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Wales

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  • This data set consists of Particle Size Distribution (PSD) measurements, analysed in a sub set of soil samples with a loss on ignition lower than 50%, taken from within a range of land use types across Wales, collected as part of the Glastir Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (GMEP). Laser granulometry was used to measure the PSD. The monitoring programme was set up by the Welsh Government in 2013 to monitor the effects of the Glastir agri-environment scheme on the environment and ran from 2013 to 2016. The field survey element was based on a stratified random sampling design of 300 x 1km square sites across Wales, and was managed by the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/d6c3cc3c-a7b7-48b2-9e61-d07454639656

  • This dataset consists of change data for areas of Broad Habitats across Great Britain between 1998 and 2007. The data are national estimates generated by analysing the sample data from up to 591 1km squares and scaling up to a national level. The data are summarized as percentage increase or decrease in habitat area per Land Class (areas of similar environmental characteristics) and are in a vector format. The sample sites are chosen from a stratified random sample, based on a 15 by 15 km grid of GB and using the 'ITE Land Classification' as a method of stratification. The data were collected as part of Countryside Survey, a unique study or 'audit' of the natural resources of the UK's countryside. The Survey has been carried out at regular intervals since 1978 by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. The countryside is sampled and surveyed using rigorous scientific methods, allowing us to compare new results with those from previous surveys. In this way we can detect the gradual and subtle changes that occur in the UK's countryside over time. Surveys have been carried out in 1978, 1984, 1990, 1998 and 2007 with repeated visits to the majority of squares. In addition to habitat areas, vegetation species data, soil data, linear habitat data, and freshwater habitat data are also gathered by Countryside Survey. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/d83a0f9e-00c9-4d2d-9d0a-e92a16dcb334

  • This dataset combines average daily temperature and soil moisture data from nine experimental plots at the climate change field site Climoor located in Clocaenog forest, NE Wales. Soil temperature is measured at 5 cm and 20 cm soil depth (degrees Celsius), and soil moisture is measured as soil volumetric water content (m3 per m3). The experimental field site consists of three untreated control plots (Plots 3, 6 and 9), three plots where the plant canopy air is artificially warmed during night time hours (Plots 1, 2 and 7) and three plots where rainfall is excluded from the plots at least during the plants growing season (Plots 4, 5 and 8). Data is an extension of the micromet datasets covering 1998-2015 and 2015-2016; adding the time period September 2016 to December 2021. Soil temperatures were measured with T107 sensors, and soil moisture was measured with CS616 sensors, both from Campbell scientific. Temperature and moisture data were recorded in minute intervals, and automatically averaged as half-hourly by the data logger. Half-hourly data were automatically transferred to CEH/UKCEH servers using remote telemetry. Data which were not recorded are marked with “NA”, faulty data were replaced with “-9999”. The Climoor field experiment intends to answer questions regarding the effects of warming and drought on ecosystem processes. The reported data are collected to monitor site specific environmental conditions and their development with time. These data are important to interpret results that are collected from the climate change manipulations imposed in the field. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/5d90d356-5b2c-4ce0-927a-e26efacff015

  • This data provides the results of a survey of the water quality of small streams draining forested and felled catchments across Wales. The water quality measurements are extensive, including analysis of major, minor, trace and ultra-trace elements together with nutrient and standard water quality measures such as pH and Gran alkalinity. Opportunistic sampling was undertaken with the aid for Forest Enterprise staff to sample sites at periods of both dry and very wet weather in order to assess the water quality under baseflow and stormflow conditions, respectively, to assess groundwater and soil endmember chemistries. The work was undertaken as part of a joint NERC, Environment Agency and Forestry Commission funded study to examine the impacts of conifer harvesting and replanting on upland water quality (Neal et al., 1998). Small catchment sites (2 to 5 ha) were chosen single tree and soil type at each location. Across the sites, the number of samplings varied between 1 and 10 depending upon feasibility of sampling. The monitoring period was from the 7th September 1995 up to the 18th November 1997.The scope and range of the Welsh survey work together with the findings are provided by Neal et al., 1998. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/6361c484-42bd-4e0c-874f-ef22dc55129f

  • This data set consists of headwater stream quality data for sites across Wales between 2013 and 2016. Data include macrophyte species records, chemistry and water quality metrics, 'River Habitat Surveys', invertebrates, diatoms and site characteristics. Streams were surveyed within a set of up to 300 x 1km squares across Wales (not all sites contained stream features), collected as part of the Glastir Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (GMEP). The monitoring programme was set up by the Welsh Government in 2013 to monitor the effects of the Glastir agri-environment scheme on the environment and ran from 2013 to 2016. The field survey element was based on a stratified random sampling design of 300 x 1km square sites across Wales, and was managed by the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/e305fa80-3d38-4576-beef-f6546fad5d45

  • [This dataset is embargoed until September 30, 2023]. The dataset contains: (i) estimates of zinc tolerance for 50 populations of Silene uniflora in the UK and Ireland generated between 03/2021 and 09/2021. The data were collected using cuttings from wild collected specimens. Root growth of cuttings in zinc rich media was assessed using deep water culture experiments. The data set contains the zinc tolerance (mean and standard deviations of root growth scores) and the number of cuttings assessed for each population; (ii) GPS positions describing the locations of 56 populations of Silene uniflora in the UK and Ireland which were observed between 2018 and 2021. Basic habitat type (montane, serpentine, mine, coastal) information is also included. The work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council NE/R001081/1. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/af4735e3-b5ba-4e0b-8a41-503eeff89a82

  • Collated indices are a relative measure of butterfly abundance across sites monitored as part of the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. Data from all survey sites (standard UKBMS transects, Wider Countryside Survey transects and targeted species surveys such as timed, larval web and egg counts) are used in the calculation of these indices. The statistics are presented as log10 values. These values are centred round an arbitrary value of 2 as a mean for the time series in order to help show which years are below or above average. Collated indices are calculated annually for each individual butterfly species that has been recorded on five or more sites in that year. Indices are calculated at UK level and at individual country level for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland where sufficient data are available. Based on this criterion, collated indices have been calculated for the entire time series from 1976 (UK, England and Wales), 1979 (Scotland) and 2004 (Northern Ireland) to the current year for the majority of species, but for some rarer species this has not been possible in some years, particular those in the first part of the time series. Collated indices are calculated using a log-linear model incorporating individual site indices from all monitored sites across the UK or country for a given species in a given year. The number of sites for each species ranges from 5 to several hundred or more and fluctuates from year to year. By 2010 almost 2,000 sites were monitored in total across the UK, with this number rising to more than 3,000 over the next decade. Collated indices are calculated so that we can determine how butterfly populations are changing over time across the UK. This data can be used, for example, to determine where to target conservation efforts and more generally the condition of the UK countryside. Butterflies are recognised as important indicators of biodiversity and environmental change, for example in UK and country Biodiversity Indicators, and have been used in numerous studies of the impacts of climate and habitat change on biodiversity. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (UKCEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/f00fb86d-25c2-4f98-b882-c661511c93ac

  • This dataset holds daily data from one automated weather station (AWS) located at the Climoor field site in Clocaenog forest, North East Wales. The data are on relative humidity (percent), air temperature (degrees Celsius), rainfall (millimetres), air pressure (millibars), net radiation (millivolts), solar radiation (kilowatts per square metre per second), photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), (micromol per square metre per second), wind speed (metres per second) and wind direction (degrees). Data is an extension of the daily AWS datasets for 1999-2015 and 2015-2016, for the time period September 2016 to December 2021. Data were recorded in minute intervals, averaged to half-hourly, then to daily means which are reported here. Data which were not recorded are marked with “NA”, faulty data were replaced with “-9999”. Data collection, processing and quality checking was carried out by members of CEH and UKCEH staff. The following measures were taken with sensors from Campbell Scientific: Rainfall sums are measured with an ARG100 Tipping bucket, air pressure is measured with a CS100 Barometer. Further, Solar radiation and PAR are measured using a Skye SP1110 pyranometer and a SKP215 quantum sensor from Skye Instruments. Wind direction and speed were recorded using a windsonic 2D Ultrasonic Anemometer from Windsonic. The Climoor field experiment intends to answer questions regarding the effects of warming and drought on ecosystem processes. The reported data are collected to monitor site specific environmental conditions and their development over time. These data are important to interpret results that are collected from the climate change manipulations imposed in the field. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/0ebfc33b-0da2-4329-aac7-69ed8925b979

  • This data set consists of freshwater pond quality data for sites across Wales between 2013 and 2016. Data include macrophyte species records, chemistry and water quality metrics, and environmental variables such as pollution, grazing and management from surveyed ponds. Ponds were surveyed within a set of up to 300 x 1km squares across Wales (not all sites contained pond features), collected as part of the Glastir Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (GMEP). The monitoring programme was set up by the Welsh Government in 2013 to monitor the effects of the Glastir agri-environment scheme on the environment and ran from 2013 to 2016. The field survey element was based on a stratified random sampling design of 300 x 1km square sites across Wales, and was managed by the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/687b38d3-2278-41a0-9317-2c7595d6b882

  • This dataset provides data on the timing of butterfly flight periods for each UK butterfly species across all monitored sites in the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Annual data from over 2,500 sites are presented relating to the timing (first appearance, last appearance, date of peak abundance and mean flight date) and the duration (total number of days, standard deviation around the mean flight date) of the flight period for all UK butterfly species from 1976 to the present year. In addition, this data is divided each year for eleven multi-voltine species to provide separate phenology data for distinct flight periods associated with first and subsequent generations. Phenology change is a widely used measure of the biological impacts of climate change because of the close relationship between temperature and the timing of biological events. This dataset provides an invaluable tool for assessing the impacts of climate change both spatially and temporally. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (UKCEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/b13ffd72-62bf-47d1-948b-d9d84dd12af7