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Turbulence in the water column

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  • The MeRMEED project aimed to determine and quantify how the interaction between mesoscale eddies and the steep slope along ocean western boundaries affects the dissispation of mesoscale eddies in these regions. The project comprised of a multi-platfrom programme involving ship-based and mooring-based obverations, including autonomous gliders, vertical microstructure profilers, CTDs and ADCPs. The MeRMEED project was run between 2015-2019, and focussed on the slope offshore of Great Abaco, Bahamas. The data contained in this dataset includes the data associated with three MeRMEED research expeditions aboard the R/V Walton Smith from 2016-12-01 to 2018-03-16. The data includes vertical microstructure profiler (VMP) measurements of the turbulent dissipation rate and temperature variance, profiles of temperature and conductivity from a CTD sensor attached to the VMP, and along-track meridional and zonal velocity profiles from a vessel mounted 75 kHz ADCP. Also included are two 75 KHz ADCPs mounted on the existing RAPID/MOCHA Western Boundary 1 mooring. The project was run by Eleanor Frajka-Williams (project PI) and Dafydd Gwyn Evans (post-doc) and funded by NERC Discovery Science grant NE/N001745/1.

  • An Alternative Framework to Assess Marine Ecosystem Functioning in Shelf Seas (AlterEco) will utilise a small fleet of submarine and surface autonomous vehicles combined with ongoing observational programmes to capture a seasonal cycle of physical, chemical and biological measurements on repeat transects over ~150km in the North Sea between November 2017 and January 2019. This dataset contains near real-time hydrographic measurements through the water column obtained from submarine Slocum gliders and Seagliders. The submarine vehicles have also been equipped with auxiliary sensors such as turbulence probes, nutrient sensors and acoustic sensors. Data from these platforms will be converted into the international 'Everyone's Gliding Observatories (EGO)' exchange format. This dataset will also contain measurements taken from CTDs deployed on eight cruises to provide calibration data for the autonomous vehicles. AlterEco involves collaboration between scientists at a number of organisations (National Oceanography Centre (NOC, lead), University of East Anglia (UEA), University of Liverpool (UoL), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML), Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS) and the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas). In addition, there are a number of UK and international project partners.

  • Within Pacific Small Island Developing States (Pacific SIDS), the ridge-to-reef (R2R) approach has emerged as a framework for monitoring river connectivity between terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The study measured water quality, including pH and a range of othe physical and chemical properties over 88.40 km of the Ba River in Fiji. The sampling design focused on measuring spatio-temporal variability in pH throughout the sugarcane season (April - August) with three rapid sampling periods (RSP1, 2 & 3) along the Ba River, together with continuous measurement of temperature and pH using stationary data loggers at two locations upstream and downstream of the sugar mill (April to August 2019). Spatial variability in pH and water quality was characterized before (RSP1 and RSP2) and during (RSP3) the sugarcane season. Mean pH measured before the sugarcane crushing season for RSP1 and RSP2 were 8.16 (± 0.49) and 8.20 (± 0.61) respectively. During the sugarcane crushing season (RSP3) mean pH declined by 3.06 units to 6.94 within 42 m downstream of the sugar mill (P < 0.001). The 3.06 unit decline in pH for RSP3 exceeded both the mean diurnal variation in pH of 0.39 and mean seasonal variation in pH of 2.01. This decline in pH could be a potential source of acidification to downstream coastal ecosystems with implications for coral reefs, biodiversity and fishery livelihoods.

  • This dataset consists of measurements of water column structure including hydrographic profiles, temperature and salinity, turbulence data, turbidity and fluorescence profiles, current velocities and sound velocities. The measurements were undertaken during a comprehensive survey of the southern Celtic Sea between May and August 2012. Some turbulence microstructure data were collected from the 14th to the 24th of May 2012, while the remaining data were collected from the 10th to the 22nd of August 2012, with the use of the RV Falcon Spirit. These cruises formed the field component of NERC Discovery Science project "Assessing the sensitivity of marginally stratified shelf seas within a changing climate". The data were collected in order to identify processes involved in the existence and intensity of the front displays not governed by tidal periodicities, to test whether the processes identified as important to changes in shelf sea stratification through in-situ measurements are indeed responsible for observed changes and to incorporate knew knowledge into state of the art numerical models that can up-scale the processes observed within this project to the shelf sea environment. The Discovery Science project was composed of Standard Grant reference NE/I001832/1. The project ran from 01 January 2011 to 30 June 2014. Dr Philip Hosegood of University of Plymouth School of Marine Science and Engineering was the principal investigator of this project. The moored temperature logger data have been received by BODC as raw files from the RV Falcon Spirit, processed and quality controlled using in-house BODC procedures and can be downloaded on-line from the BODC website in a variety of data formats including ASCII, ODV and NetCDF. Full documentation on the dataset is supplied on download. Raw file versions of the minibat towed undulator transect data, moored ADCP data, VMADCP data and turbulence microstructure data are available on request.

  • This dataset consists of measurements of various physical oceanographic parameters collected on a comprehensive survey of the Scotia Sea undertaken from 21 April and 22 May 2015. Data were collected on RRS James Clark Ross cruise JR311. Navigation data were collected using an Applanix POSMV system and meteorology and sea surface hydrography were collected using the NMF Surfmet system. Both systems were run through the duration of the cruise, excepting times for cleaning, entering and leaving port, and while alongside. A CTD was launched at 24 stations throughout the cruise. Moving Vessel Profilers, Seasoar towed CTD, oceanloggers, temperature loggers and MSS turbulence profilers were all towed for multiple sections of the cruise. Multiple temperature-chain loggers were deployed at stations throughout the cruise. JR311 was the research cruise conducted as the observational element of the NERC Standard Grant, Surface Mixed Layer Evolution at Submesoscales (SMILES). The project aims to improve our understanding of submesoscale dynamics in regions characterised by strong fronts and where they impact on water mass transformation. For this reason, the field site was chosen to be the subantarctic front (SAF) to the east of Drake Passage where the Antarctic Circumpolar Current generates a pronounced front between the warmer subantarctic water to the north and the subpolar water to the south. To the north of the SAF, subantarctic mode water is formed through a process previously considered to be governed by air-sea interaction alone. SMILES aims to investigate the extent to which submesoscale dynamics at the SAF and the surrounding region may impact on, and potentially govern, this process of water mass transformation. The Discovery Science project was led by Standard Grant reference NE/J009857/1, with child grants NE/J010472/1, NE/J010367/1 and NE/J008214/1. NE/J009857/1 was held at the University of Plymouth, School of Engineering, led by Dr. Phil Hosegood, running from 01 July 2014 to 31 December 2017. NE/J010472/1 was held at the University of Cambridge, School of Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics, led by Dr Joh Ryan Taylor, running from 01 April 2013 to 30 September 2016. NE/J010367/1 was held at the Plymouth Marine Laboratory, led by Dr Ricardo Torres, running from 01 June 2014 to 30 June 2017. Finally, NE/J008214/1 was held at the NERC British Antarctic Survey, led by Professor Michael Meredith, running from 01 July 2013 to 31 October 2016. All data have been received by BODC as raw files from the RRS James Cook to be processed and quality controlled using in-house BODC procedures and made available online in the future. Data are available as raw files on request.

  • The Southern Ocean Fine structure (SOFine) dataset comprises hydrographic (temperature, salinity, current velocities, microstructure and turbulence), bathymetric and meteorological (air temperature, pressure, winds, humidity and irradiance) measurements from the Kerguelen Plateau region of the Southern Ocean. The data were collected between late 2008 and early 2010 via one research cruise (November - December 2008) and two long-term mooring deployments (November 2008 - January 2010). Data collection involved the deployment of a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) package accompanied by lowered acoustic Doppler current profilers (LADCPs) at numerous locations across the study area. Microstructure was measured using a freefall Vertical Microstructure Profiler (VMP) and opportunistic measurements of upper ocean turbulence were collected with a tethered ISW Wassermesstechnik microstructure profiler. The station data were supplemented by continuous underway measurements of current velocities (using a vessel mounted ADCP, VMADCP); bathymetry (using single- and multi-beam echosounders); and surface ocean and meteorological parameters. Floats and drifters were also deployed, as were five moorings: three were recovered approximately 2.5 weeks later during the cruise and two were deployed for more than one year. The moored instruments measured physical parameters such as temperature, conductivity and pressure, horizontal and vertical current velocities (using moored ADCPs) and turbulence (using moored microstructure profilers, MMPs). The SOFine project aimed to enhance our understanding of frictional processes that slow the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and help to drive the Southern Ocean overturning circulation. SOFine involved researchers from UK, US, Australian and German institutions, including the National Oceanography Centre (NOC), the University of East Anglia (UEA), British Antarctic Survey (BAS), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), the University of Tasmania and the Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), University of Kiel. The UK principal investigator (PI) is A. Naveira Garabato from the School of Ocean and Earth Science, NOC and the majority of the data are managed by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC). The float and drifter data are managed by the Argo programme and Australian research institutions, and are not held at BODC.

  • This dataset contains a variety of oceanographic and atmospheric measurements including time series of temperature, salinity, current speed and direction and discrete samples of salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotope and trace gas concentrations of the water column. It also includes atmospheric measurements including temperature, humidity and wind speed and direction. The data were collected in the Amundsen Sea region of the Antarctic between 2012 and 2017. The majority of the data were collected during RRS James Clark Ross cruise JR20140126 from January to March 2014. Moorings were deployed in 2012 and redeployed in 2014, most collected data until 2016. Measurements were taken using a variety of instrumentation, including conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profilers with attached auxiliary sensors, acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs), Radiosondes and Microstructure profilers (MVP). Discrete water samples were also taken and analysed for salinity, dissolved oxygen and oxygen isotope concentration and trace gas concentrations. Measurements were also taken by CTD profilers, current meters and ADCPs deployed on moorings and by CTDs deployed on tags on seals. The project was designed to discover how and why warm ocean water gets close to the ice shelf in Antarctica (and in particular the Amundsen Sea) and is part of the wider iSTAR programme. The principal investigator for this project is Professor Karen Heywood, University of East Anglia and the project was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council. Data from the project are held at the British Oceanographic Data Centre. BODC do not expect to receive data from the Moving Vessel Profiler (MVP) deployed by the project. The originator has identified data quality issues with these datasets and has indicated that they won't be supplied. We expect to receive all other data collected by the project. The Korean Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) collected CTD and Lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiles (LADCP) data in 2012 (cruise ANA02C- report accessible via http://repository.kopri.re.kr/handle/201206/4603) and 2016 (cruise ANA06B- report not yet available).

  • This dataset consists of measurements of conductivity, temperature, depth, fluorescence, optical backscatter, oxygen, turbulence microstructure collected from gliders, as well as temperature depth measurements from moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler and turbulence microstructure measurements from microstructure profilers. The ADCP was moored to a depth of 476m in Ryder Bay, West Antarctic Peninsula, between 01 March 2016 and 12 December 2016. The mooring was deployed on R/V Lawrence M Gould cruise LMG16-01 and recovered on RRS James Clark Ross cruise JR16003. NOC and BAS Gliders were deployed during the 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 Antarctic field seasons and MSS Microstructure profilers were deployed between February and August 2016 from Rothera, within the Ryder Bay area. This cruise formed the field component of NERC Discovery Science project ‘What controls the influx and mixing of warm waters onto the polar ocean shelves?’ The main objectives of the project are: 1. To quantify, describe and understand the spatial and time-varying patterns of lateral and vertical mixing on the West Antarctic Peninsula shelf. 2. To resolve the dominant mechanisms driving lateral and vertical heat fluxes, with a specific focus on understanding how and where heat from the deep ocean waters is transferred to the upper ocean. 3. To understand the role of key shelf-edge processes in controlling these phenomena, in particular by understanding and quantifying the importance of these processes in causing intrusions of warm, saline deep-ocean waters onto polar shelves. To deliver on these objectives, the project used data from both traditional and novel oceanographic platforms, with the aim of describing how warm waters move from shelf edges to coasts, where land-based melting of ice can occur. Discovery Science Research Fellowship grant NE/L011166/1 was led by Dr James Alexander Brearley at the National Environmental Research Council (NERC), British Antarctic Survey (BAS), Science Programmes. Funding runs from 09 June 2014 to 08 June 2019. Glider, moored ADCP and MSS microstructure profiler data have been received by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC).

  • The Christchurch Harbour Macronutrients Project is one of four consortium projects funded by the NERC through the Macronutrient Cycles Programme. The overall goal of the Macronutrients Programme is to quantify the scales (magnitude and spatial/temporal variation) of Nitrogen and Phosphorus fluxes and the nature of transformations through the catchment under a changing climate and a perturbed Carbon cycle. ‘The catchment’ is defined as covering exchanges between the atmospheric, terrestrial and aqueous environments, with the limit of the aqueous environment being marked by the seaward estuarine margin. The aim of the consortium research project is to better understand the behaviour of macronutrients over a range of temporal and spatial scales including the effect of storm events in the Hampshire Avon and Stour rivers and Christchurch Harbour estuary in Dorset. Data collection spans from October 2012 to January 2017. The Christchurch Harbour Macronutrients Project intensively monitored the river inputs and exchange of nutrients at the estuary mouth as well as looking at sediment re-suspension and the role of phytoplankton in macronutrient cycling within the estuary. By using a number of state of the art continuous monitoring techniques and modelling approaches, the scientists produced an accurate assessment of the impact of nutrients entering the estuary during short term storm increased flows in the two rivers. Previously, most water quality monitoring in rivers and estuaries has taken place at fixed times that are spaced too far apart to capture storms when they occur. This is the first project in the UK to intensively monitor water quality in estuaries using sensors and weather prediction technology to anticipate a storm. The Project PI is Duncan Purdie (Ocean and Earth Sciences, NOC).

  • The Diapycnal and Isopycnal Mixing Experiment in the Southern Ocean (DIMES) UK data set comprises hydrographic data, including measurements of temperature, salinity, currents and turbulence, supplemented by bathymetric and meteorological data. The study area is located within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in the southeast Pacific, Drake Passage and Scotia Sea regions of the Southern Ocean. Data collection began in December 2009 and ended in April 2014. The data were collected via a combination of research cruises in the southern hemisphere summer seasons. Three cruises were intended (UKD-1, UKD-2 and UKD-3) a further three cruises were completed (UKD-2.5, UKD-4 and UKD-5). Shipboard data collection involved the deployment of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) packages, accompanied by lowered acoustic Doppler current profilers (LADCPs), and Vertical Microstructure Profilers (VMPs) in a grid pattern across the study area. Continuous measurements of current velocities (using vessel mounted ADCPs, VMADCPs), bathymetry and surface ocean and meteorological properties were collected throughout each cruise. An inert chemical tracer (sulphur hexafluoride, SF6) was released into the ACC in early 2009, and subsequent cruises measured temporal changes in the tracer distribution via the analysis of water samples collected at CTD stations. In addition, a mooring cluster was deployed in Drake Passage in early 2009 provided approximately two years' worth of hydrographic time series data. Floats and drifters were also deployed in the 2009 and 2010 seasons. The DIMES project aims to enhance understanding of mixing processes in the Southern Ocean, as it is thought that such processes may significantly affect ocean energetics and property balances, and thus have implications for the accuracy of climate models. DIMES brings together researchers from both UK and US institutions, including the National Oceanography Centre (NOC), the University of East Anglia (UEA), British Antarctic Survey (BAS), the Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Scripps Institute of Oceanography, Florida State University, the University of Washington and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The UK principal investigator (PI) is A. Naveira Garabato from NOC and the UK data will be managed by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC). Data collected on US cruises, including all float and drifter data, will be managed by US institutions and are not held at BODC.