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  • The tables describe U-series chronology of speleothems in Ledyanaya Lenskaya and Botovskaya caves used in the manuscript "Paleoclimate evidence of vulnerable permafrost during times of low sea ice" by Vaks et al. 2020, Nature 577, 7789, 221–225. The information included in the tables is listed as following: Table 1: Table 1a includes U–Pb data from Ledyanaya Lenskaya and Botovskaya caves; Table 1b includes common Pb estimates for Ledyanaya Lenskaya and Botovskaya caves. Table 2: U–Th chronology of speleothems from Botovskaya Cave. The data shows when speleothems were growing in Ledyanaya Lenskaya Cave during the last 1.5 Ma and in Botovskaya Cave during the last 0.7 Ma. Speleothems grow when water seeps from the surface into the caves. If the soil and rock above the cave is permanently frozen, water will not reach the cave and speleothems will not grow. Together with the data from Vaks et al (2013) "Speleothems Reveal 500,000-Year History of Siberian Permafrost", Science 340, 6129, p 183–186, these speleothem deposition periods show when the permafrost above the two caves was discontinuous or absent. Published Paper: Vaks, A., Mason, A. J. Breitenbach, S. F. M., Kononov, A. M., Osinzev, A. V., Rosensaft, M., Borshevsky, A., Gutareva, O. S., Henderson, G. M. Palaeoclimate evidence of vulnerable permafrost during times of low sea ice. Nature 577, 7789, 221–225 (2020) doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1880-1

  • speleothem data - ICP-AES (Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy) , incomplete soil acidity experiments - soil water chemistry after acidification - incomplete

  • Annual lamina thickness (microns), lamina count, and age model (Ma, years) for the Early Pleistocene (Lines 1 and 2) and early Holocene speleothems from Buffalo Cave, South Africa. The samples, methods and results are described in full in: Hopley, P. J. et al. (2018) Orbital precession modulates interannual rainfall variability, as recorded in an Early Pleistocene speleothem. Geology. DOI:10.1130/G45019.1

  • This data set contains a record of nitrate concentrations and isotopic composition present within the drip waters and speleothem carbonate deposits of Cueva-cubío del Llanío, northern Spain. Data were collected between 2018 to 2020, and specifically address the nitrate composition of the cave drip waters, pool waters, rocks, soil, vegetation and contemporary speleothem carbonate. Calculations are also undertaken to assess the partitioning of nitrate between cave drip water and speleothem carbonate deposits. Data pertaining to speleothem nitrate content also extend to other cave locations (Pooles cavern, UK; Brown's Folly Mine, UK, Ease Gill Caverns, UK; Rukiesa cave, Ethiopia; Cueva Perlas, N. Spain). Sample analysis was performed at Lancaster University and the UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology under NERC facility access grant LSMSF\CEH\L\125\11\2018. The data presented represent the full underlying dataset to Wynn et al., 2021, Chemical Geology: