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  • This dataset contains land surface temperatures (LSTs) and their uncertainty estimates from multiple Infra-Red (IR) instruments on satellites in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) sun-synchronous (a.k.a. polar orbiting) satellites. Satellite land surface temperatures are skin temperatures, which means, for example, the temperature of the ground surface in bare soil areas, the temperature of the canopy over forests, and a mix of the soil and leaf temperature over sparse vegetation. The skin temperature is an important variable when considering surface fluxes of, for instance, heat and water. LST fields are provided at 3 hourly intervals each day (00:00 UTC, 03:00 UTC, 06:00 UTC, 09:00 UTC, 12:00 UTC, 15:00 UTC, 18:00 UTC and 21:00 UTC). Per pixel uncertainty estimates are given in two forms, first, an estimate of the total uncertainty for the pixel and second, a breakdown of the uncertainty into components by correlation length. Also provided in the files, on a per pixel basis, are the observation time, the satellite viewing and the solar geometry angles. The product is based on merging of available GEO data and infilling with available LEO data outside of the GEO discs. Inter-instrument biases are accounted for by cross-calibration with the IASI instruments on METOP and LSTs are retrieved using a Generalised Split Window algorithm from all instruments. As data towards the edge of the GEO disc is known to have greater uncertainty, any datum with a satellite zenith angle of more than 60 degrees is discarded. All LSTs included have an observation time that lies within +/- 30 minutes of the file nominal Universal Time. Data from the following instruments is included in the dataset: geostationary, Imagers on Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 12 and GOES 13, Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES 16, Spinning Enhanced Visible Infra-Red Imager (SEVIRI) on Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) 1, MSG 2, MSG 3, and MSG 4, Japanese Advanced Meteorological Imager (JAMI) on Multifunctional Transport Satellite MTSAT) 1, and MTSAT 2; and polar, Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on Environmental Satellite (Envisat), Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Earth Observation System (EOS) - Aqua and EOS - Terra, Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer SLSTR on Sentinel-3A and Sentinel-3B. However, it should be noted that which instruments contribute to a particular product file depends on depends on mission start and end dates and instrument downtimes. Dataset coverage starts on 1st January 2009 and ends on 31st December 2020. LSTs are provided on a global equal angle grid at a resolution of 0.05° longitude and 0.05° latitude. The dataset coverage is nominally global over the land surface but varies depending on satellite and instrument availability and coverage. Furthermore, LSTs are not produced where clouds are present since under these circumstances the IR radiometer observes the cloud top which is usually much colder than the surface. The dataset was produced by the University of Leicester (UoL) and data were processed in the UoL processing chain. The Geostationary data were produced by the Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA) before being merged into the final dataset. The dataset was produced as part of the ESA Land Surface Temperature Climate Change Initiative which strives to improve satellite datasets to Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) standards.

  • This dataset contains monthly-averaged land surface temperatures (LSTs) and their uncertainty estimates from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Earth Observing System – Terra (Terra). Satellite land surface temperatures are skin temperatures which means, for example, the temperature of the ground surface in bare soil areas, the temperature of the canopy over forests, and a mix of the soil and leaf temperature over sparse vegetation. The skin temperature is an important variable when considering surface fluxes of, for instance, heat and water. Daytime and night-time temperatures are provided in separate files corresponding to the morning and evening Terra equator crossing times which are 10:30 and 22:30 local solar time. Per pixel uncertainty estimates are given in two forms, first, an estimate of the total uncertainty for the pixel and second, a breakdown of the uncertainty into components by correlation length. Also provided in the files, on a per pixel basis, are the observation time, the satellite viewing and solar geometry angles, a quality flag, and land cover class. The dataset coverage is global over the land surface. LSTs are provided on a global equal angle grid at a resolution of 0.01° longitude and 0.01° latitude. MODIS achieves full Earth coverage nearly twice per day so the daily files have small gaps primarily close to the equator where the surface is not covered by the satellite swath on that day. Furthermore, LSTs are not produced where clouds are present since under these circumstances the IR radiometer observes the cloud top which is usually much colder than the surface. The monthly dataset starts from March 2000 and ends December 2018. There are minor interruptions (1-2 days) during satellite/instrument maintenance periods. The dataset was produced by the University of Leicester (UoL) and LSTs were retrieved using a generalised split window retrieval algorithm and data were processed in the UoL processing chain. The dataset was produced as part of the ESA Land Surface Temperature Climate Change Initiative which strives to improve satellite datasets to Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) standards.

  • This dataset consists of a global collection of land surface air temperature data from meteorological stations covering the period from 1850-2015. It has been compiled as part of the European Union Horizon 2020 EUSTACE (EU Surface Temperature for All Corners of Earth) project. This version 1.1 is an update to the v1.0 dataset that fixes a bug in the time values in the original files; the data is otherwise identical. The dataset provides daily maximum and minimum temperatures from stations globally, brought together from a number of public databases: Global Historical Climatology Network Daily Temperatures (GHCN-D); European Climate Assessment & Dataset (ECA&D) non-blended; International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI); DECADE (Data on Climate and Extreme weather for the Central Andes); and ERA-CLIM (European Reanalysis of Global Climate Observations). These data have then been quality controlled through the removal of duplicates and unreliable data sources, and come with a large amount of additional information on quality, homogeneity and resolution. These data are available for non-commercial use.

  • This dataset consists of Land Surface Temperature (LST) data with uncertainty estimates, from the MODIS instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite. It forms part of the collection of datasets from the EUSTACE (EU Surface Temperature for All Corners of Earth) project, which is producing publicly available daily estimates of surface air temperature since 1850 across the globe for the first time by combining surface and satellite data using novel statistical techniques. The Level 2 Land Surface Temperature data in this dataset has been retrieved from MODIS Collection 6 L1B calibrated radiances, in the context of the GlobTemperature project, but new uncertainty estimates have been added as part of the EUSTACE project. This version of the LST dataset is v2.1 of the GT_MYG_2P product, with earlier versions produced under the GlobTemperature project. It consists of a complete set of LST and accompanying auxiliary (AUX) datafiles for the MODIS-Aqua mission for the period from 2002 until 2016. An equivalent dataset is also available for MODIS-Terra.

  • This dataset contains monthly-averaged land surface temperatures (LSTs) and their uncertainty estimates from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Earth Observing System – Aqua (Aqua). Satellite land surface temperatures are skin temperatures which means, for example, the temperature of the ground surface in bare soil areas, the temperature of the canopy over forests, and a mix of the soil and leaf temperature over sparse vegetation. The skin temperature is an important variable when considering surface fluxes of, for instance, heat and water. Daytime and night-time temperatures are provided in separate files corresponding to the daytime and night-time Aqua equator crossing times which are 13:30 and 01:30 local solar time. Per pixel uncertainty estimates are given in two forms, first, an estimate of the total uncertainty for the pixel and second, a breakdown of the uncertainty into components by correlation length. Also provided in the files, on a per pixel basis, are the observation time, the satellite viewing and solar geometry angles, a quality flag, and land cover class. The dataset coverage is global over the land surface. LSTs are provided on a global equal angle grid at a resolution of 0.01° longitude and 0.01° latitude. MODIS achieves full Earth coverage nearly twice per day so the daily files have small gaps primarily close to the equator where the surface is not covered by the satellite swath on that day. Furthermore, LSTs are not produced where clouds are present since under these circumstances the IR radiometer observes the cloud top which is usually much colder than the surface. Dataset coverage starts on 4th July 2002 and ends on 31st December 2018. There are minor interruptions (1-2 days) during satellite/instrument maintenance periods. The dataset was produced by the University of Leicester (UoL) and LSTs were retrieved using a generalised split window retrieval algorithm and data were processed in the UoL processing chain. The dataset was produced as part of the ESA Land Surface Temperature Climate Change Initiative which strives to improve satellite datasets to Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) standards.

  • This dataset consists of a global collection of land surface air temperature data from meteorological stations covering the period from 1850-2015. It has been compiled as part of the European Union Horizon 2020 EUSTACE (EU Surface Temperature for All Corners of Earth) project. The dataset provides daily maximum and minimum temperatures from stations globally, brought together from a number of public databases: Global Historical Climatology Network Daily Temperatures (GHCN-D); European Climate Assessment & Dataset (ECA&D) non-blended; International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI); DECADE (Data on Climate and Extreme weather for the Central Andes); and ERA-CLIM (European Reanalysis of Global Climate Observations). These data have then been quality controlled through the removal of duplicates and unreliable data sources, and come with a large amount of additional information on quality, homogeneity and resolution. This data is available for non-commercial use.

  • This dataset consists of Land Surface Temperature (LST) data with uncertainty estimates, from the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite. It forms part of the collection of datasets from the EUSTACE (EU Surface Temperature for All Corners of Earth) project, which is producing publicly available daily estimates of surface air temperature since 1850 across the globe for the first time by combining surface and satellite data using novel statistical techniques. The Level 2 Land Surface Temperature data in this dataset has been retrieved from MODIS Collection 6 L1B calibrated radiances, in the context of the GlobTemperature project, but new uncertainty estimates have been added as part of the EUSTACE project. This version of the LST dataset is v2.1 of the GT_MOG_2P product, with earlier versions produced under the GlobTemperature project. It consists of a complete set of LST and accompanying auxiliary (AUX) datafiles for the MODIS-Terra mission for the period 2000 to 2016. An equivalent dataset is also available for MODIS-Aqua.

  • This dataset contains monthly-averaged land surface temperatures (LSTs) and their uncertainty estimates from multiple Infra-Red (IR) instruments on satellites in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) sun-synchronous (a.k.a. polar orbiting) satellites. Satellite land surface temperatures are skin temperatures, which means, for example, the temperature of the ground surface in bare soil areas, the temperature of the canopy over forests, and a mix of the soil and leaf temperature over sparse vegetation. The skin temperature is an important variable when considering surface fluxes of, for instance, heat and water. LST fields are provided at 3 hourly intervals each day (00:00 UTC, 03:00 UTC, 06:00 UTC, 09:00 UTC, 12:00 UTC, 15:00 UTC, 18:00 UTC and 21:00 UTC). Per pixel uncertainty estimates are given in two forms, first, an estimate of the total uncertainty for the pixel and second, a breakdown of the uncertainty into components by correlation length. Also provided in the files, on a per pixel basis, are the observation time, the satellite viewing and the solar geometry angles. The product is based on merging of available GEO data and infilling with available LEO data outside of the GEO discs. Inter-instrument biases are accounted for by cross-calibration with the IASI instruments on METOP and LSTs are retrieved using a Generalised Split Window algorithm from all instruments. As data towards the edge of the GEO disc is known to have greater uncertainty, any datum with a satellite zenith angle of more than 60 degrees is discarded. All LSTs included have an observation time that lies within +/- 30 minutes of the file nominal Universal Time. Data from the following instruments is included in the dataset: geostationary, Imagers on Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 12 and GOES 13, Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES 16, Spinning Enhanced Visible Infra-Red Imager (SEVIRI) on Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) 1, MSG 2, MSG 3, and MSG 4, Japanese Advanced Meteorological Imager (JAMI) on Multifunctional Transport Satellite MTSAT) 1, and MTSAT 2; and polar, Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on Environmental Satellite (Envisat), Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Earth Observation System (EOS) - Aqua and EOS - Terra, Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer SLSTR on Sentinel-3A and Sentinel-3B. However, it should be noted that which instruments contribute to a particular product file depends on depends on mission start and end dates and instrument downtimes. Dataset coverage starts on 1st January 2009 and ends on 31st December 2020. LSTs are provided on a global equal angle grid at a resolution of 0.05° longitude and 0.05° latitude. The dataset coverage is nominally global over the land surface but varies depending on satellite and instrument availability and coverage. Furthermore, LSTs are not produced where clouds are present since under these circumstances the IR radiometer observes the cloud top which is usually much colder than the surface. The dataset was produced by the University of Leicester (UoL) and data were processed in the UoL processing chain. The Geostationary data were produced by the Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA) before being merged into the final dataset. The dataset was produced as part of the ESA Land Surface Temperature Climate Change Initiative which strives to improve satellite datasets to Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) standards.

  • This dataset contains monthly-averaged land surface temperatures (LSTs) and their uncertainty estimates from the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) on Sentinel 3B. Satellite land surface temperatures are skin temperatures, which means, for example, the temperature of the ground surface in bare soil areas, the temperature of the canopy over forests, and a mix of the soil and leaf temperature over sparse vegetation. The skin temperature is an important variable when considering surface fluxes of, for instance, heat and water. Daytime and night-time temperatures are provided in separate files corresponding to the morning and evening Sentinel 3B equator crossing times which are 10:00 and 22:00 local solar time. Per pixel uncertainty estimates are given in two forms, first, an estimate of the total uncertainty for the pixel and second, a breakdown of the uncertainty into components by correlation length. Also provided in the files, on a per pixel basis, are the observation time, the satellite viewing and solar geometry angles, a quality flag, and land cover class. The dataset coverage is global over the land surface. LSTs are provided on a global equal angle grid at a resolution of 0.01° longitude and 0.01° latitude. SLSTRB achieves full Earth coverage in 1 day so the daily files have gaps where the surface is not covered by the satellite swath during day or night on that day. Furthermore, LSTs are not produced where clouds are present since under these circumstances the IR radiometer observes the cloud top which is usually much colder than the surface. Dataset coverage runs from December 2018 to December 2020. There are minor interruptions (1-10 days) during satellite/instrument maintenance periods or instrument anomalies. The dataset was produced by the University of Leicester (UoL) and LSTs were retrieved using the (UoL) LST retrieval algorithm and data were processed in the UoL processing chain. The dataset was produced as part of the ESA Land Surface Temperature Climate Change Initiative which strives to improve satellite datasets to Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) standards.

  • This dataset contains land surface temperatures (LSTs) and their uncertainty estimates from the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) on Sentinel 3A. Satellite land surface temperatures are skin temperatures, which means, for example, the temperature of the ground surface in bare soil areas, the temperature of the canopy over forests, and a mix of the soil and leaf temperature over sparse vegetation. The skin temperature is an important variable when considering surface fluxes of, for instance, heat and water. Daytime and night-time temperatures are provided in separate files corresponding to the morning and evening Sentinel-3A equator crossing times which are 10:00 and 22:00 local solar time. Per pixel uncertainty estimates are given in two forms, first, an estimate of the total uncertainty for the pixel and second, a breakdown of the uncertainty into components by correlation length. Also provided in the files, on a per pixel basis, are the observation time, the satellite viewing and solar geometry angles, a quality flag, and land cover class. The dataset coverage is global over the land surface. LSTs are provided on a global equal angle grid at a resolution of 0.01° longitude and 0.01° latitude. SLSTRA achieves full Earth coverage in 1 day so the daily files have gaps where the surface is not covered by the satellite swath during day or night on that day. Furthermore, LSTs are not produced where clouds are present since under these circumstances the IR radiometer observes the cloud top which is usually much colder than the surface. Dataset coverage starts on 1st May 2016 and ends on 31st December 2020. There are minor interruptions (1-10 days) during satellite/instrument maintenance periods or instrument anomalies. The dataset was produced by the University of Leicester (UoL) and LSTs were retrieved using the (UoL) LST retrieval algorithm and data were processed in the UoL processing chain. The dataset was produced as part of the ESA Land Surface Temperature Climate Change Initiative which strives to improve satellite datasets to Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) standards.