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Seismic reflection soundings of ice thickness and seabed depth were acquired on the Larsen C Ice Shelf in order to test a sub-shelf bathymetry model derived from the inversion of IceBridge gravity data. A series of lines were collected, from the Churchill Peninsula in the north to the Joerg Peninsula in the south, and also towards the ice front. Sites were selected using the bathymetry model derived from the inversion of free-air gravity data to indicate key regions where sub-shelf oceanic circulation may be affected by ice draft and sub-shelf cavity thickness. The seismic velocity profile in the upper 100 m of firn and ice was derived from shallow refraction surveys at a number of locations. Seismic velocities in the water column were derived from previous in situ measurements. Uncertainties in ice and water cavity thickness are in general < 10 m. Compared with the seismic measurements, the root-mean-square error in the gravimetrically derived bathymetry at the seismic sites is 162 m. The seismic profiles prove the non-existence of several bathymetric features that are indicated in the gravity inversion model, significantly modifying the expected oceanic circulation beneath the ice shelf. Similar features have previously been shown to be highly significant in affecting basal melt rates predicted by ocean models. The discrepancies between the gravity inversion results and the seismic bathymetry are attributed to the assumption of uniform geology inherent in the gravity inversion process and also the sparsity of IceBridge flight lines. Results indicate that care must be taken when using bathymetry models derived by the inversion of free-air gravity anomalies. The bathymetry results presented here will be used to improve existing sub-ice shelf ocean circulation models.
Point data measurements of ice surface, ice base and lake bed elevation are given from Subglacial Lake Ellsworth (SLE), West Antarctica. The data were acquired during the austral summer of 2007-2008. Five seismic reflection lines were acquired over SLE, with surface elevation determined by dual frequency GPS. Funding was provided by NERC AFI, award numbers NE/D009200/1, NE/D008638/1 and NE/D008751/1. Logistics support: British Antarctic Survey. Equipment support: NERC Geophysical Equipment Facility (loan numbers 838 and 870).
Subglacial Lake CECs was previously identified using radar profile data. Subglacial Lake CECs lies beneath 2650 m of ice, close to the Ellsworth Mountains at the divide between the Minnesota Glacier and Rutford and Institute Ice Streams in Antarctica. Four seismic reflection profiles were acquired across the lake to determine water column depth and investigate lake bed properties. Shot gathers with 48 channels and a maximum offset of 500 m were recorded. A seismic refraction experiment was undertaken to determine seismic velocities in the firn. Dual frequency and RTK GPS were used to determine shot locations. Seismic surveys indicate a maximum water depth of 301.3 +/- 1.5 m, at the widest part of the lake, with an estimated lake volume of 2.5 +/- 0.3 km3. Imaging of the ice-lake interface indicates topography with slopes of up to 1.9 degrees. This research was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council, British Antarctic Survey (Polar Science for Planet Earth Programme) and Centro de Estudios Cientificos, Valdivia, Chile.