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  • Data generated at UCL on a conventional triaxial apparatus used to deform three different sandstones at room temperature and 150 °C. The data includes the raw mechanical data (time, load, displacement, pore pressure, pore pressure volume and confining pressure) and the meaningful processed data used to plot figures and draw main conclusions (stress, strain, pore volume change, effective mean stress, inelastic strain, yield points and Youngs modulus). The three sandstones used were Bleursville, Locharbriggs and Boise Sandstone, and are denoted by data files SS, L and MBO respectively. This dataset is used in the paper: M. Jefferd, N. Brantut, P.G. Meredith and T.M. Mitchell, Compactive Deformation of Sandstone under Crustal Pressure and Temperature Conditionsserpentinite, submitted to J. Geophys. Res. And in the UCL PhD Thesis M.Jefferd, Sandstone under Crustal Pressure and Temperature

  • Microbial DNA concentrations from DNA extraction using Qiagen PowerSoil Pro DNA Extraction kit and subsequent Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) from core samples collected and preserved for microbiology (SSK105556 and SSK105560) from UKGEOS Glasgow Observatory, borehole GGC01. DNA extractions and subsequent amplification using PCR indicate levels of microbial DNA below detection limits. NERC grant SHAPE-UK NE/R018006/1.

  • Loan IDA number IDA271576. Microbial DNA concentrations from DNA extraction using Qiagen PowerSoil Pro DNA Extraction kit and subsequent PCR from shale and sandstone core samples collected and preserved for microbiology (shale SSK111456 and sandstone SSK111457) from UKGEOS Glasgow Observatory, borehole GGC01. DNA extractions and subsequent amplification using PCR indicate levels of microbial DNA below detection limits. Samples and data are derived from the UK Geoenergy Observatories Programme funded by the UKRI Natural Environment Research Council and delivered by the British Geological Survey.

  • Field photographs of rock formations or modern precipitates from the sedimentary environment. Samples were collected throughout the UK. This data was collected between February 2019 and November 2019. This data was collected to better understand the low temperature cycling of Telurium (Te) and Sellenium (Se) in the geological environment. For example, a range of ochre samples were included in this data. Ochres are a modern precipitate commonly found in rivers and streams which flow through geographical areas with a history of mining resources which are rich in sulphides. Iron from the sulphides are leached out and deposited downstream, coating river and stream beds, giving a red, yellow or orange colouration. Ochres can be a sink for trace metals such as Te and Se, therefore studying these environments could be informative from a resource perspective but also from an environmental hazard perspective. This data would be useful for researchers who require reference photographs for similar studies or as an aid for resampling.

  • The dataset describes the results of high pressure experimental measurements of three contrasting 'tight' rocks; a Bowland Shale, a Haynesville shale and Pennant sandstone. The results are tabulated as a csv file, listing experimental parameters, confining pressure, argon gas pore pressure and permeability. complementary measurements of key petrophysical data are provided - bulk modulus of compressibility, porosity TOC and density.

  • Data recorded during hydrostatic pressurisation and triaxial rock deformation experiments of Westerly granite and Darley Dale sandstone. Data consists of mechanical data (load, displacement, confining pressure) and pore pressure data (up- and downstream pore pressure, upstream intensifier volume, four pore pressure transducers mounted on sample). Contains all data necessary to evaluate the results presented in the paper entitled: 'Fluid pressure heterogeneity during fluid flow in rocks: New laboratory measurement device and method' by Brantut and Aben, submitted to Geophysical Journal International, and available at arXiv (arXiv:2006.16699).

  • X-ray CT scan dataset of Darley Dale sandstone sample tts6. This sample was deformed in a true triaxial apparatus, and is fully described in the PhD thesis of Stuart (1992, UCL). The sample is a cube, measuring approximately 50 mm on a side. The sample experienced two sets of true triaxial deformation (test DDSS0009 and DDSS0010), with different applied stresses in the 1, 2 and 3 directions. This deformation produced distinct families of brittle microcracks, which were detected using acoustic emissions and seismic velocity analysis. This X-ray CT scan dataset was collected in 2019 at the University of Aberdeen by Dr Stewart Chalmers and Dr Dave Healy.

  • Porosity of core samples SSK111464 (sandstone) and SSK111465 (shale) calculated using backscatter electron SEM images of carbon coated thin sections processed in ImageJ Fiji software. 85 images of SSK111464 (sandstone) used and 74 images of SSK111465 (shale) at various magnifications. Core samples from UKGEOS Glasgow Observatory, borehole GGC01. Samples and data are derived from the UK Geoenergy Observatories Programme funded by the UKRI Natural Environment Research Council and delivered by the British Geological Survey.

  • This dataset shows both the micro-scale mechanisms and acoustic response involved in shear failure of a deforming porous rock. To our knowledge, this is the first such dataset to combine simultaneous acoustic measurements and x-ray tomography imaging. It comprises a time-series of 3D in-situ synchrotron x-ray microtomography (µCT) volumes showing a Clashach sandstone sample (CL10) undergoing triaxial deformation to failure under a constant acoustic emissions (AE) event rate. Use of a constant AE event rate slowed down the failure process after peak stress, enabling shear failure to be captured in unprecedented spatio-temporal detail by the µCT volumes. These volumes are accompanied by the local incremental 3D strain fields and simultaneously acquired waveforms from acoustic emissions and ultrasonic velocity surveys, as well as mechanical bulk stress and strain. These data are fully explained in Cartwright-Taylor et al. Seismic events miss important grain-scale mechanisms governed by kinematics during shear failure of porous rock, in review at Nature Communications. We also include an equivalent time-series of the same data types showing a second Clashach sandstone sample (CL04) undergoing triaxial deformation to failure, this time under a constant strain rate where failure happened abruptly, shortly after peak stress. Both collections were acquired in-situ on the beamline I12-JEEP at the Diamond Light Source, Didcot, UK, in September 2019. Each 3D µCT volume of the sample is contained in a .zip file labelled with the sequential scan number. Each volume comprises reconstructed 16-bit grey-scale data in a sequence of 2D image files (.tif), each numbered according to the depth at which it lies within the sample volume. The file dimensions are pixels, with an edge length of 7.91 µm. Two further .zip files contain the incremental 3D volumetric and deviatoric strain fields, obtained from digital volume correlation between neighbouring µCT volumes. Each strain field consists of a 32-bit 3D image file (.tif) in pixels with an edge length of 316.4 µm, labelled with its scan increment. Also included are (i) .csv files, containing the mechanical stress and strain time-series, the time and mechanical data at which each µCT volume was scanned, and the acoustic emissions event rate data, and (ii) .zip files containing times and waveforms for the acoustic emissions and ultrasonic velocity surveys as .ascii files. The .zip and .xlsx files are labelled with the sample name, the data type (grey-scale, strain-volumetric, strain-deviatoric, seismic, mechanical, mechCT, eventrateAE) and the sequential scan number (grey-scale only) according to the following convention: sample_datatype_scan#. We acknowledge Diamond Light Source for time on beamline I12-JEEP under proposal MG22517. This work is supported by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) through the CATFAIL project NE/R001693/1 Catastrophic failure: what controls precursory localisation in rocks?

  • EPSRC grant EP/L012227/1: Development of Unified Experimental and Theoretical Approach to Predict Reactive Transport in Subsurface Porous Media. The effect of pore-scale heterogeneity on non-Darcy flow behaviour is investigated by means of direct flow simulations on 3-D images of Bentheimer sandstone and Estaillades carbonate. The critical Reynolds number indicating the cessation of the creeping Darcy flow regime in Estaillades carbonate is two orders of magnitude smaller than in Bentheimer sandstone, and is three orders of magnitude smaller than in the beadpack. Also available at https://www.digitalrocksportal.org/projects/11, DOI:10.17612/P77P49. Further details can be found in Bagus P. Muljadi, Martin J. Blunt, Ali Q. Raeini, Branko Bijeljic. The impact of porous media heterogeneity on non-Darcy flow behaviour from pore-scale simulation. Advances in Water Resources. 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2015.05.019.