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  • The dataset provides observational information on events when humans are in contact with poultry in rural and urban Bangladesh. Data were collected during observation periods of three hours duration in three settings where humans and poultry have close interactions: rural households with domestic poultry and small-scale commercial farms in rural areas of Tangail district and market stalls that sell, slaughter and process live poultry in Dhaka city. Observations on hygiene or handwashing behaviours that take place before or after contact with poultry, poultry products (eggs, meat) or poultry waste (bedding, faeces or carcasses) were also recorded. A structured observation sheet was used to record the number of occurrences of pre-defined activities. The objective was to record the types of contact behaviours and proportion of human-poultry interactions that could result in human exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria carried by poultry. The research was part of a wider research project, Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Transmission from the Outdoor Environment to Humans in Urban and Rural Bangladesh. The research was funded by NERC/BBSRC/MRC on behalf of the Antimicrobial Resistance Cross-Council Initiative, award NE/N019555/1. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/76f52a38-7a2c-49a3-b86f-cc40205459ef

  • Antibiotic susceptibility tests are presented as the zone of inhibition using the disc-diffusion method, and categorized as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. DNA samples from antibiotic-resistant bacteria were analysed for the presence or absence of resistance genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Laboratory analyses were conducted by trained staff at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b). The aim of the study was to identify the antibiotic-susceptibility profiles and resistance genes of bacteria (Escherichia coli) obtained from humans, poultry and the environment. Bacterial isolates previously identified with resistance to third-generation cephalosporins or carbapenems were included in the analysis. Bacterial samples originated from rural households and poultry farms (broiler chickens) in Mirzapur, Tangail district; and urban food markets in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Environmental samples included surface water, water supply, wastewater, soil, animal faeces (poultry and cattle) and solid waste. The survey was part of a wider research project, Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Antimicrobial Resistance Transmission from the Outdoor Environment to Humans in Urban and Rural Bangladesh. The research was funded by NERC/BBSRC/MRC on behalf of the Antimicrobial Resistance Cross-Council Initiative award NE/N019555/1. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/dda6dd55-f955-4dd5-bc03-b07cc8548a3d

  • This data set comprises water quality data from five tributaries of the River Thames, UK. Sampling sites at each river were from both upstream and downstream of sewage effluent point sources. Parameters measured were phosphorus and nitrogen species, dissolved organic carbon and major dissolved anions (fluoride, chloride, sulphate). This work was carried out as a part of the NERC project: “The environmental REsistome: confluence of Human and Animal Biota in antibiotic resistance spread (REHAB)” (Project reference NE/N019660/1). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/80710d5e-06cf-4757-93c5-87fcbe421352

  • The dataset includes information on antibiotic-resistance and resistance genes in bacteria (Escherichia coli) from humans, poultry and the environment in rural households, poultry farms and urban food markets. The rural households and poultry farms (broiler chickens) were located in Mirzapur, Tangail district; and urban food markets were located in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Environmental samples were collected from surface water, water supply, wastewater, soil, animal faeces (poultry and cattle) and solid waste between February 2017 and October 2018 . DNA samples from antibiotic-resistant bacteria found in all samples were analysed for quantitative assessment of two resistance genes. Trained staff from the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) undertook sample collection and laboratory analysis. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and associated genes among humans, poultry and environmental compartments in Bangladesh. The survey was part of a wider research project, Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Antimicrobial Resistance Transmission from the Outdoor Environment to Humans in Urban and Rural Bangladesh. The research was funded by NERC/BBSRC/MRC on behalf of the Antimicrobial Resistance Cross-Council Initiative award NE/N019555/1. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/0239cdaf-deab-4151-8f68-715063eaea45

  • The dataset collates the relative concentration of nearly 300 antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and potentially toxic elements (PTE; e.g., “metals”) found in soils across northeastern England during a sampling expedition in June 2016 by researchers at Newcastle University. Top soils (15cm depths; “A” horizon) were obtained from 24 rural and urban locations around Newcastle upon Tyne, representing a spectrum of landscape conditions relative to anticipated PTE contamination. There are three files related to different types of data collected: antimicrobial resistance genes, metal concentrations and PAH concentrations. The high-throughput analysis of nearly 300 AMR genes include many resistance traits representing major antibiotic classes: aminoglycosides, beta lactams, FCA (fluoroquinolone, quinolone, chloramphenicol, florfenicol and amphenicol resistance genes), MLSB (macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin B), tetracycline, vancomycin, sulphonamide, and efflux pumps. PAH data represent the US Environmental Protection Agency priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as one of the measures of pollution impact. The other measure of impact is based on levels of twelve PTE represented by “total” and “two bio-available” concentrations, based on three extraction methods. Elements included aluminium, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, nickel, phosphorus, and zinc. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/35b49db6-8522-4c6b-a779-820268292603

  • A cross-sectional, interviewer-administered survey was conducted in 2017 in rural households, poultry farms and urban food markets. Survey data for each setting comprise three datafiles. The rural households and poultry farms (broiler chickens) were located in Mirzapur, Tangail district; urban food markets were located in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. In each setting, the survey included participants that had high exposure to poultry, and a comparison group that had lower exposure to poultry. The aim of the survey was to assess potential sources of exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly commensal bacteria that colonise the gastrointestinal tract of humans and poultry. The survey also assessed the use of antibiotics for human participants and practices relating to their poultry such as type of feed, housing, use of antibiotics for poultry and hygiene practices before and after being in contact with poultry. The survey was part of a wider research project, Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Antimicrobial Resistance Transmission from the Outdoor Environment to Humans in Urban and Rural Bangladesh. The research was funded by NERC/BBSRC/MRC on behalf of the Antimicrobial Resistance Cross-Council Initiative, award NE/N019555/1. Full details about this nonGeographicDataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/b4a90182-8b9c-4da8-8b95-bcd5acc727d1

  • The dataset provides qualitative data from anonymised in-depth interviews conducted in 2017 with domestic poultry owners, commercial poultry farm workers and market sellers of live poultry in Bangladesh. The dataset comprises interview transcripts in Bangla. Household and farm interviews were carried out in rural areas of Mirzapur sub-district, Tangail. Interviews with market sellers of poultry were carried out in Dhaka city. An interview guide was used to explore themes and topics relating to poultry-raising practices, hygiene and waste disposal practices relating to poultry and use of antibiotics in poultry. The objective was to understand human behaviours and practices that may contribute to environmental contamination with antibiotic-resistant bacteria from poultry and potential pathways of transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from poultry to humans. The research was part of a wider research project, Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Transmission from the Outdoor Environment to Humans in Urban and Rural Bangladesh. The research was funded by NERC/BBSRC/MRC on behalf of the Antimicrobial Resistance Cross-Council Initiative, award NE/N019555/1. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/630759ac-b0ca-4561-8eec-414b47e14829