Sediment grain size parameters

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  • The Marine Ecosystems Research Programme (MERP) dataset consists of pelagic and benthic taxonomic data with supporting data such as sediment size and satellites ocean colour or productivity in UK waters (Celtic Sea, Irish Sea, North Sea and the English Channel). Data were obtained from cruises beginning in April 2014, using a variety of methods such as BONGO nets, trawls, dredges and grabs. These data were used alongside and in various models. MERP addresses key knowledge gaps in marine ecosystem research. The programme developed a more accurate suite of marine ecosystem models providing vital evidence, tools and advice to policy makers and environmental managers, including the development and implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), the Marine and Coastal Access Act, Marine (Scotland) Act, Common Fisheries Policy and the OSPAR Joint Assessment and Monitoring Programme as well as the work of UK government departments. MERP research supports an ecosystem approach to policy, regulatory and management initiatives. MERP was formerly known as Integrating Macroecology and Modelling to Elucidate Regulation of Services from Ecosystems (IMMERSE) and the WP2 Developing a model based understanding of ecosystem service regulation grants. MERP was created when two grants were combined to make an overarching programme. The MERP consortium includes a blend of early and mid to late career researchers united by large-scale thinking and a multidisciplinary approach. The following partners were involved in the programme: Bangor University, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, National Oceanography Centre, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Queen Mary University of London, Queens University Belfast, Scottish Association for Marine Science, Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, University of Glasgow, University of Sheffield and the University of Strathclyde.

  • This dataset consists of optical and acoustic seabed profiles of near bed hydrodynamics, bed morphology and suspended material in the water. Fieldwork was carried out by a team of researchers over a two week period, 24 May to 04 June 2013, surveying an area near Hilbre Island in the Dee Estuary. Measurements were taken in the inter-tidal and sub-tidal zones. Measurements were collected at three sites within the sampling area. A SEDbed suite of acoustic and optical instruments were deployed at each station to collect data. These instruments included CTD, LISST, Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, Bedform and suspended sediment imager, Multi-tier sediment trap and 3-D Acoustic Rippler Profiler. The data collection described formed the fieldwork component of the NERC-funded project “Realistic Sedimentary Bedform Prediction: Incorporating Physical and Biological Cohesion (COHBED)”. The project was undertaken with the aim to produce information about the growth, movement and stability of bedforms that consist of natural mixtures of sands and muds. The project was composed of Standard Grant reference NE/I027223/1 as the lead grant with child grants NE/I026863/1, NE/I024402/1, NE/I02478X/1. The lead grant runs from 05 January 2012 to 04 July 2015 and the child grants run from 15 December 2011 to 14 June 2015 (NE/I026863/1), 01 January 2012 to 30 June 2015 (NE/I024402/1), and 01 January 2012 to 31 October 2015 (NE/I02478X/1). Dr Jacobus Hugo Baas of Bangor University, School of Ocean Sciences was the principal investigator of the lead grant of this project. The child grants were led by Dr Sarah Bass of University of Plymouth, School of Engineering, Professor Daniel Roy Parsons of University of Hull, Geography, Environment and Earth Science, and Professor Daniel Paterson of University of St Andrews, Biology, respectively. The data described here have been received as raw files by BODC and will be processed using our in-house systems and made available online in the future.

  • This dataset comprises field measurements of waves, currents and beach shape collected from the (nine segmented shore-parallel) breakwaters at Sea Palling, Norfolk between October 2005 and April 2007 as part of a 3-year programme funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. Field data were collected using Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys, acoustic current meters, video systems, radar, and side-scan sonar imaging of bedforms. These data were used to evaluate the effects of the breakwaters on the low-lying, flood-prone coastal sub-cell between Happisburgh and Waxham over two years. The field measurements were used in combination with computer models to monitor the manner in which the sea defences interact with nearby beaches and to provide enhanced tools for improving the design guidelines for coastal defences. The project partners were the School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Liverpool; Coastal Engineering Group, University of Plymouth; Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory; Halcrow Engineering; HR Wallingford Ltd; and the Environment Agency. The data are stored at the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC).

  • The Marine Environment Monitoring and Assessment National database (MERMAN) is a national database which holds and provides access to data collected under the Clean Safe Seas Environmental Monitoring Programme (CSEMP) formerly the National Marine Monitoring Programme (NMMP). The data collected are the responsibility of the Competent Monitoring Authorities (CMAs) who collect the samples from stations in UK waters using water sampling techniques, trawls, nets or grabs. The CMAs then send the collected samples to accredited laboratories where they are analysed. A weighting is calculated, based on the quality of the analysis. The weighting score incorporates the laboratory accreditation, reference material, inter-laboratory comparisons, detection limits, uncertainties and standard deviations. Where data do not meet a threshold score they are given a status of ‘FAIL’ and although they are stored they are not made available to external users. The MERMAN contaminants and biological effects in sediment data start in 1987 with greater use of the database occurring from 1997 onwards. Data are submitted by the CMAs annually and an annual submission may include updates to legacy data to provide additional data or improve data/metadata. The data held in MERMAN fulfils the UK's mandatory monitoring requirements under the Oslo and Paris Convention (OSPAR) Joint Assessments and Monitoring Programme (JAMP). These data are used in support of European Commission (EC) directives and national assessments, such as Charting Progress 2 and are also supplied to the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNET).

  • The dataset comprises measurements of hydrographic, bathymetric, sedimentary and meteorological parameters. These include water currents, temperature, salinity and wave parameters; suspended and seabed sediment; coastal geomorphological characteristics; and atmospheric temperature, pressure, humidity, irradiance and wind velocities. The study area was centred on the tidal inlet within the Peninsula do Ancao, Ria Formosa National Park, Algarve, Portugal. Field measurements were collected in the offshore area, the surf zone, beach experiments, the inlet areas and the inlet mouth between January and March 1999. The study utilised moorings, sediment grabs, tidal predictions, radar systems, acoustic Doppler current profiler (ACDP) surveys, a jack-up barge, beach experiments, video tower images, aerial surveys, seabed photographs and field campaign images. INDIA aimed to gain a better understanding of the interactions between tides, waves, currents and sedimentary processes at work in the European coastal zone with a view to predicting change. INDIA was coordinated by the University of Liverpool, Department of Civil Engineering. Data have been provided and/or modelled by a number of organisations from countries including France, Poland, Portugal, Australia, Netherlands, USA and the UK. Data management support for the project was provided by the British Oceanographic Data Centre. All data collected as part of the project were lodged with BODC who had responsibility for assembling and fully documenting the data.

  • The Rapid Climate Change (RAPID) data set comprises a diverse collection of oceanographic and benthic observations, including profiles of temperature, salinity, dissolved gases and currents. The dataset also includes discrete measurements of plankton, stable isotopes, dissolved metals, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nutrients in the water column, sediment grain size parameters and geochemistry, and atmospheric concentrations of inorganic halogens. The RAPID data were collected from numerous locations in the North Atlantic, North Sea, Greenland and Europe via over 30 cruises between 2004 and 2008. Many of the oceanographic data resulted from an extensive mooring array in the North Atlantic devoted to monitoring the Atlantic overturning circulation. These mooring arrays are continuing to return data in the follow-on programmes, Rapid Climate Change - Will the Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation Halt? (RAPID-WATCH, 2008-2015) and RAPID - Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (RAPID-AMOC, 2015 onwards) which will result in a decadal time series spanning the North Atlantic. RAPID, RAPID-WATCH and RAPID-AMOC aim to investigate and understand the causes of rapid climate change, with a primary (but not exclusive) focus on the role of the Atlantic Ocean thermohaline circulation. A Rapid Climate Change project office has been established at the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton. The cruise and mooring data are managed by the British Oceanographic Data Centre and are supplemented by atmospheric model output held at the British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC).

  • The Autosub Under Ice (AUI) data set comprises hydrographic measurements including temperature, salinity, fluorescence, attenuance, dissolved oxygen concentrations and current velocities. Water samples were also collected for salinity and geochemical analysis, and the data set also includes bathymetric and sediment data. The measurements were collected near Greenland and Antarctica in the respective summer seasons for each hemisphere during 2003, 2004 and 2005. The programme consisted of four cruises onboard the ice-capable research vessel RRS James Clark Ross (JCR106, JCR106B, JCR84, JCR97). Data were collected by both shipboard sensors and those attached to the Autosub (an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) package. Shipboard data collection included deployment of a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) package with attached auxiliary sensors. Lowered acoustic Dopper current profilers (LADCPs) were also attached to the CTD frame, while discrete water samples were collected from the CTD stations. Oceanographic, bathymetric and sediment data were collected along the ship's track, while further current data were collected from two mooring deployments. Autosub measurements included standard environmental parameters and acoustic instruments were used to measure ice shelf, sea ice and ocean bottom relief at high resolution. A camera was also attached to the vehicle, permitting the collection of detailed photographs of the seabed. Autosub had been upgraded to achieve 1000 km range and 2500 m water depth, which provided unprecedented access to ice covered regions. The AUI programme was established to investigate the marine environment of floating ice shelves with a view to advancing our understanding of their role in the climate system. It brought together researchers and engineers from a number of UK institutions, with the project being coordinated by the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton.

  • The dataset contains a diverse range of environmental data ranging from estuary properties including geomorphology, water depth and habitat characterisation to detailed time series of parameters such as salinity and chemical and nutrient concentrations. The data are stored in a database containing a directory of existing data sources for estuaries; data for the broad properties of 79 UK estuaries; and detailed hydrodynamic, bathymetric, and sedimentary information for six estuaries: Blackwater, Humber, Mersey, Ribble, Southampton Water and Tamar. The data range from 1965 to 2002 and include both historic datasets and those collected during a recent effort (1997-2002) to enhance our knowledge of estuaries. Data collection employed a variety of instrumentation and techniques, including water, biota and sediment sample collection and analysis and the deployment of hydrographic instruments such as sea level, temperature, salinity and optical backscatter recorders. The Estuaries Research Programme (ERP) began in 1997 with the EMPHASYS project, which aimed to improve our understanding of processes operating in estuaries and use this knowledge to enhance broad scale modelling techniques that can be applied to estuarine processes. This work was funded by the Environment Agency/Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) Flood and Coastal Defence Research and Development Programme. The data are managed by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) and are available on CD-ROM.

  • This dataset includes physical, biological and biogeochemical measurements of both the water column and seabed sediments. Hydrographic data include temperature, salinity, attenuance, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), sound velocity and current velocities, while biogeochemical analyses of water samples provided measurements of nutrients and biological sampling provided measurements of zooplankton abundance. A large number of benthic parameters were measured, including concentrations of substances such as nutrients, metals and carbon in both sediments and sediment pore waters. Benthic fauna were also studied, while rates of sedimentation flux were quantified. These oceanographic and benthic data were supplemented by satellite ocean colour imagery. The data were collected in the North Atlantic Ocean at the Mouth of Rockall Trough, Hatton-Rockall Basin and the Flank of Feni Drift between August 1997 and June 1999 over four cruises, comprising a preliminary site assessment (CD 107 August, 1997) followed by two process cruises (CD 111, April-May 1998, and CD 113, June-July 1998). A further cruise (CH 143) was part-funded by BENBO to retrieve moorings. The data were collected using a variety of instrumentation, including shipboard deployment of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profilers with attached auxiliary sensors, benthic samplers, landers, cameras and incubation chambers, water samplers and continuous underway sensors. These were supplemented by moored sensor and satellite data. The BENBO programme was led by the Scottish Association for Marine Science/Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory involved researchers from Southampton Oceanography Centre, Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Lancaster University, Leeds University, Edinburgh University, Cambridge University and the University of Wales, Bangor.

  • The dataset contains hydrographic and biogeochemical data, including continuous underway measurements of surface temperature, salinity, nutrients, chlorophyll and attenuance, irradiance and bathymetric depth. Underway dissolved oxygen and/or trace metal measurements were also collected on occasion. Hydrographic profiles of temperature, salinity, transmittance, fluorescence, dissolved oxygen (data often of poor quality) and scalar irradiance were undertaken, and associated water samples were routinely analysed for suspended particulate material (SPM), chlorophyll, nutrients and particulate organic carbon/particulate organic nitrogen (POC/PON). In addition, dissolved and particulate trace metals, production, contaminants, dissolved organic carbon/total dissolved nitrogen (DOC/TDN) were determined in some cases. Benthic measurements were also collected, including benthic flux determinations (microcosm experiments), sediment characterisation, pore water chemistry measurements and the quantification of the benthic macrofauna. The coastal oceanographic data set was collected along the east coast of England between Great Yarmouth and Berwick upon Tweed. Data were collected between December 1992 and July 1995 during a series of 17 RRS Challenger cruise legs. Most cruises covered two survey grids: one from Great Yarmouth to the Humber designed around the distribution of the sandbanks and a second simple zig-zag grid from the Humber to Berwick on Tweed. A large number of anchor stations, usually over one or two tidal cycles, were worked in the vicinity of the Humber mouth or the Holderness coast. Each cruise leg returned underway data and conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) data and water bottle rosette samples from grid nodes. A Lasentech in-situ particle sizer was used to obtain grain size distributions at spot depths for each CTD station on many of the cruise legs. Box and multicorer samples were collected on approximately one third of the cruise legs. The River-Atmosphere-Coast Study (RACS) was the component of the Land Ocean Interaction Study (LOIS) programme looking at processes from the river catchment into the coastal sea. Investigators include representatives of Plymouth University, Southampton University, Liverpool University, University of East Anglia, Newcastle University, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, and the University of Wales, Bangor. All data sets collected during the RACS Challenger cruises are held by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC). All underway and CTD data have been fully calibrated and quality controlled by BODC. The water sample and benthic data sets have been quality controlled by the data originators and submitted to BODC. The data are held in the BODC project database and have been published as part of a fully documented CD-ROM product.