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  • The data are simulated instantaneous sea surface elevations above time-mean sea level due to tides alone (tideAnom) and due to tide and meteorological surge (tideSurgeAnom). The data were produced by the Met Office Hadley Centre, using data made available by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) and the Climate Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5). The data were produced to investigate the impact of simulated atmospheric storminess change on extreme sea levels. To produce the data, atmospheric winds and pressure from the SMHI Regional Atmospheric Model RCA4 was used to drive the CS3 continental shelf model. The data are the resulting simulated sea surface elevations. Five CMIP5 RCP8.5 simulations were downscaled in this way: EC-EARTH, HadGEM2-ES, MPI-ESM-LR, IPSL-CM5A-MR, CNRM-CM5. The data covers the period 2007 to 2099, and applies to the UK coast.

  • The data are simulated instantaneous sea surface elevations above time-mean sea level due to tides alone (tideAnom) and due to tide and meteorological surge (tideSurgeAnom). The data were produced by the Met Office Hadley Centre, using data made available by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) and the Climate Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5). The data were produced to investigate the impact of simulated atmospheric storminess change on extreme sea levels. To produce the data, atmospheric winds and pressure from the SMHI Regional Atmospheric Model RCA4 was used to drive the CS3 continental shelf model. The data are the resulting simulated sea surface elevations. Five CMIP5 historical simulations were downscaled in this way: EC-EARTH, HadGEM2-ES, MPI-ESM-LR, IPSL-CM5A-MR, CNRM-CM5. The data covers the period 1970 to 2005, and applies to the UK coast.

  • Time-mean Sea Level Projections for the UK produced by the Met Office for UK Climate Projections 2018 (UKCP2018). Data has been produced by standard and exploratory methods.

  • HadUK-Grid is a collection of gridded climate variables derived from the network of UK land surface observations. The data have been interpolated from meteorological station data onto a uniform grid to provide complete and consistent coverage across the UK. The data set at 12 km resolution is derived from the associated 1km x 1km resolution to allow for comparison to data from climate projections. The dataset spans the period from 1862 to 2018, but the start time is dependent on climate variable and temporal resolution. The grids are produced for daily, monthly, seasonal and annual timescales, as well as long term averages for a set of climatological reference periods. Variables include air temperature (maximum, minimum and mean), precipitation, sunshine, mean sea level pressure, wind speed, relative humidity, vapour pressure, days of snow lying, and days of ground frost. This data set supersedes the UKCP09 gridded observations and the earlier v1.0.0.0 version. Subsequent versions may be released in due course and will follow the version numbering as outlined by Hollis et al. (2018, see linked documentation). The primary purpose of these data are to facilitate monitoring of UK climate and research into climate change, impacts and adaptation. The datasets have been created by the Met Office with financial support from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) and Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) in order to support the Public Weather Service Customer Group (PWSCG), the Hadley Centre Climate Programme, and the UK Climate Projections (UKCP18) project. The data recovery activity to supplement 19th and early 20th Century data availability has also been funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC grant ref: NE/L01016X/1) project "Analysis of historic drought and water scarcity in the UK". The dataset is provided under Open Government Licence.

  • HadUK-Grid is a collection of gridded climate variables derived from the network of UK land surface observations. The data have been interpolated from meteorological station data onto a uniform grid to provide complete and consistent coverage across the UK. The dataset at 5 km resolution is derived from the associated 1 km x 1 km resolution to allow for comparison to data from UKCP18 climate projections. The dataset spans the period from 1836 to 2021, but the start time is dependent on climate variable and temporal resolution. The gridded data are produced for daily, monthly, seasonal and annual timescales, as well as long term averages for a set of climatological reference periods. Variables include air temperature (maximum, minimum and mean), precipitation, sunshine, mean sea level pressure, wind speed, relative humidity, vapour pressure, days of snow lying, and days of ground frost. This data set supersedes the previous versions of this dataset which also superseded UKCP09 gridded observations. Subsequent versions may be released in due course and will follow the version numbering as outlined by Hollis et al. (2018, see linked documentation). The changes for v1.1.0.0 HadUK-Grid datasets are as follows: * The addition of data for calendar year 2021 * The addition of 30 year averages for the new reference period 1991-2020 * An update to 30 year averages for 1961-1990 and 1981-2010. This is an order of operation change. In this version 30 year averages have been calculated from the underlying monthly/seasonal/annual grids (grid-then-average) in previous version they were grids of interpolated station average (average-then-grid). This order of operation change results in small differences to the values, but provides improved consistency with the monthly/seasonal/annual series grids. However this order of operation change means that 1961-1990 averages are not included for sfcWind or snowlying variables due to the start date for these variables being 1969 and 1971 respectively. * A substantial new collection of monthly rainfall data have been added for the period before 1960. These data originate from the rainfall rescue project (Hawkins et al. 2022) and this source now accounts for 84% of pre-1960 monthly rainfall data, and the monthly rainfall series has been extended back to 1836. Net changes to the input station data used to generate this dataset: -Total of 122664065 observations -118464870 (96.5%) unchanged -4821 (0.004%) modified for this version -4194374 (3.4%) added in this version -5887 (0.005%) deleted from this version The primary purpose of these data are to facilitate monitoring of UK climate and research into climate change, impacts and adaptation. The datasets have been created by the Met Office with financial support from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) and Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) in order to support the Public Weather Service Customer Group (PWSCG), the Hadley Centre Climate Programme, and the UK Climate Projections (UKCP18) project. The output from a number of data recovery activities relating to 19th and early 20th Century data have been used in the creation of this dataset, these activities were supported by: the Met Office Hadley Centre Climate Programme; the Natural Environment Research Council project "Analysis of historic drought and water scarcity in the UK"; the UK Research & Innovation (UKRI) Strategic Priorities Fund UK Climate Resilience programme; The UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Public Engagement programme; the National Centre for Atmospheric Science; National Centre for Atmospheric Science and the NERC GloSAT project; and the contribution of many thousands of public volunteers. The dataset is provided under Open Government Licence.

  • HadUK-Grid is a collection of gridded climate variables derived from the network of UK land surface observations. The data have been interpolated from meteorological station data onto a uniform grid to provide complete and consistent coverage across the UK. These data at 1km resolution have been averaged across a set of discrete geographies defining UK administrative regions consistent with data from UKCP18 climate projections. The dataset spans the period from 1862 to 2017, but the start time is dependent on climate variable and temporal resolution. The grids are produced for daily, monthly, seasonal and annual timescales, as well as long term averages for a set of climatological reference periods. Variables include air temperature (maximum, minimum and mean), precipitation, sunshine, mean sea level pressure, wind speed, relative humidity, vapour pressure, days of snow lying, and days of ground frost. This data set supersedes the UKCP09 gridded observations. Subsequent versions may be released in due course and will follow the version numbering as outlined by Hollis et al. (2018, see linked documentation). The primary purpose of these data are to facilitate monitoring of UK climate and research into climate change, impacts and adaptation. The datasets have been created by the Met Office with financial support from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) and Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) in order to support the Public Weather Service Customer Group (PWSCG), the Hadley Centre Climate Programme, and the UK Climate Projections (UKCP18) project. The data recovery activity to supplement 19th and early 20th Century data availability has also been funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC grant ref: NE/L01016X/1) project "Analysis of historic drought and water scarcity in the UK". The dataset is provided under Open Government Licence.

  • HadUK-Grid is a collection of gridded climate variables derived from the network of UK land surface observations. The data have been interpolated from meteorological station data onto a uniform grid to provide complete and consistent coverage across the UK. These data at 1 km resolution have been averaged across a set of discrete geographies defining UK countries consistent with data from UKCP18 climate projections. The dataset spans the period from 1862 to 2019, but the start time is dependent on climate variable and temporal resolution. The gridded data are produced for daily, monthly, seasonal and annual timescales, as well as long term averages for a set of climatological reference periods. Variables include air temperature (maximum, minimum and mean), precipitation, sunshine, mean sea level pressure, wind speed, relative humidity, vapour pressure, days of snow lying, and days of ground frost. This data set supersedes the previous versions of this dataset which also superseded UKCP09 gridded observations. Subsequent versions may be released in due course and will follow the version numbering as outlined by Hollis et al. (2018, see linked documentation). For this version of note is that historical data recovery has improved monthly rainfall 1862-1910, daily rainfall 1883-1910, monthly temperature 1900-1909, and additional sunshine grids for 1919-1928 have been added. The primary purpose of these data are to facilitate monitoring of UK climate and research into climate change, impacts and adaptation. The datasets have been created by the Met Office with financial support from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) and Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) in order to support the Public Weather Service Customer Group (PWSCG), the Hadley Centre Climate Programme, and the UK Climate Projections (UKCP18) project. The data recovery activity to supplement 19th and early 20th Century data availability has also been funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC grant ref: NE/L01016X/1) project "Analysis of historic drought and water scarcity in the UK". The dataset is provided under Open Government Licence.

  • HadUK-Grid is a collection of gridded climate variables derived from the network of UK land surface observations. The data have been interpolated from meteorological station data onto a uniform grid to provide complete and consistent coverage across the UK. The data set at 25 km resolution is derived from the associated 1km x 1km resolution to allow for comparison to data from UKCP18 climate projections. The dataset spans the period from 1862 to 2018, but the start time is dependent on climate variable and temporal resolution. The grids are produced for daily, monthly, seasonal and annual timescales, as well as long term averages for a set of climatological reference periods. Variables include air temperature (maximum, minimum and mean), precipitation, sunshine, mean sea level pressure, wind speed, relative humidity, vapour pressure, days of snow lying, and days of ground frost. This data set supersedes the UKCP09 gridded observations and the earlier v1.0.0.0 version. Subsequent versions may be released in due course and will follow the version numbering as outlined by Hollis et al. (2018, see linked documentation). The primary purpose of these data are to facilitate monitoring of UK climate and research into climate change, impacts and adaptation. The datasets have been created by the Met Office with financial support from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) and Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) in order to support the Public Weather Service Customer Group (PWSCG), the Hadley Centre Climate Programme, and the UK Climate Projections (UKCP18) project. The data recovery activity to supplement 19th and early 20th Century data availability has also been funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC grant ref: NE/L01016X/1) project "Analysis of historic drought and water scarcity in the UK". The dataset is provided under Open Government Licence.

  • HadUK-Grid is a collection of gridded climate variables derived from the network of UK land surface observations. The data have been interpolated from meteorological station data onto a uniform grid to provide complete and consistent coverage across the UK. The dataset at 60 km resolution is derived from the associated 1 km x 1 km resolution to allow for comparison to data from UKCP18 climate projections. The dataset spans the period from 1862 to 2020, but the start time is dependent on climate variable and temporal resolution. The gridded data are produced for daily, monthly, seasonal and annual timescales, as well as long term averages for a set of climatological reference periods. Variables include air temperature (maximum, minimum and mean), precipitation, sunshine, mean sea level pressure, wind speed, relative humidity, vapour pressure, days of snow lying, and days of ground frost. This data set supersedes the previous versions of this dataset which also superseded UKCP09 gridded observations. Subsequent versions may be released in due course and will follow the version numbering as outlined by Hollis et al. (2018, see linked documentation). This release includes data for the calendar year 2020. Ongoing quality checks and data recovery to historical data results in changes to around 0.01% of the observational station data used as input to produce the gridded dataset. A correction to _FillValue assignment in the metadata for seasonal and annual grids has also been applied to be consistent with the rest of the dataset. The primary purpose of these data are to facilitate monitoring of UK climate and research into climate change, impacts and adaptation. The datasets have been created by the Met Office with financial support from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) and Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) in order to support the Public Weather Service Customer Group (PWSCG), the Hadley Centre Climate Programme, and the UK Climate Projections (UKCP18) project. The data recovery activity to supplement 19th and early 20th Century data availability has also been funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC grant ref: NE/L01016X/1) project "Analysis of historic drought and water scarcity in the UK". The dataset is provided under Open Government Licence.

  • HadUK-Grid is a collection of gridded climate variables derived from the network of UK land surface observations. The data have been interpolated from meteorological station data onto a uniform grid to provide complete and consistent coverage across the UK. These data at 1 km resolution have been averaged across a set of discrete geographies defining UK river basins consistent with data from UKCP18 climate projections. The dataset spans the period from 1836 to 2021, but the start time is dependent on climate variable and temporal resolution. The gridded data are produced for daily, monthly, seasonal and annual timescales, as well as long term averages for a set of climatological reference periods. Variables include air temperature (maximum, minimum and mean), precipitation, sunshine, mean sea level pressure, wind speed, relative humidity, vapour pressure, days of snow lying, and days of ground frost. This data set supersedes the previous versions of this dataset which also superseded UKCP09 gridded observations. Subsequent versions may be released in due course and will follow the version numbering as outlined by Hollis et al. (2018, see linked documentation). The changes for v1.1.0.0 HadUK-Grid datasets are as follows: * The addition of data for calendar year 2021 * The addition of 30 year averages for the new reference period 1991-2020 * An update to 30 year averages for 1961-1990 and 1981-2010. This is an order of operation change. In this version 30 year averages have been calculated from the underlying monthly/seasonal/annual grids (grid-then-average) in previous version they were grids of interpolated station average (average-then-grid). This order of operation change results in small differences to the values, but provides improved consistency with the monthly/seasonal/annual series grids. However this order of operation change means that 1961-1990 averages are not included for sfcWind or snowlying variables due to the start date for these variables being 1969 and 1971 respectively. * A substantial new collection of monthly rainfall data have been added for the period before 1960. These data originate from the rainfall rescue project (Hawkins et al. 2022) and this source now accounts for 84% of pre-1960 monthly rainfall data, and the monthly rainfall series has been extended back to 1836. Net changes to the input station data used to generate this dataset: -Total of 122664065 observations -118464870 (96.5%) unchanged -4821 (0.004%) modified for this version -4194374 (3.4%) added in this version -5887 (0.005%) deleted from this version The primary purpose of these data are to facilitate monitoring of UK climate and research into climate change, impacts and adaptation. The datasets have been created by the Met Office with financial support from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) and Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) in order to support the Public Weather Service Customer Group (PWSCG), the Hadley Centre Climate Programme, and the UK Climate Projections (UKCP18) project. The output from a number of data recovery activities relating to 19th and early 20th Century data have been used in the creation of this dataset, these activities were supported by: the Met Office Hadley Centre Climate Programme; the Natural Environment Research Council project "Analysis of historic drought and water scarcity in the UK"; the UK Research & Innovation (UKRI) Strategic Priorities Fund UK Climate Resilience programme; The UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Public Engagement programme; the National Centre for Atmospheric Science; National Centre for Atmospheric Science and the NERC GloSAT project; and the contribution of many thousands of public volunteers. The dataset is provided under Open Government Licence.