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This dataset contains greenhouse gas flux data and vegetation survey data from an experiment based at Parsonage Down, UK. The vegetation survey comprises total species percentage cover and species richness data from four 50 cm by 50 cm quadrats. The greenhouse gas flux data comprises net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange, photosynthesis and respiration data measured with an Infra-red Gas Analyser (IRGA); methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide data measured using gas chromatography; and nitrate and ammonium from soil samples extracted with potassium chloride. The experiment investigated the effect of different plant groups on soil carbon stores and nutrient cycling, by using a mixture of hand weeding and herbicide spot spraying to create different plant communities on the species rich grassland at Parsonage Down. The resulting carbon and nutrient cycling rates were compared to the characteristics of the plant groups. The experiment ran from 2013 to 2015 and this dataset contains data from 2014 only. This experiment was part of the Wessex BESS project, a six-year (2011-2017) project aimed at understanding how biodiversity underpins the ecosystem functions and services that landscapes provide. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/e05b350f-3cf4-4f8d-aa3c-24d562ca756b
Sediment cores were taken using a box corer. The sediment was subsampled using a 20 x 20 x 12 cm and incubated for 12 days. At the end of incubation, the macrofauna retained (500 um sieved) from each aquarium were fixed in 10% phosphate buffered formalin (4% formaldehyde) and stored in sealed plastic buckets for a minimum of three months. Prior to identification samples were rinsed and preserved in 70% industrial methylated spirit (IMS). Using a stereo microscope, all the animals were picked out of the residue, stored in vials containing 70% IMS, and identified to the lowest possible taxon with abundance and biomass per taxon noted. Biomass was obtained using blotted wet weight (+/- 0.0001g). The individual numbers of each taxa were counted to give abundance data. This was determined by the presence of a head in cases where specimens had been damaged. Any badly damaged specimens or parts of specimens where no head was present were separated into major group debris (annelid, mollusc and crustacea) pots and their presence noted as YES/NO for abundance). All molluscs were weighed inclusive of shells, tube dwelling polychaetes were weighed without tubes, and sediment was removed from the body cavity of specimens of Ctenodiscus crispatus prior to weighing. Samples were collected on cruises JR16006 and JR17007. Funding was provided by ''The Changing Arctic Ocean Seafloor (ChAOS) - how changing sea ice conditions impact biological communities, biogeochemical processes and ecosystems'' project (NE/N015894/1 and NE/P006426/1, 2017-2021), part of the NERC funded Changing Arctic Ocean programme.
The dataset details total abundance (TA), total biomass (TB), species richness (SR) and evenness (J) [all based on abundance and biomass] and community bioturbation potential (BPc) across six intertidal sites in the winter and summer of 2013. The data provide metrics relating to the macrofaunal communities present within the top 10cm of sediment. Three sites were located in Essex, South East England and the other three in Morecambe Bay, North West England. Each site consisted of a saltmarsh habitat and adjacent mudflat habitat. 22 sampling quadrats were placed in each habitat covering four spatial scales. Three replicate cores of sediment were collected at each quadrat. They were sieved on a 0.5mm mesh and the macrofauna was removed, identified to species (or appropriate taxon) and individuals were identified to species (or most appropriate taxon), counted and weighed. The resulting abundance and biomass data were then used to calculate TA, TB, SR, J (based on abundance and biomass) and BPc. The data for mudflat habitats across Essex and Morecambe are complete, however, saltmarsh data is only available for one full Essex site (Tillingham Marsh), in one season (Winter) and across all sites, at the 1m scale. This data was collected as part of Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS): NE/J015644/1. The project was funded with support from the Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (BESS) programme. BESS is a six-year programme (2011-2017) funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) as part of the UK's Living with Environmental Change (LWEC) programme. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/f7bad4d2-aef2-4db6-be34-adbe185b88c3