Suspended particulate material setting velocity parameters
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This dataset comprises of suspended sediment, sediment transport and water column structure data collected at two sites in the mouth of the Dee Estuary, Liverpool Bay during February and March of every year from 2005 to 2009. Throughout each data collection cruise the RV Prince Madog underway monitoring system recorded latitude, longitude, ship speed and heading, depth, air temperature, air pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), sea temperature and salinity, beam transmission, fluorescence and, for 2009, dissolved oxygen concentration. At each site visit profiles of the water column were made over a 25 hour tidal cycle using a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package. Measurements include temperature, salinity, PAR, beam attenuation, particle scattering and transmission, fluorescence, and oxygen concentration. Additionally samples of salinity, suspended particulate matter and in-situ temperature at discrete depths within the water column were obtained and grab samples were taken from the sea-bed after each CTD cast. The RV Prince Madog also performed side-scan sonar tows. During the February cruises mooring frames were deployed on the sea-bed. These frames provided current profiles, particle size information, particle scattering information, bed ripple profiles, sediment settling velocity and temperature, salinity and pressure at each site. The mooring frames were recovered during the March cruises. The main aim of this research was to assess and advance the latest marine sediment transport models. These data allow this assessment to be made by providing information on the complex inter-dependence of sediment processes in the bottom boundary layer. The data were collected by the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (now the National Oceanography Centre). Data management was provided by the British Oceanographic Data Centre.
The dataset includes a wide range of physical, chemical and biological oceanographic parameters. Physical hydrographic measurements include temperature, salinity, optical backscatter, current velocities and turbulence, while biogeochemical measurements in the water column include dissolved oxygen, organic carbon and nitrogen, and nutrients. Biogeochemical parameters were also measured in sediment cores, while phytoplankton and zooplankton data were also collected. The marine data were supplemented by meteorological measurements including temperature, pressure, irradiance and wind. The experimental phase of the project was undertaken in the North Sea between 1998 and 1999, and data were collected at two contrasting sites: Northern North Sea (NNS, 59deg 20.0E, 1deg 00.0E) and Southern North Sea (SNS, 52deg 15.0N, 4deg 17.0E). At both locations measurements were concentrated at a central position with additional measurements being made to estimate horizontal gradients. Moored instruments were deployed at NNS from September - November 1998 and at SNS from March - May 1999. Each experiment was supported by intensive measurement series made from oceanographic ships and involving turbulence dissipation profiler, conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profilers, particle size profilers, optical profilers, benthic sampling and water bottle sampling. PROVESS is an interdisciplinary study of the vertical fluxes of properties through the water column and the surface and bottom boundary layers with the aim of improving understanding and quantification of vertical exchange processes in the water column. Scientists from 18 institutions distributed in 8 European countries participated in the fieldwork and modelling parts of the programme and was co-ordinated by John Howarth of the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory. The British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) is responsible for assembling the data collected during the project into a comprehensive data set. The data has been organised onto a CD-ROM product available through BODC.
The data set includes hydrographic profiles (including temperature, salinity, attenuance, chlorophyll, oxygen, irradiance, turbulence, sound velocity and currents), hydrographic time series (temperature, currents, fluorescence, bottom pressure), water samples (>70 parameters measured), sediment samples (>160 parameters measured), sediment trap samples (>10 parameters measured), production experiments and marine snow camera profiles. Additional meteorological and wave records are also available, as well as satellite imagery and underwater photography (water column and seabed). The data were collected on the Hebridean Slope (NW of Ireland) between March 1995 and September 1996. Measurements were collected via a combination of shipboard instrument deployments, including >1,800 conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) and SeaSoar (undulating oceanographic recorder) profiles, >100 expendable bathythermograph (XBT) profiles, >38,000 acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) profiles, >35 core profiles, >800 turbulence profiles, >40 marine snow camera profiles, >55 radiometer profiles and >25 sound velocity and travel time experiments. Benthic lander deployments were also undertaken, along with shipboard incubation experiments and drifting buoy deployments (48 tracks). An intensive water sampling programme provided >2,500 samples for biological and biogeochemical analysis. An extensive moored instrument array was maintained throughout the experiment, including sediment traps, recording current meters (104 series), electromagnetic current meters (9 series), ADCPs (16 series), thermistor chain and temperature probes (70 series), fluorometers (18 series), transmissometers (16 series), light meter (5 series), bottom pressure recorders (11 series), plus one waverider buoy series and three meteorological buoy time series. The Shelf Edge Study (SES) was an intensive multidisciplinary experiment and formed part of the NERC Land Ocean Interaction Study. The British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) assembled over 95% of the data sets collected during SES into its project database system. Once basic quality control procedures had been completed the data set was published, complete with extensive data documentation, on CD-ROM.