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Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II (SAM II): Polar Arctic and Antarctic Aerosol Extinction Profiles
The SAM II instrument, aboard the Earth-orbiting Nimbus 7 spacecraft, was designed to measure solar irradiance attenuated by aerosol particles in the Arctic and Antarctic stratosphere. The scientific objective of the SAM II experiment was to develop a stratospheric aerosol database for the polar regions by measuring and mapping vertical profiles of the atmospheric extinction due to aerosols. This database allows for studies of aerosol changes due to seasonal and short-term meteorological variations, atmospheric chemistry, cloud microphysics, and volcanic activity and other perturbations. The results obtained are useful in a number of applications, particularly the evaluation of any potential climatic effect caused by stratospheric aerosols. This dataset collection contains 14 years of polar Arctic and Antarctic aerosol extinction profiles, atmospheric temperature and pressure data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol Instrument II (SAM II) on the NIMBUS 7 satellite.
The DIAMET project aimed to better the understanding and prediction of mesoscale structures in synoptic-scale storms. Such structures include fronts, rain bands, secondary cyclones, sting jets etc, and are important because much of the extreme weather we experience (e.g. strong winds, heavy rain) comes from such regions. Weather forecasting models are able to capture some of this activity correctly, but there is much still to learn. By a combination of measurements and modelling, mainly using the Met Office Unified Model (UM), the project worked to better understand how mesoscale processes in cyclones give rise to severe weather and how they can be better represented in models and better forecast. This dataset contains minute resolution meteorological measurements by the Met Office Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) during the DIAMET intensive observation campaigns.
Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II (SAM II): Polar Arctic and Antarctic Aerosol Extinction Profiles
The SAM II instrument, aboard the Earth-orbiting Nimbus 7 spacecraft, was designed to measure solar irradiance attenuated by aerosol particles in the Arctic and Antarctic stratosphere. This dataset collection contains 14 years of polar Arctic and Antarctic aerosol extinction profiles, atmospheric temperature and pressure data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol Instrument II (SAM II) on the NIMBUS 7 satellite.
The Exploitation of new data sources, data assimilation and ensemble techniques for storm and flood forecasting Project is a NERC Flood Risk for Extreme Events (FREE) Research Programme project (Round 1 - NE/E002137/1 - Duration January 2007 - April 2010) led by Prof AJ Illingworth, University of Reading. This project investigates possible methods of producing ensemble weather forecasts at high-resolution. These ensembles will be used with raingauge and river flow to improve methods of flood forecasting. The dataset includes radiosonde and wind profiles in England and Wales derived using Doppler radar returns from insects. The radial velocity measurements from insects were converted into VAD profiles by fitting a sinusoid to radial velocities at constant range. All measured profiles have been interpolated to the instrument location. This dataset contains temperature and pressure measurements from radiosondes.
Convective Storm Initiation Project (CSIP): Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK) Dornier 128 Aircraft Data at Chilbolton, UK
The Institute of Meterological and Climate Research Dornier 128 aircraft data were collected at Chilbolton, Hampshire by instruments on the aircraft, between the 22nd of June 2005 and the 14th of July 2005. The dataset includes measurements of wind direction and wind speed, air density, and air temperature. Measurements taken by the Dornier 128 aircraft and stored in this dataset are: static pressure, uncorrected (hPa) barometric altitude (m) radarheight above ground (m) latitude (deg) longitude (deg) true air speed (m/s) velocity over ground (m/s) vertical velocity (m/s) radiation pyranometer top (W/m2) radiation pyranomter bottom (W/m2) radiation pyrgeometer top (W/m2) radiation pyrgeometer bottom (W/m2) air density (kg/m3) fast air temperature (deg Celsius) potential temperature (deg Celsius) filtered mixing ratio (g/kg) mixing ratio Lyman-Alpha (g/kg) wind component west-east (m/s) wind component south-north (m/s) vertical wind component (m/s) wind direction (deg) wind speed (m/s)
Convective Storm Initiation Project (CSIP): Met Office Radiometrics MP3000 profling radiometer at Linkenholt, UK
The data were collected by the Met Office’s Radiometrics TP/WVP-3000 which was deployed to Linkenholt on 13 June until 21 September 2005. The dataset contains plots of temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and rainfall amount. It was initially configured to view in the zenith direction with very high time resolution (~12 s). All channels also viewed the internal black body target for relative calibration, initially every 5 minutes. However, initially this did not take place between 11 – 13 UTC due to a configuration error, which was corrected on 8 July 2005. Prior to this date, the calibration of data around noon is prone to drift. The radiometer ran continuously in this mode until 20 July 2005, when it was re-configured to alternative between zenith views and internal black body calibration views in a 30 s cycle because of concerns over the drift in calibration over the previous 5 minute calibration period. There was a power outage on 2 August 2005 from 0730 – 0946 UTC when no radiometer data was available.
The DIAMET project aimed to better the understanding and prediction of mesoscale structures in synoptic-scale storms. Such structures include fronts, rain bands, secondary cyclones, sting jets etc, and are important because much of the extreme weather we experience (e.g. strong winds, heavy rain) comes from such regions. Weather forecasting models are able to capture some of this activity correctly, but there is much still to learn. By a combination of measurements and modelling, mainly using the Met Office Unified Model (UM), the project worked to better understand how mesoscale processes in cyclones give rise to severe weather and how they can be better represented in models and better forecast. This dataset contains meteorological data recorded by radiosondes launched in support of the DIAMET campaign. Data are from the Manchester radiosondes launched at Aberystwyth and from Met Office sondes at Albemarle, Camborne, Castor Bay, Herstmonceux, Lerwick and Lochranza.
UTLS-Ozone Dynamics and Chemistry of Frontal Zones (DCFZ): Airborne atmospheric chemistry and remotely observered cloud micro-physics data
Frontal zones are regions where are descending from the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere comes in close proximity to rising air of recent boundary-layer origin. Such zones are often strongly sheared and subject to shearing instability and mixing. The aim of the UTLS-DCFZ project was to investigate the nature and effect of the mixing of the two airmasses which may be characterised by very different chemical compositions. In particular, the experimental campaign helped answer questions concerning: The distribution of chemical species around fronts. The role of frontal systems in transporting chemical species from the boundary layer and the stratosphere into the troposphere. The extent and rate of mixing between the differing air-masses in the vicinity of fronts. The effect of this mixing on the photochemistry of OH and ozone. The effect of this mixing on the dynamical structure of the front, which will feed back through 1. and 2. above. Five flights were carried out between January and April 1999, two of which were in the period which overlapped with MAXOX. These flights sampled a range of frontal situations, so the main improvement which could be made to the dataset would be to sample more fronts in a similar way, to improve the statistical basis for any analysis. Aircraft measurements of the chemical (e.g. CO, O3, NOx as well as MAXOX measureables during some of the flights), thermodynamic, physical (e.g. liquid water content, CCN etc.) and dynamical characteristics of a number of frontal situations were made. Chilbolton radar images are also available.
UTLS-Ozone ACTO: Met Research Flight (MRF) C-130 Hercules aircraft atmospheric chemistry measurements and model output collection
The Atmospheric Chemistry and Transport of Ozone (ACTO) in the UTLS was a round 2 UTLS (Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere) project led by Stuart Penkett, University of East Anglia. This dataset collection contains airborne atmospheric chemistry data collected by the Met Research Flight (MRF) C-130 Hercules aircraft and atmospheric chemistry output. Data were already collected on the composition and structure of the troposphere as part of OCTA, ACSOE, and TACIA programmes, UTLS-DCFZ and EU-MAXOX during campaigns in the first half of 1999. There was an obvious progression from the objectives of the previous experiments and those of this project. Therefore analysis of the data from these programmes were valuable for the planning of the new measurement campaign, which were collected in the UTLS using the UKMO C-130 during 40 hours flying time, in the spring/summer period of the 2000. Flights were 3-6 hours and did take place in the North Atlantic off northern Britain and were predominantly in the upper troposphere (4 to 11km) with only occasional sorties into the lower stratosphere. Flights were designed to examine the chemical composition and reactivity of different air masses: boundary layer air (marine and (polluted) continental); tropical and subtropical air; upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric air; and polar air. Detailed meteorological and chemical forecast data were obtained from ECMWF, UKMO and NILU. Domain filling trajectory calculations, with forecast wind fields, were used to locate layers and to determine their orientation, whilst the NILU chemical forecast model provided information on the expected chemical composition of the different air masses. To determine the origin, composition and chemical activity of the different air masses found in the UTLS, measurements were made from a large number of tracers, ozone precursors, reactive species and photochemical products.
Snowdon Mountain Railway Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS): Repeatable Kinematic Dataset Collection from Snowdonia
This dataset collection holds a repeatable kinematic dataset taken from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) stations on moving platforms at the Snowdon Mountain Railway (SMR). The datasets include profiles of 950m of the lower atmosphere over a 50 day period in 2011. There are three different locations used in the dataset as it was mounted on a train of the Snowdon Mountain Railway (SNTR) as it travelled up and down the mountain, with two static reference stations at the base of the railway at Llanberis (SNLB) and at the summit (SNSU). Three instruments were used to collect the data including; Paroscientific 745, Paroscientific Met 4 and Leica GS10 GNSS receivers. Respectively measuring pressure, pressure/temperature, dual frequency GPS and GLONASS code and carrier phase satellite to receiver measurements.