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Variable fluorescence parameters

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  • The data set comprises hydrographic data, including salinity, temperature, depth, dissolved oxygen, transmittance and chlorophyll. Chemical and biological measurements of water samples, such as dissolved inorganic nutrients, trace metals (including iron and aluminium), dissolved oxygen, biogenic silica, particulate inorganic/organic carbon and particulate organic nitrogen. Also included are the results of biological experiments focusing on iron and ecosystem grazing pressures. This data set was generated by two research cruises (RRS Discovery cruises D350 and D354) carried out as part of the Irminger Basin Iron Study (IBIS). Data were collected from the Irminger and Iceland Basins on the cruises, which took place between 26/04/2010 and 11/08/2010. Standard cruise measuring techniques, including CTD casts, the ship’s underway system, discrete water sampling and SeaSoar surveys were carried out. In addition, water was collected from an epoxy-coated tow fish and pumped directly into a clean chemistry container using a Teflon pump system through acid washed PVC tubing. Experimental work was performed to measure the biological response to both artificial manipulation of the availability of the micronutrient iron and grazing pressure. Measurement of the uptake rate of various substrates was further performed using a variety of tracer techniques. The study aimed to study the iron biogeochemistry in the high attitude North Atlantic, assess whether community productivity in parts of the North Atlantic is iron limited following the annual spring bloom and determine the factors that lead to this situation. Collectively, the sampling methods adopted as part of IBIS provide a good understanding of the water column structure and the processes taking place within it. The data were collected by scientists at the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) under the supervision of Eric Achterberg. Hydrographic data from the CTDs and underway system (together with associated discrete chemical and biological sample data) are currently held at the data centre. The remaining data described are yet to be supplied.

  • The Southern Ocean Fine structure (SOFine) dataset comprises hydrographic (temperature, salinity, current velocities, microstructure and turbulence), bathymetric and meteorological (air temperature, pressure, winds, humidity and irradiance) measurements from the Kerguelen Plateau region of the Southern Ocean. The data were collected between late 2008 and early 2010 via one research cruise (November - December 2008) and two long-term mooring deployments (November 2008 - January 2010). Data collection involved the deployment of a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) package accompanied by lowered acoustic Doppler current profilers (LADCPs) at numerous locations across the study area. Microstructure was measured using a freefall Vertical Microstructure Profiler (VMP) and opportunistic measurements of upper ocean turbulence were collected with a tethered ISW Wassermesstechnik microstructure profiler. The station data were supplemented by continuous underway measurements of current velocities (using a vessel mounted ADCP, VMADCP); bathymetry (using single- and multi-beam echosounders); and surface ocean and meteorological parameters. Floats and drifters were also deployed, as were five moorings: three were recovered approximately 2.5 weeks later during the cruise and two were deployed for more than one year. The moored instruments measured physical parameters such as temperature, conductivity and pressure, horizontal and vertical current velocities (using moored ADCPs) and turbulence (using moored microstructure profilers, MMPs). The SOFine project aimed to enhance our understanding of frictional processes that slow the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and help to drive the Southern Ocean overturning circulation. SOFine involved researchers from UK, US, Australian and German institutions, including the National Oceanography Centre (NOC), the University of East Anglia (UEA), British Antarctic Survey (BAS), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), the University of Tasmania and the Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), University of Kiel. The UK principal investigator (PI) is A. Naveira Garabato from the School of Ocean and Earth Science, NOC and the majority of the data are managed by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC). The float and drifter data are managed by the Argo programme and Australian research institutions, and are not held at BODC.

  • The Diapycnal and Isopycnal Mixing Experiment in the Southern Ocean (DIMES) UK data set comprises hydrographic data, including measurements of temperature, salinity, currents and turbulence, supplemented by bathymetric and meteorological data. The study area is located within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in the southeast Pacific, Drake Passage and Scotia Sea regions of the Southern Ocean. Data collection began in December 2009 and ended in April 2014. The data were collected via a combination of research cruises in the southern hemisphere summer seasons. Three cruises were intended (UKD-1, UKD-2 and UKD-3) a further three cruises were completed (UKD-2.5, UKD-4 and UKD-5). Shipboard data collection involved the deployment of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) packages, accompanied by lowered acoustic Doppler current profilers (LADCPs), and Vertical Microstructure Profilers (VMPs) in a grid pattern across the study area. Continuous measurements of current velocities (using vessel mounted ADCPs, VMADCPs), bathymetry and surface ocean and meteorological properties were collected throughout each cruise. An inert chemical tracer (sulphur hexafluoride, SF6) was released into the ACC in early 2009, and subsequent cruises measured temporal changes in the tracer distribution via the analysis of water samples collected at CTD stations. In addition, a mooring cluster was deployed in Drake Passage in early 2009 provided approximately two years' worth of hydrographic time series data. Floats and drifters were also deployed in the 2009 and 2010 seasons. The DIMES project aims to enhance understanding of mixing processes in the Southern Ocean, as it is thought that such processes may significantly affect ocean energetics and property balances, and thus have implications for the accuracy of climate models. DIMES brings together researchers from both UK and US institutions, including the National Oceanography Centre (NOC), the University of East Anglia (UEA), British Antarctic Survey (BAS), the Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Scripps Institute of Oceanography, Florida State University, the University of Washington and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The UK principal investigator (PI) is A. Naveira Garabato from NOC and the UK data will be managed by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC). Data collected on US cruises, including all float and drifter data, will be managed by US institutions and are not held at BODC.

  • The Ocean Surface Mixing, Ocean Sub-mesoscale Interaction Study (OSMOSIS) data set contains a variety of oceanographic measurements including a year long time series of the properties of the ocean surface boundary layer and its controlling 3D physical processes. The core observations include measurements of temperature, salinity, nutrients, currents and shear harvested from a suite of instrumentation including CTDs, ocean gliders, drifter buoys and moored sensors. OSMOSIS data were collected during three cruises. The first cruise undertook preliminary exploratory work in the Clyde Sea (September 2011) to hone techniques and strategies. The following cruises carried out mooring deployments and recovery in the vicinity of the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) observatory (in late Summer 2012 and 2013 respectively). Additional opportunist ship time being factored in to support the ambitious glider operations associated with OSMOSIS. This multiple year study will combine traditional observational techniques, such as moorings and CTDs, with the latest autonomous sampling technologies (including ocean gliders), capable of delivering near real-time scientific measurements through the water column. The OSMOSIS data set will contain high-resolution vertical measurements, which will shed light on the complex turbulent processes that drive the deepening of the OSBL and similarly the sub-mesoscale processes promoting OSBL re-stratification. Continuous mooring and glider measurements over a complete annual cycle will also provide invaluable insight into how the OSBL evolves over time. The NERC OSMOSIS Consortium brings together scientists from various UK research centres including the University of Southampton School of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Reading, Bangor and the National Oceanography Centre (NOC).

  • The dataset comprises 61 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, from across the North East Atlantic Ocean (limit 40W) area specifically the Extended Ellett Line and the Wyville Thomson Ridge, during August and September of 2007. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the Scottish Association for Marine Science as part of the Oceans 2025 programme.

  • This dataset comprises the following water body parameters: pressure; density; salinity; temperature; fluorescence; oxygen; dissolved inorganic nutrients; dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC); particulate carbon (PC); particulate organic carbon (POC); particulate nitrogen (PN); alkalinity; pH; chlorophyll; photosynthetically active radiation (PAR); delta 15 N isotopic composition of PN and nitrate; delta 13 C isotopic composition of POC; delta 18 O isotopic composition of nitrate; ratio of oxygen isotopes. This dataset also includes dissolved inorganic nutrients in sediment pore water, and major and minor element concentrations in sediment. Data were sampled on the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), more specifically in Ryder and Marguerite Bays. Measurements were obtained from either in situ sensors, samples collected by box coring, or by Niskin bottles mounted on the CTD rosette of RRS James Clark Ross during cruises JR20141231 (JR307, JR308) and JR15003 which took place from 31 December 2014 to 07 January 2015 and from 17 December 2015 to 13 January 2016 respectively. Samples were also collected from Niskin bottles deployed with a hand-cranked winch or 12 V electric bilge pump from a rigid-hulled inflatable boat between 16 November 2013 and 21 March 2016. Sediment samples were analysed for major and minor element composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at the School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh. This research project aimed to examine the ways in which ongoing climate change and sea ice decline at the WAP impact upon nutrient budgets and biogeochemical cycling throughout the region, and to trace the movement and modification of circumpolar deep water across the WAP shelf and its influence on macronutrient and inorganic carbon supply to productive coastal regions. Data were generated by Sian Henley (University of Edinburgh), Hugh Venables and Michael Meredith (British Antarctic Survey), Elizabeth Jones (University of Groningen), Katharine Hendry (University of Bristol), and Yvonne Firing (NOC Southampton), with funding from NERC Independent Research Fellowship (NE/K010034/1), the University of Edinburgh School of Geosciences, the British Antarctic Survey Polar Oceans Program, the Netherlands Polar Program (NOW), British Antarctic Survey CGS-109, and NERC NC Funding for SR1b repeat transect (PI Firing). Additional contributors to the dataset were Malcolm Woodward (Plymouth Marine Laboratory), Melanie Leng (British Geological Survey) and Colin Chilcott and Nicholas Odling (University of Edinburgh).

  • The Autosub Under Ice (AUI) data set comprises hydrographic measurements including temperature, salinity, fluorescence, attenuance, dissolved oxygen concentrations and current velocities. Water samples were also collected for salinity and geochemical analysis, and the data set also includes bathymetric and sediment data. The measurements were collected near Greenland and Antarctica in the respective summer seasons for each hemisphere during 2003, 2004 and 2005. The programme consisted of four cruises onboard the ice-capable research vessel RRS James Clark Ross (JCR106, JCR106B, JCR84, JCR97). Data were collected by both shipboard sensors and those attached to the Autosub (an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) package. Shipboard data collection included deployment of a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) package with attached auxiliary sensors. Lowered acoustic Dopper current profilers (LADCPs) were also attached to the CTD frame, while discrete water samples were collected from the CTD stations. Oceanographic, bathymetric and sediment data were collected along the ship's track, while further current data were collected from two mooring deployments. Autosub measurements included standard environmental parameters and acoustic instruments were used to measure ice shelf, sea ice and ocean bottom relief at high resolution. A camera was also attached to the vehicle, permitting the collection of detailed photographs of the seabed. Autosub had been upgraded to achieve 1000 km range and 2500 m water depth, which provided unprecedented access to ice covered regions. The AUI programme was established to investigate the marine environment of floating ice shelves with a view to advancing our understanding of their role in the climate system. It brought together researchers and engineers from a number of UK institutions, with the project being coordinated by the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton.

  • The Antarctic Deep Water Rates of Export (ANDREX) dataset comprises hydrographic and biogeochemical data. Measurments include temperature; salinity; currents; concentrations of geochemical tracers such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), freon, tritium, radiocarbon and noble gases; alkalinity; dissolved oxygen and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2); and nutrient concentrations (nitrate, silicate and phosphate). These data are supplemented by meteorological (air pressure, air temperature, wind velocity, relative humidity, radiation) and bathymetric measurements. The data were collected along a track running from the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula to 30 deg E that corresponds to the northern limb of the Weddell gyre within the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Data collection was undertaken in December 2008-January 2009 and March-April 2010 over two UK research cruises. In 2008 the section was aborted approximately halfway due to a medical evacuation. The track was completed during the second cruise in March-April 2010. Data were collected via the deployment of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profilers, accompanied by lowered acoustic Doppler current profilers (LADCPs), at numerous stations along the cruise track. This permitted the collection of water samples for biogeochemical analyses. In addition to measurements at individual stations, various parameters were measured continuously throughout each cruise, including current velocities (using a vessel mounted ADCP, VMADCP), water depth and surface ocean and meteorological properties. These data will be supplemented by measurements collected on a US CLIVAR section (a WOCE I6S repeat) between South Africa and Antarctica along 30deg E in January-February 2008. The ANDREX project aims to enhance our understanding of the role of the Weddell gyre in the meridional overturning circulation, in ventilating the deep ocean and in sequestering carbon and nutrients in the global deep ocean. ANDREX is a joint effort between UK, German and US research institutes, including the National Oceanography Centre (UK), the University of East Anglia (UK), British Antarctic Survey (UK), the University of Manchester (UK), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (USA) and the Alfred Wegener Institute (Germany). The UK principal investigator (PI) is A. Naveira Garabato from the School of Ocean and Earth Science, NOC. Data collected during the UK cruises will be managed by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) but those collected on the US CLIVAR section will not be held at BODC.

  • The CARBON-OPS data set comprises partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and ancilliary parameters, measured aboard selected UK research vessels between 2007 and 2008. The parameter suite includes geographical position; partial pressure and fugacity of CO2; sea surface temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen concentration; air pressure, temperature and humidity; occasionally the parameter suite also includes fluorescence, transmittance, wind speed and direction. CARBON-OPS, led by Nick Hardman-Mountford at Plymouth Marine Laboratory, was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council under the Knowledge Transfer initiative (2007-2009). The aim of the project was to develop an automated supply chain of ocean surface and atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements from research ships to operational end-users. The data were first provided in near real-time following an initial level of automated quality control and processing. Following a secondary level of manual quality control and processing (delayed mode) the data are integrated into the BODC National Oceanographic Database. Measurements were taken aboard five UK research vessels: RRS Discovery, RRS James Clark Ross; RRS James Cook; RV Plymouth Quest; and RV Prince Madog.

  • The dataset comprises 92 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, from across the North East Atlantic Ocean (limit 40W) area specifically Rockall Trough, Hatton Bank, Iceland Basin and the Ellett Line. The data were collected during July and August of 2007. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton as part of the Oceans 2025 programme.