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surface

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  • This is the 4.0.0.2017f version of the HadISDH land data. These data are provided by the Met Office Hadley Centre. This version spans 1/1/1973 to 31/12/2017. The data are monthly gridded (5 degree by 5 degree) fields. Products are available for temperature and six humidity variables: specific humidity (q), relative humidity (RH), dew point temperature (Td), wet bulb temperature (Tw), vapour pressure (e), dew point depression (DPD). Data are provided in either NetCDF or ASCII format. This version extends the 3.0.0.2016p version to the end of 2017 and constitutes a major update to HadISDH due to a change to using the 1981-2010 period as its climatological reference period both to make it more consistent with other monitoring products and to maximise station coverage now that it uses the larger station database of HadISD2. Users are advised to read the update document in the docs section for full details. This version now uses the 1981-2010 period as its climatological reference period both to make it more consistent with other monitoring products and to maximise station coverage now that it uses the larger station database of HadISD2. Additionally, there has been a small methodological change. Stations with large adjustments made during homogenisation are removed based on thresholds for q (>3g/kg), RH (>15%rh), T (>5degC) and Td (>5degC) rather than just T and Td. This results in 54 stations being removed as opposed to 29 last year. All other processing steps for HadISDH remain identical. The new version of HadISD2 (2.0.2.2017p) has pulled through some historical changes to stations which are passed on to HadISDH. This, and the additional year of data, results in small changes to station selection. The homogeneity adjustments differ slightly due to sensitivity to the addition and loss of stations, historical changes to stations previously included and the additional 12 months of data. To keep informed about updates, news and announcements follow the HadOBS team on twitter @metofficeHadOBS. For more detailed information e.g bug fixes, routine updates and other exploratory analysis, see the HadISDH blog: http://hadisdh.blogspot.co.uk/ References: When using the dataset in a paper you must cite the following papers (see Docs for link to the publications) and this dataset (using the "citable as" reference) : Willett, K. M., Dunn, R. J. H., Thorne, P. W., Bell, S., de Podesta, M., Parker, D. E., Jones, P. D., and Williams Jr., C. N.: HadISDH land surface multi-variable humidity and temperature record for climate monitoring, Clim. Past, 10, 1983-2006, doi:10.5194/cp-10-1983-2014, 2014. Smith, A., N. Lott, and R. Vose, 2011: The Integrated Surface Database: Recent Developments and Partnerships. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 92, 704–708, doi:10.1175/2011BAMS3015.1 We strongly recommend that you read these papers before making use of the data, more detail on the dataset can be found in an earlier publication: Willett, K. M., Williams Jr., C. N., Dunn, R. J. H., Thorne, P. W., Bell, S., de Podesta, M., Jones, P. D., and Parker D. E., 2013: HadISDH: An updated land surface specific humidity product for climate monitoring. Climate of the Past, 9, 657-677, doi:10.5194/cp-9-657-2013.

  • This dataset contains surface layer meteorological measurements that were made during the Iceland Greenland Seas Project (IGP) field campaign from a variety of observation platforms, including several WeatherPack systems, RPG Hatpro Radiometer and a Windcube LIDAR. This dataset presents a quality controlled combination of observations from these instruments, as indicated by the data origin flags. Sea surface temperature was measured by the underway SBE38 bow temperature sensor for the majority of the cruise, with 2m CTD observations used to fill several short gaps where high frequency observations were available. Additionally these observations have been processed using the COARE 3.0a bulk aerodynamic flux algorithm to provide bulk variables at standard heights and estimated flux coefficients. Attached documentation on quality control methods and calibrations should be consulted before using these data. The Iceland Greenland seas Project (IGP) was an international project involving the UK, US a Norwegian research communities. The UK component was funded by NERC, under the Atmospheric Forcing of the Iceland Sea (AFIS) project (NE/N009754/1).

  • Operational data from 1st January 2002 to present containing the ongoing analyses and forecasts produced by the most recent ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) model. Data are available at the resolutions used for the ERA 40 reanalysis project - i.e. reduced Gaussian N80 for surface data and spectral T159 for upper air data. The IFS is regularly updated as improvements are made to the model, computing facilities and observations used in data assimilation.

  • The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) has provided global atmospheric analyses from its archive for many years. The ERA-15 Re-analysis project was devised in response to wishes expressed by many users for a data set generated by a modern, consistent, and invariant data assimilation system. The ERA-15 project produced a long time-series (January 1979 - February 1994) of consistent meteorological analyses using a single version of the ECMWF model. This dataset contains surface orography data. These data are available in gaussian N80 gridded, lat-long (2.5 degree) gridded and spectral form, from the initialised and uninitialised datasets (N.B. initialised spectral is missing at the moment). Note that the grid-point orography files change with date. This does not affect the ERA period but if you use Operational data for later dates you will need to use the different orography files from our ecmwf-op directory. The spectral orography file spor90010100 contains just the orography data (surface geopotential). The other files contain the constant fields: Geopotential (at the surface, orography) Standard deviation of orography Anisotropy of subgrid scale orography Angle of subgrid scale orography Slope of subgrid scale orography Land/Sea mask gpor79010100 contains the gaussian gridded data llor80010100 contains the 2.5 degree gridded data

  • HadEX3 is a land-surface dataset of climate extremes indices available on a 1.875 x 1.25 longitude-latitude grid. These 29 indices have been developed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). Daily precipitation, as well as maximum and minimum temperature observations, are used to calculate these indices at each station. The daily data, as well as indices, have been supplied, quality controlled and combined to make a gridded set of NetCDF files covering 1901-2018 (inclusive). Spatial coverage is determined by the number of stations present at each time point as well as the spatial correlation structure between the stations for each index. The spatial coverage is lowest at the beginning of the dataset, rising until around 1960 where it plateaus, and then declines slightly after 2010. All indices are available as annual quantities, with a subset also available on a monthly basis. A number of the indices use a reference period to determine thresholds. For these, we provide two versions, one set using 1961-1990 and another using the more recent 1981-2010 (these reference periods have been indicated in the file name as either 'ref-6190' or 'ref-8110'). Version 3.0.3 was added due to an error in how the Rx1day and Rx5day data were being handled for one of the West African data sources. More details can be found in the HadEX3 blog under 'Details/Docs' tab.

  • Orography files for the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts's (ECMWF) operational forecast model. Archived data are on the 1.125 and 2.5 degree regular longitude-latitude grids, N80 (full) Gaussian grid and Spectral (T106) grid. These files are updated each time the model orography is changed. For the Operational data (March 1994-present day) there are orography files for the following dates: 1 March 1994, 4 April 1995, 8 September 1996, 10 December 1996, 1 April 1998 and 12 October 1999. The orography for the ERA-15 project was constant so only the start date orography is stored here: i.e. for 1 Jan 1979. The spectral orography file only contains the orography data (surface geopotential). Depending on the age and grid type, the remaining files contain some of the constant fields: Geopotential (at the surface, orography), Standard deviation of orography, Anisotropy of subgrid scale orography, Angle of subgrid scale orography, Slope of subgrid scale orography, Land/Sea mask, EW component of sub-grid scale orographic variance, NScomponent of sub-grid scale orographic variance, NWSE component of sub-grid scale orographic variance, NESW component of sub-grid scale orographic variance.

  • Surface pressure, temperature and humidity data (PTU) were collected by a Vaisala WXT510 instrument located at the Natural Environment Research Council's (NERC) Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) Radar Facility, Capel Dewi, near Aberystwyth in West Wales. Rainfall rate data from this instrument are also available as a separate dataset within the MST Radar Facility dataset collection. The WXT-510 instrument at the site began operational recording in December 2007 and ceased in January 2015, subsequently being replaced by a Vaisala WXT-520 instrument. The WXT520 data are also available from CEDA as part of the MST Radar Facility's dataset collection. Independent surface meteorological data are also collected from a suite of instruments by a Campbell Scientific CR10 Climate Data Logger. These data are available as a separate dataset within the MST Radar Facility dataset collection.

  • The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) has provided global atmospheric analyses from its archive for many years. The ERA-15 Re-analysis project was devised in response to wishes expressed by many users for a data set generated by a modern, consistent, and invariant data assimilation system. The ERA-15 project produced a long time-series (January 1979 - February 1994) of consistent meteorological analyses using a single version of the ECMWF model. This dataset contains uninitialised T106 spectral upper air data (approximately 1 degree resolution) on model levels and standard pressure levels. Corresponding surface parameters are held on a reduced gaussian N80 grid. Regular 2.5 degree x 2.5 degree gridded data are also stored on standard pressure levels and at the surface.

  • HadEX3 is a land-surface dataset of climate extremes indices available on a 1.875 x 1.25 longitude-latitude grid. These 29 indices have been developed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). Daily precipitation, as well as maximum and minimum temperature observations, are used to calculate these indices at each station. The daily data, as well as indices, have been supplied, quality controlled and combined to make a gridded set of NetCDF files covering 1901-2018 (inclusive). Spatial coverage is determined by the number of stations present at each time point as well as the spatial correlation structure between the stations for each index. The spatial coverage is lowest at the beginning of the dataset, rising until around 1960 where it plateaus, and then declines slightly after 2010. All indices are available as annual quantities, with a subset also available on a monthly basis. A number of the indices use a reference period to determine thresholds. For these, we provide two versions, one set using 1961-1990 and another using the more recent 1981-2010 (these reference periods have been indicated in the file name as either 'ref-6190' or 'ref-8110'). Version 3.0.2 was added due to a correction to the land-sea mask used. More details can be found in the HadEX3 blog under 'Details/Docs' tab.

  • Surface meteorological data are measured by a number of instruments deployed at the Natural Environment Research Council's (NERC) Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) Radar Facility, Capel Dewi, near Aberystwyth in West Wales. This dataset consists of data collected by the following suite instruments connected to a Campbell Scientific CR10 Climate Data Logger: Campbell Scientific 107 thermistor temperature probe mounted inside an URS1 unaspirated radiation shield. Accuracy: +/- 0.4 degrees C. Vaisala PTB101B barometric pressure sensor. Accuracy: +/- 2.0 hPa. Vaisala HMP45C temperature and relative humidity probe (from which only the humidity measurements are used) mounted inside an URS1 un-aspirated radiation shield. Accuracy: +/- 0.3%. Environmental Measurements ARG100 tipping bucket raingauge. Kipp and Zonen CM3 thermopile pyranometer (WMO second class). Accuracy: +/- 0.5%. The raingauge is located on the ground. All other sensors are mounted on a post approximately 1 m above the ground. The data logger initially samples the atmospheric temperature, pressure and humidity sensors at 5 s intervals. Mean values are calculated over each 60 s and the outputs from the logger represent minima, means and maxima of these 60 s means over each 10 minute sample period. The data logger is connected to a tipping bucket raingauge (sampled every 1 s, and recording tips for each 0.20 mm accumulation of rain); pyranometer (sampled every every 5 s, recording the down-welling radiation within a hemispheric field of view with a flat response in the spectral range 305 - 2800 nm); The data are available in NASA-Ames formatted files. Independent surface meteorological data are also available from the Vaisala WXT510 instrument also located at the site and are available in the wxt510-precipitation and PTU datasets.