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UK-SCAPE

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  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. This dataset provides data on the timing of butterfly flight periods for each UK butterfly species across all monitored sites in the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Annual data from over 2,500 sites are presented relating to the timing (first appearance, last appearance, date of peak abundance and mean flight date) and the duration (total number of days, standard deviation around the mean flight date) of the flight period for all UK butterfly species from 1976 to the present year. In addition, this data is divided each year for eleven multi-voltine species to provide separate phenology data for distinct flight periods associated with first and subsequent generations. Phenology change is a widely used measure of the biological impacts of climate change because of the close relationship between temperature and the timing of biological events. This dataset provides an invaluable tool for assessing the impacts of climate change both spatially and temporally. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/4bc7bb9f-4a7a-46ff-aa63-2747e248fd1e

  • This dataset gives axiophyte score for plants in Great Britain, based on Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland (BSBI) published lists of axiophytes for 24 counties in Great Britain. Axiophytes have been defined as 'worthy plants', that is, species that are indicative of high quality habitat within a particular region. This information product takes the county lists that were available in May 2016, and summarises the data in order to produce national (i.e. Great Britain) level scores of 'axiophyte-ness'; that is, the extent to which a species has been selected as a good indicator of high quality habitat where it occurs. This meta-list of axiophytes will be updated in the future as more county-level lists become available. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/af2ac4af-12c6-4152-8ed7-e886ed19622b

  • Collated indices are a relative measure of butterfly abundance across sites monitored as part of the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. Data from all survey sites (standard UKBMS transects, Wider Countryside Survey transects and targeted species surveys such as timed, larval web and egg counts) are used in the calculation of these indices. The statistics are presented as log10 values. These values are centred round an arbitrary value of 2 as a mean for the time series in order to help show which years are below or above average. Collated indices are calculated annually for each individual butterfly species that has been recorded on five or more sites in that year. Indices are calculated at UK level and at individual country level for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland where sufficient data are available. Based on this criterion, collated indices have been calculated for the entire time series from 1976 (UK, England and Wales), 1979 (Scotland) and 2004 (Northern Ireland) to the current year for the majority of species, but for some rarer species this has not been possible in some years, particular those in the first part of the time series. Collated indices are calculated using a log-linear model incorporating individual site indices from all monitored sites across the UK or country for a given species in a given year. The number of sites for each species ranges from 5 to several hundred or more and fluctuates from year to year. By 2010 almost 2,000 sites were monitored in total across the UK, with this number rising to more than 3,000 over the next decade. Collated indices are calculated so that we can determine how butterfly populations are changing over time across the UK. This data can be used, for example, to determine where to target conservation efforts and more generally the condition of the UK countryside. Butterflies are recognised as important indicators of biodiversity and environmental change, for example in UK and country Biodiversity Indicators, and have been used in numerous studies of the impacts of climate and habitat change on biodiversity. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/657a64b2-8c34-43d2-a0f0-662ddf73c720

  • This dataset consists of the 1km raster, dominant aggregate class version of the Land Cover Map 1990 (LCM1990) for Northern Ireland. The 1km dominant coverage product is based on the 1km percentage product and reports the aggregated habitat class with the highest percentage cover for each 1km pixel. The 10 aggregate classes are groupings of the 21 target classes, which are based on the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) Broad Habitats, which encompass the entire range of UK habitats. The aggregate classes group some of the more specialised classes into more general categories. For example, the five coastal classes in the target class are grouped into a single aggregate coastal class. This dataset is derived from the vector version of the Land Cover Map, which contains individual parcels of land cover and is the highest available spatial resolution. LCM1990 is a land cover map of the UK which was produced at the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology by classifying satellite images (mainly from 1989 and 1990) into 21 Broad Habitat-based classes. It is the first in a series of land cover maps for the UK, which also includes maps for 2000, 2007, 2015, 2017, 2018 and 2019. LCM1990 consists of a range of raster and vector products and users should familiarise themselves with the full range (see related records, the UK CEH web site and the LCM1990 Dataset documentation) to select the product most suited to their needs. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/380f49e5-9448-4d26-b832-fe176d3a1978

  • This is part of an ongoing long-term monitoring dataset of surface temperature, surface oxygen, water clarity, water chemistry and phytoplankton chlorophyll a from fortnightly sampling at the South Basin of Windermere in Cumbria, England that began in 1945 for some variables. The data have been collected by the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (UKCEH). The data available to download comprise surface temperature (TEMP) in degree Celsius, surface oxygen saturation (OXYG) in % air-saturation, Secchi depth (SECC) in metres, alkalinity (ALKA) in µg per litre as CaCO3 and pH. Ammonium (NH4N), nitrate (NO3N), soluble reactive phosphate (PO4P), total phosphorus (TOTP), dissolved reactive silicon expressed as SiO2 (SIO2) and phytoplankton chlorophyll a (TOCA) are all given in µg per litre. Water samples are based on a sample integrated from 0 to 7m. Measurements are made from a boat at a marked location (buoy) at the deepest part of the lake. All data are from January 2014 until the end of 2018. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/1ccff678-9e27-4290-8f12-a9d0c048d52f

  • This is the 25m rasterised land parcels dataset for the UKCEH Land Cover Map of 2018(LCM2018) representing Northern Ireland. It describes Northern Ireland's land cover in 2018 using UKCEH Land Cover Classes, which are based on UK Biodiversity Action Plan broad habitats. This dataset was derived by rasterising the corresponding LCM2018 land parcels dataset into 25m pixels. It is provided as a 3-band, 8-bit integer raster. The first band is the UKCEH Land Cover Class identifier. Bands 2 and 3 are indicators of classification confidence. For a fuller description please refer to the product documentation. LCM2018 represents a suite of geospatial land cover datasets (raster and polygon) describing the UK land surface in 2018. These were produced at the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology by classifying satellite images from 2018. LCM2018 was simultaneously released with LCM2017 and LCM2019. These are the latest in a series of UKCEH land cover maps, which began with the 1990 Land Cover Map of Northern Ireland (now usually referred to as LCM1990) followed by UK-wide land cover maps LCM2000, LCM2007 and LCM2015. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/396c1249-84f0-4ca0-891d-4188d750c1ee

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. This dataset comprises individual site indices for UK butterfly species calculated from data from the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Site indices are a relative rather than an absolute measure of the size of a population, and have been shown to relate closely to other, more intensive, measures of population size such as mark, release, recapture (MRR) methods. The site index can be thought of as a relative measure of the population size, being a more or less constant proportion of the number of butterflies present. The proportion seen is likely to vary according to species; some butterfly species are more conspicuous and thus more easily detected, whereas others are much less easy to see. Site indices are only calculated at sites with sufficient monitoring visits throughout the season, or for targeted reduced effort surveys (timed observations, larval web counts and egg counts) where counts are generally obtained as close to the peak of the flight period as possible and are subsequently adjusted for the time of year and size of the site (area of suitable habitat type for a given species). Wider Countryside Butterfly Survey (WCBS) sites are thus excluded because they are based on very few visits from which indices of abundance are not calculated. For transect sites, a statistical model (a General Additive Model, 'GAM') is used to impute missing values and to calculate a site index. Each year most transect sites (over 90%) produce an index for at least one species and in recent years site indices have been calculated for over 2,000 sites across the UK. Site indices are subsequently collated to contribute to the overall 'Collated Index' for each species, which are relative measures of the abundance of each species across a geographical area, for example, across the whole UK or at country level for England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. Individual site indices are important in informing conservation management as not all sites show the same patterns for each species and likely reflect a combination of local climate and habitat management at the site. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/180a1c76-bceb-4264-872b-deddfe67b3de

  • This dataset contains time series observations of surface-atmosphere exchanges of net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE), sensible heat (H) and latent heat (LE), and momentum (τ) measured at an area of organically managed grassland located on the Berkshire Downs, UK. Turbulent flux densities were monitored using the micrometeorological eddy covariance (EC) technique between 1st January 2017 and 31st July 2019. The dataset includes ancillary weather and soil physics observations, as well as variables describing atmospheric turbulence and the quality of the turbulent flux observations. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/5a93161f-0124-4650-a2c9-7e8aaea7e6bb

  • This is the web map service (WMS) for the 25m rasterised land parcels dataset of the UKCEH Land Cover Map of 2020 (LCM2020). It describes Great Britain and Northern Ireland land cover in 2020 using UKCEH Land Cover Classes, which are based on UK Biodiversity Action Plan broad habitats. The data was derived by rasterising properties of the LCM2020 Classified Land Parcels product. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability.

  • This is the web map service (WMS) for the 25m rasterised land parcels dataset of the UKCEH Land Cover Map of 2019 (LCM2019). It describes Great Britain and Northern Ireland land cover in 2019 using UKCEH Land Cover Classes, which are based on UK Biodiversity Action Plan broad habitats. The data was derived by rasterising the corresponding LCM2019 land parcels datasets into 25m pixels. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability.