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  • Southern Ocean Atmospheric Photochemistry Experiment 2 (SOAPEX-2) is primarily an experiment to study atmospheric cleansing by free radicals in extremely clean and slightly perturbed tropospheric air and focuses on a field campaign carried out at Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station (BAPS), Tasmania in January-February 1999. The dataset contains concentrations of atmospheric constituents such as halocarbons, hydrocarbons, methane, nitric oxide, and carbon monoxide. This dataset is public.

  • Southern Ocean Atmospheric Photochemistry Experiment 2 (SOAPEX-2) is primarily an experiment to study atmospheric cleansing by free radicals in extremely clean and slightly perturbed tropospheric air and focuses on a field campaign carried out at Cape Grim, Tasmania in January-February 1999. The dataset contains concentrations of atmospheric constituents such as halocarbons, hydrocarbons, methane, nitric oxide, and carbon monoxide. This dataset is public. Oxidation of almost all trace gases released into the atmosphere is initiated by hydroxyl (OH) radicals, produced mainly from the action of near-UV light on ozone in the presence of water vapour. Increasing evidence suggests that the oxidative capacity of the troposphere has been perturbed in recent years due to the emission of gases such as methane, carbon monoxide, non-methane hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from man-made sources. These perturbations may be causing changes in the natural atmospheric composition, for instance increasing tropospheric levels of the greenhouse gas ozone, which has important consequences for climate and human health. It is also possible that the rates of oxidation of gases such as methane, and production of sulphate aerosols from the oxidation of sulphur dioxide, have been modified. Taken together a change in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere has many consequences for the long-term stability of the Earth's climate. SOAPEX-2 builds upon the success of the original SOAPEX-I experiment conducted at Cape Grim in January/February 1995 which resulted in the publication of several papers to the literature on the relationship between concentrations of peroxy radicals and uv light levels in different NOx concentration regimes, and the consequences for ozone production and loss in the marine boundary layer. SOAPEX-2 is a more complete experiment with the addition of atmospheric measurements of key new species including hydroxyl, hydroperoxyl, halogen oxide and nitrate radicals, non methane hydrocarbons, speciated aldehydes, PAN and halocarbons. SOAPEX-2 involves four groups of tropospheric scientists from the UK and Australia, namely the Universities of East Anglia, Leeds and Leicester along with CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific Research Organisation), Melbourne. The clean air photochemistry experiment is an essential prerequisite for experiments carried out in more polluted atmospheres. The data obtained is allowing rigorous testing of basic mechanisms which describe the behaviour of free radical concentrations at differing light levels, water vapour and nitrogen oxide concentrations, etc. The measurements performed in this project are expected to yield valuable information on chemical changes that are affecting the oxidative capacity of the global troposphere and, therefore, the rate at which the global atmosphere can cleanse itself of pollutants. The measurements are also highly relevant to the situation in more polluted atmospheres, where increased levels of confidence in our understanding of atmospheric chemistry is an essential prerequisite to any legislation designed to reduce regional and global pollution. The specific objectives of SOAPEX-2 are: * To quantitatively test fast photochemical theory in clean air. * To examine perturbations from the baseline situation in polluted continental air containing more complex mixtures of free radical sources and sinks * Investigation of the balance between tropospheric O3 production and destruction in differing NOx regimes * A test of instrumental performance * Testing of models used to simulate chemical processes in the lower atmosphere which are deficient in their description of boundary layer processes

  • This is the 1.0.0.2019f version of the HadISDH (Integrated Surface Database Humidity) blend data. It combines HadISDH.land.4.2.0.2019f and HadISDH.marine.1.0.0.2019f. These data are provided by the Met Office Hadley Centre. This version spans 1/1/1973 to 31/12/2019. The data are monthly gridded (5 degree by 5 degree) fields. Products are available for temperature and six humidity variables: specific humidity (q), relative humidity (RH), dew point temperature (Td), wet bulb temperature (Tw), vapour pressure (e), dew point depression (DPD). Data are provided in NetCDF format. This version is the first available. To keep informed about updates, news and announcements follow the HadOBS team on twitter @metofficeHadOBS. For more detailed information e.g bug fixes, routine updates and other exploratory analysis, see the HadISDH blog: http://hadisdh.blogspot.co.uk/ References: When using the dataset in a paper please cite the following papers (see Docs for link to the publications) and this dataset (using the "citable as" reference): Willett, K. M., Dunn, R. J. H., Kennedy, J. J. and Berry, D. I.: Development of the HadISDH marine humidity climate monitoring dataset. Earth System Sciences Data, in review, doi:XX.XXXX/essd-XX-XXXX-2020, 2020. Willett, K. M., Dunn, R. J. H., Thorne, P. W., Bell, S., de Podesta, M., Parker, D. E., Jones, P. D., and Williams Jr., C. N.: HadISDH land surface multi-variable humidity and temperature record for climate monitoring, Clim. Past, 10, 1983-2006, doi:10.5194/cp-10-1983-2014, 2014. Freeman, E., Woodruff, S. D., Worley, S. J., Lubker, S. J., Kent, E. C., Angel, W. E., Berry, D. I., Brohan, P., Eastman, R., Gates, L., Gloeden, W., Ji, Z., Lawrimore, J., Rayner, N. A., Rosenhagen, G. and Smith, S. R., ICOADS Release 3.0: A major update to the historical marine climate record. International Journal of Climatology. doi:10.1002/joc.4775. Dunn, R. J. H., et al. 2016: Expanding HadISD: quality-controlled, sub-daily station data from 1931, Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, 5, 473-491. Smith, A., N. Lott, and R. Vose, 2011: The Integrated Surface Database: Recent Developments and Partnerships. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 92, 704–708, doi:10.1175/2011BAMS3015.1

  • This is the HadISDH blend 1.1.1.2020f version of the Met Office Hadley Centre Integrated Surface Dataset of Humidity (HadISDH). HadISDH-blend is a near-global gridded monthly mean surface humidity climate monitoring product. It is created from in situ observations of air temperature and dew point temperature from ships and weather stations. The observations have been quality controlled and homogenised / bias adjusted. Uncertainty estimates for observation issues and gridbox sampling are provided (see data quality statement section below). These data are provided by the Met Office Hadley Centre. This version spans 1/1/1973 to 31/12/2020. The data are monthly gridded (5 degree by 5 degree) fields. Products are available for temperature and six humidity variables: specific humidity (q), relative humidity (RH), dew point temperature (Td), wet bulb temperature (Tw), vapour pressure (e), dew point depression (DPD). This version extends the 1.0.0.2019f version to the end of 2020. It combines HadISDH.land.4.3.1.2020f and HadISDH.marine.1.1.0.2020f and therefore their respective update notes. Users are advised to read the update documents in the Docs section for full details. To keep informed about updates, news and announcements follow the HadOBS team on twitter @metofficeHadOBS. For more detailed information e.g bug fixes, routine updates and other exploratory analysis, see the HadISDH blog: http://hadisdh.blogspot.co.uk/ References: When using the dataset in a paper please cite the following papers (see Docs for link to the publications) and this dataset (using the "citable as" reference): Willett, K. M., Dunn, R. J. H., Kennedy, J. J. and Berry, D. I., 2020: Development of the HadISDH marine humidity climate monitoring dataset. Earth System Sciences Data, 12, 2853-2880, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-2853-2020 Freeman, E., Woodruff, S. D., Worley, S. J., Lubker, S. J., Kent, E. C., Angel, W. E., Berry, D. I., Brohan, P., Eastman, R., Gates, L., Gloeden, W., Ji, Z., Lawrimore, J., Rayner, N. A., Rosenhagen, G. and Smith, S. R., ICOADS Release 3.0: A major update to the historical marine climate record. International Journal of Climatology. doi:10.1002/joc.4775. Willett, K. M., Dunn, R. J. H., Thorne, P. W., Bell, S., de Podesta, M., Parker, D. E., Jones, P. D., and Williams Jr., C. N.: HadISDH land surface multi-variable humidity and temperature record for climate monitoring, Clim. Past, 10, 1983-2006, doi:10.5194/cp-10-1983-2014, 2014. Dunn, R. J. H., et al. 2016: Expanding HadISD: quality-controlled, sub-daily station data from 1931, Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, 5, 473-491. Smith, A., N. Lott, and R. Vose, 2011: The Integrated Surface Database: Recent Developments and Partnerships. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 92, 704-708, doi:10.1175/2011BAMS3015.1 We strongly recommend that you read these papers before making use of the data, more detail on the dataset can be found in an earlier publication: Willett, K. M., Williams Jr., C. N., Dunn, R. J. H., Thorne, P. W., Bell, S., de Podesta, M., Jones, P. D., and Parker D. E., 2013: HadISDH: An updated land surface specific humidity product for climate monitoring. Climate of the Past, 9, 657-677, doi:10.5194/cp-9-657-2013.

  • This is the 1.0.0.2018f version of the HadISDH (Integrated Surface Database Humidity) marine data and the first version to be produced. These data are provided by the Met Office Hadley Centre. This version spans 1/1/1973 to 31/12/2018. The data are monthly gridded (5 degree by 5 degree) fields. Products are available for temperature and six humidity variables: specific humidity (q), relative humidity (RH), dew point temperature (Td), wet bulb temperature (Tw), vapour pressure (e), dew point depression (DPD). Data are provided in NetCDF format. To keep informed about updates, news and announcements follow the HadOBS team on twitter @metofficeHadOBS. For more detailed information e.g bug fixes, routine updates and other exploratory analysis, see the HadISDH blog: http://hadisdh.blogspot.co.uk/ References: When using the dataset in a paper please cite the following papers (see Docs for link to the publications) and this dataset (using the "citable as" reference): Willett, K. M., Dunn, R. J. H., Kennedy, J. J. and Berry, D. I.: Development of the HadISDH marine humidity climate monitoring dataset. Earth System Sciences Data, in review, doi:XX.XXXX/essd-XX-XXXX-2020, 2020. Freeman, E., Woodruff, S. D., Worley, S. J., Lubker, S. J., Kent, E. C., Angel, W. E., Berry, D. I., Brohan, P., Eastman, R., Gates, L., Gloeden, W., Ji, Z., Lawrimore, J., Rayner, N. A., Rosenhagen, G. and Smith, S. R., ICOADS Release 3.0: A major update to the historical marine climate record. International Journal of Climatology. doi:10.1002/joc.4775.

  • This is the 1.0.0.2019f version of the HadISDH (Integrated Surface Database Humidity) marine data. These data are provided by the Met Office Hadley Centre. This version spans 1/1/1973 to 31/12/2019. The data are monthly gridded (5 degree by 5 degree) fields. Products are available for temperature and six humidity variables: specific humidity (q), relative humidity (RH), dew point temperature (Td), wet bulb temperature (Tw), vapour pressure (e), dew point depression (DPD). Data are provided in either NetCDF or ASCII format. This version extends the 1.0.0.2018f version to the end of 2019 and constitutes with no changes other than the addition of 2019 data. Users are advised to read the update document in the Docs section for full details. To keep informed about updates, news and announcements follow the HadOBS team on twitter @metofficeHadOBS. For more detailed information e.g bug fixes, routine updates and other exploratory analysis, see the HadISDH blog: http://hadisdh.blogspot.co.uk/ References: When using the dataset in a paper please cite the following papers (see Docs for link to the publications) and this dataset (using the "citable as" reference): Willett, K. M., Dunn, R. J. H., Kennedy, J. J. and Berry, D. I.: Development of the HadISDH marine humidity climate monitoring dataset. Earth System Sciences Data, in review, doi:XX.XXXX/essd-XX-XXXX-2020, 2020. Freeman, E., Woodruff, S. D., Worley, S. J., Lubker, S. J., Kent, E. C., Angel, W. E., Berry, D. I., Brohan, P., Eastman, R., Gates, L., Gloeden, W., Ji, Z., Lawrimore, J., Rayner, N. A., Rosenhagen, G. and Smith, S. R., ICOADS Release 3.0: A major update to the historical marine climate record. International Journal of Climatology. doi:10.1002/joc.4775.

  • This is the 4.2.0.2019f version of the HadISDH (Integrated Surface Database Humidity) land data. These data are provided by the Met Office Hadley Centre. This version spans 1/1/1973 to 31/12/2019. The data are monthly gridded (5 degree by 5 degree) fields. Products are available for temperature and six humidity variables: specific humidity (q), relative humidity (RH), dew point temperature (Td), wet bulb temperature (Tw), vapour pressure (e), dew point depression (DPD). Data are provided in either NetCDF or ASCII format. This version extends the 4.1.0.2018f version to the end of 2019 and constitutes a minor update to HadISDH due to changing some of the code base from IDL to Python 3 and detecting and fixing various bugs in the process. These have led to small changes in regional and global average values and coverage. All other processing steps for HadISDH remain identical. Users are advised to read the update document in the Docs section for full details. As in previous years, the annual scrape of NOAA’s Integrated Surface Dataset for HadISD.3.1.0.2019f, which is the basis of HadISDH.land, has pulled through some historical changes to stations. This, and the additional year of data, results in small changes to station selection. There has been an issue with data for April 2015 whereby it is missing for most of the globe. This will hopefully be resolved by next year’s update. The homogeneity adjustments differ slightly due to sensitivity to the addition and loss of stations, historical changes to stations previously included and the additional 12 months of data. To keep informed about updates, news and announcements follow the HadOBS team on twitter @metofficeHadOBS. For more detailed information e.g bug fixes, routine updates and other exploratory analysis, see the HadISDH blog: http://hadisdh.blogspot.co.uk/ References: When using the dataset in a paper please cite the following papers (see Docs for link to the publications) and this dataset (using the "citable as" reference): Willett, K. M., Dunn, R. J. H., Thorne, P. W., Bell, S., de Podesta, M., Parker, D. E., Jones, P. D., and Williams Jr., C. N.: HadISDH land surface multi-variable humidity and temperature record for climate monitoring, Clim. Past, 10, 1983-2006, doi:10.5194/cp-10-1983-2014, 2014. Dunn, R. J. H., et al. 2016: Expanding HadISD: quality-controlled, sub-daily station data from 1931, Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, 5, 473-491. Smith, A., N. Lott, and R. Vose, 2011: The Integrated Surface Database: Recent Developments and Partnerships. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 92, 704–708, doi:10.1175/2011BAMS3015.1 We strongly recommend that you read these papers before making use of the data, more detail on the dataset can be found in an earlier publication: Willett, K. M., Williams Jr., C. N., Dunn, R. J. H., Thorne, P. W., Bell, S., de Podesta, M., Jones, P. D., and Parker D. E., 2013: HadISDH: An updated land surface specific humidity product for climate monitoring. Climate of the Past, 9, 657-677, doi:10.5194/cp-9-657-2013.

  • This is the HadISDH marine 1.1.0.2020f version of the Met Office Hadley Centre Integrated Surface Dataset of Humidity (HadISDH). HadISDH-marine s a near-global gridded monthly mean marine surface humidity climate monitoring product. It is created from in situ observations of air temperature and dew point temperature from ships. The observations have been quality controlled and bias-adjusted. Uncertainty estimates for observation issues and gridbox sampling are provided (see data quality statement section below). The data are provided by the Met Office Hadley Centre and this version spans 1/1/1973 to 31/12/2020. The data are monthly gridded (5 degree by 5 degree) fields. Products are available for temperature and six humidity variables: specific humidity (q), relative humidity (RH), dew point temperature (Td), wet bulb temperature (Tw), vapour pressure (e), dew point depression (DPD). This version extends the 1.0.0.2019f version to the end of 2020 and constitutes a minor update to HadISDH due to change in method for calculating gridbox monthly means. All other processing steps for HadISDH remain identical. Users are advised to read the update document in the Docs section for full details. To keep informed about updates, news and announcements follow the HadOBS team on twitter @metofficeHadOBS. For more detailed information e.g bug fixes, routine updates and other exploratory analysis, see the HadISDH blog: http://hadisdh.blogspot.co.uk/ References: When using the dataset in a paper please cite the following papers (see Docs for link to the publications) and this dataset (using the "citable as" reference): Willett, K. M., Dunn, R. J. H., Kennedy, J. J. and Berry, D. I., 2020: Development of the HadISDH marine humidity climate monitoring dataset. Earth System Sciences Data, 12, 2853-2880, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-2853-2020 Freeman, E., Woodruff, S. D., Worley, S. J., Lubker, S. J., Kent, E. C., Angel, W. E., Berry, D. I., Brohan, P., Eastman, R., Gates, L., Gloeden, W., Ji, Z., Lawrimore, J., Rayner, N. A., Rosenhagen, G. and Smith, S. R., ICOADS Release 3.0: A major update to the historical marine climate record. International Journal of Climatology. doi:10.1002/joc.4775.

  • This is the HadISDH land 4.3.1.2020f version of the Met Office Hadley Centre Integrated Surface Dataset of Humidity (HadISDH). HadISDH-land is a near-global gridded monthly mean land surface humidity climate monitoring product. It is created from in situ observations of air temperature and dew point temperature from weather stations. The observations have been quality controlled and homogenised. Uncertainty estimates for observation issues and gridbox sampling are provided (see data quality statement section below). The data are provided by the Met Office Hadley Centre and this version spans 1/1/1973 to 31/12/2020. The data are monthly gridded (5 degree by 5 degree) fields. Products are available for temperature and six humidity variables: specific humidity (q), relative humidity (RH), dew point temperature (Td), wet bulb temperature (Tw), vapour pressure (e), dew point depression (DPD). This version extends the 4.2.0.2019f version to the end of 2020 and constitutes a minor update to HadISDH due to changing some of the code base from IDL and Python 2.7 to Python 3, detecting and fixing a bug in the process, and retrieving the missing April 2015 station data. These have led to small changes in regional and global average values and coverage. All other processing steps for HadISDH remain identical. Users are advised to read the update document in the Docs section for full details. As in previous years, the annual scrape of NOAAs Integrated Surface Dataset for HadISD.3.1.2.202101p, which is the basis of HadISDH.land, has pulled through some historical changes to stations. This, and the additional year of data, results in small changes to station selection. The homogeneity adjustments differ slightly due to sensitivity to the addition and loss of stations, historical changes to stations previously included and the additional 12 months of data. To keep informed about updates, news and announcements follow the HadOBS team on twitter @metofficeHadOBS. For more detailed information e.g bug fixes, routine updates and other exploratory analysis, see the HadISDH blog: http://hadisdh.blogspot.co.uk/ References: When using the dataset in a paper please cite the following papers (see Docs for link to the publications) and this dataset (using the "citable as" reference): Willett, K. M., Dunn, R. J. H., Thorne, P. W., Bell, S., de Podesta, M., Parker, D. E., Jones, P. D., and Williams Jr., C. N.: HadISDH land surface multi-variable humidity and temperature record for climate monitoring, Clim. Past, 10, 1983-2006, doi:10.5194/cp-10-1983-2014, 2014. Dunn, R. J. H., et al. 2016: Expanding HadISD: quality-controlled, sub-daily station data from 1931, Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, 5, 473-491. Smith, A., N. Lott, and R. Vose, 2011: The Integrated Surface Database: Recent Developments and Partnerships. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 92, 704-708, doi:10.1175/2011BAMS3015.1 We strongly recommend that you read these papers before making use of the data, more detail on the dataset can be found in an earlier publication: Willett, K. M., Williams Jr., C. N., Dunn, R. J. H., Thorne, P. W., Bell, S., de Podesta, M., Jones, P. D., and Parker D. E., 2013: HadISDH: An updated land surface specific humidity product for climate monitoring. Climate of the Past, 9, 657-677, doi:10.5194/cp-9-657-2013.

  • HadISDH (Integrated Surface Database Humidity) is a monthly 5° by 5° gridded global surface humidity climate monitoring dataset created from in-situ sub-daily synoptic data. The data have been quality controlled and homogenised (land), bias adjusted (marine) and buddy checked (marine). Monthly mean climate anomalies are provided alongside uncertainty estimates, actual values, climatological means and standard deviations for specific humidity, relative humidity, vapour pressure, dew point temperature, wet bulb temperature, dew point depression in addition to the simultaneously observed temperature.