 4. Though the research was primarily oceanographic, the movements and diving behaviour provide insight to seal biologists studying the animals' beahviour. Data were collected as part of NERC standard grants NE/G014086/1 and NE/G014833/1. NE/G014086/1 was the lead grant and was led by Dr Keith William Nicholls of NERC British Antarctic Survey, Science Programmes and runs from 01 April 2010 to 31 December 2018. The secondary grant, NE/G014833/1, was led by Professor Michael Fedak of University of St Andrews, Sea Mammal Research Unit and runs from 01 October 2010 to 28 February 2014. The seal tag CTD data have been received by BODC and are currently available in original format upon request.

  • This dataset contains Radium (Ra) and Iron (Fe) concentrations along with supporting oceanographic measurements such as temperature and salinity of the water column. Data are from glacial melt waters around the West Antarctic Peninsula and Greenland as well as from the open southern ocean and at hydrothermal vents along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The data were collected for the Radium in Changing Environments: A Novel Tracer of Iron Fluxes at Ocean Margins (RaCE:TraX) project. The RaCE:TraX project is running between June 2017 and June 2022 and uses measurements of Radium (Ra) and Iron (Fe) along with knowledge of the half-life of Ra to predict supply and removal rates of Fe in the marine environment. The results hope to answer the questions 1) how much Fe comes from continental shelf sediments, 2) how much Fe is supplied by glacial meltwater, and 3) how rapidly is Fe scavenged from the metal-rich fluids at hydrothermal vents? Addressing these key gaps in the understanding of the marine Fe cycle will help determine how sensitive marine systems are to current Fe supply, as well as predict the impacts of changes in Fe supply on phytoplankton health, the biological pump, and global climate. The project is led by the University of Southampton School of Ocean and Earth Science and is a collaboration with the University of Bristol. The project received funding from the Natural Environmental Research Council (NERC, grant reference number: NE/P017630/1).

  • The dataset consists of temperature, salinity and sea surface height data generated from a 40 year run of the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Ocean Modelling System (POLCOMS) numerical model. The dataset consists of 41 data files in Climate and Forecast (CF) compliant NetCDF format. The data are supplied as a gridded dataset covering the entire northwest European continental shelf and extending out into the Atlantic Ocean. The grid resolution varies from 7.8 km to 14.2 km along the longitudinal axis and is at 12.3 km on the latitudinal axis. The model contains 40 depth layers. The model run was from 01 January 1964 to 31 December 2004 and the generated data were averaged over a 25 hour tidal cycle to create daily mean values. The data were generated from the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Ocean Modelling System (POLCOMS) numerical model. The model simulations were run on the HECTOR supercomputer managed by the University of Edinburgh. The dataset was generated to look at multi-decadal variability and trends in temperature of the northwest European continental shelf. The data were generated by the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) Liverpool as part of Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) National Capability (NC) funding.

  • The UK Argo programme data set comprises measurements of ocean temperature and salinity and provides information of surface and subsurface Lagrangian (measuring movement by tracing the path of a passively drifting object) displacement enabling the derivation of currents. The data set includes a mixture of near-real-time (quality controlled to operational ocean forecasting standards) and delayed mode (quality controlled to climate research standards) data collected by profiling floats. The UK floats from part of a global array throughout the world oceans. Real-time data are available within 24 hours of the float surfacing while delayed mode data become available within 12 months of the profile date. Floats drift at their parking depth (between 1000m and 2025m) for 5 or 10 days depending on float programming. Traditionally floats measured temperature and conductivity at regular intervals during their rise to the surface. In October 2007, the Argo programme achieved its goal to have (and maintain) more than 3000 active floats. As of 2012, some newly deployed floats are being programmed to collect data whilst drifting at their parking depth and during their ascent and additional oceanographic parameters, for example fluorescence, optical backscatter, and dissolved oxygen are being trialled for inclusion in the data set. The data has a variety of uses including assimilation into operational weather forecasts in near-real-time to climate research with the delayed mode data. The data set also includes Argo floats deployed by Mauritius, Saudi Arabia (one float in the Red Sea) Ireland and Portugal, as the British Oceanographic Data Centre manages the data from these floats in addition to those of the UK Argo programme.

  • The fundamental dataset consists of full water column temperature and salinity profiles, with discrete inorganic nutrient data added later on. Between 1975 and January 1996 there were usually multiple occupations, in a single year, of a section between the Scottish shelf and the Rockall Channel. Many of these occupations targeted only a selection of the 35 stations collectively recognised as the Ellett Line. Over the years various names were used to describe the hydrographic section (or components of it): The Rockall Section, The Anton Dohrn Seamount Section, The Shelf-Edge-Sound of Mull Section. These are collectively termed the Ellett Line, after the scientist David Ellett, who coordinated much of this early work. The Extended Ellett Line consisted of 58 identified stations between the North West coast of Scotland and Iceland, crossing the Scottish shelf, Rockall Channel and Iceland Basin. The Extended Ellett Line was occupied at least annually from 1996 to 2018. The water column profiles were collected using STDs/CTDs at recognised fixed stations along the section. The discrete inorganic nutrient data were obtained from water bottles fired at multiple depths on each profile, although these data are absent (or more limited) in the earlier stages of the time series. In 2018, the Extended Ellett Line became the Ellett Array. The Ellett Array consists of moorings, gliders and CTD sections in the Rockall Trough and Hatton-Rockall Basin. The overall Ellett Line/Extended Ellett Line/Ellett Array dataset is recognised as a key oceanographic time series. Several important water masses are captured within it – water masses that help drive ocean thermohaline circulation and consequently regulate climate on a global scale. The multi-decadal nature of the dataset provides a rare opportunity for scientists to monitor changing ocean circulation patterns. Ellett Line occupations were first carried out by the Scottish Marine Biological Association (SMBA), now the Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS). From 1996 there was a move to joint maintenance, with Southampton Oceanography Centre (SOC), now the National Oceanography Centre (NOC), sharing the responsibility with SAMS. Data collection as part of the Ellett Array is an ongoing activity. Some of the data are subject to a two-year embargo upon generation, after which they become available as part of this growing unrestricted data collection.

  • This dataset contains a variety of hydrographic measurements including temperature, salinity, sound velocity, current speed/ direction and seismic data. Hydrographic profilers provided measurements of temperature, salinity, sound velocity and density. Four mooring stations were also installed as part of this project, with three minilogger chains providing temperature data and four moored ADCPs measuring current veloicty. The project ran from February 2006 to September 2009, however all of the data were collected between 17 April 2007 and 14 May 2007 during two cruises which took place in the Gulf of Cadiz. The research was conducted using two research vessels, the RRS Discovery (cruise D318) and the RV Poseidon (cruise PO350). The RRS Discovery cruise D318 was split into two legs, D318a, which took place between 17 April 2007 and 23 April 2007 and D318b, which took place between 29 April 2007 and 14 May 2007. For the second leg of cruise D318, the RRS Discovery was joined by the RV Poseidon. Hydrographic measurements were taken using a variety of instruments, including expendable bathythermographs (XBT), expendable CTDs (XCTD), conductivity-temperature depth (CTD) profilers, acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCP) and VEMCO minilogger chains. Airguns and streamers were used in the recording of the seismic data. The main objectives of the Geophysical Oceanography (GO) project were A) To evaluate and improve new research methods in the developing field of seismic oceanography by exploiting the opportunity of two-ship operations between RSS Discovery and RV Poseidon and B) To study the internal wave field and mixing processes in the Gulf of Cadiz and demonstrate quantitative links between seismic and oceanographic measurements. The cruise was coordinated by Durham Univerity and funded under an EU grant as part of the Framework 6 NEST programme. Eight scientific institutions were involved in the project. These were: the University of Durham, the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (POL), the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (IFM-GEOMAR), the French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea (IFREMER), the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, the Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the University of Western Brittany and the University of Lisbon. Data from the programme are held at the British Oceanographic Data Centre.

  • This multi-decadal time series initially contains water current and temperature data from a single, near bottom instrument. A second, shallower instrument recording the same parameters was subsequently added after several years of successful operation. Conductivity data are similarly integrated into the time series after a further period of operation. The data are typically at hourly resolution. The mooring is situated in the Tiree Passage, between the Isles of Mull and Coll, off the west coast of Scotland. The specific site chosen was where the passage is at its narrowest (10 km), mid-way between the coasts of the two Isles. The mooring site is in water depths of approximately 45 m. Mooring activity began in June 1981 and consisted of a single RCM current meter placed 11 m above the seabed. The mooring design was modified to incorporate a second RCM current meter at 22 m above the seabed from November 1987. Aanderaa conductivity sensors were added at the two depths in 1993, with MicroCAT conductivity sensors being incorporated in 2002. There are some gaps in the record, most noticeably between January 2000 and May 2002, a period when the observations were temporarily suspended. Fishing damage has generated smaller gaps in the data set over the years. This region was chosen as a site for long term monitoring after radiocaesium studies showed that the major part of the water carried northwards from the North Channel in the Scottish coastal current passes between Mull and Coll. The mooring provides data for comparison with tracer studies and for an examination of the roles of wind forcing and buoyancy contributions to the coastal current. Tiree Passage mooring work is led by Colin Griffiths at the Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS).