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surface

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  • This is the 4.0.0.2017f version of the HadISDH land data. These data are provided by the Met Office Hadley Centre. This version spans 1/1/1973 to 31/12/2017. The data are monthly gridded (5 degree by 5 degree) fields. Products are available for temperature and six humidity variables: specific humidity (q), relative humidity (RH), dew point temperature (Td), wet bulb temperature (Tw), vapour pressure (e), dew point depression (DPD). Data are provided in either NetCDF or ASCII format. This version extends the 3.0.0.2016p version to the end of 2017 and constitutes a major update to HadISDH due to a change to using the 1981-2010 period as its climatological reference period both to make it more consistent with other monitoring products and to maximise station coverage now that it uses the larger station database of HadISD2. Users are advised to read the update document in the docs section for full details. This version now uses the 1981-2010 period as its climatological reference period both to make it more consistent with other monitoring products and to maximise station coverage now that it uses the larger station database of HadISD2. Additionally, there has been a small methodological change. Stations with large adjustments made during homogenisation are removed based on thresholds for q (>3g/kg), RH (>15%rh), T (>5degC) and Td (>5degC) rather than just T and Td. This results in 54 stations being removed as opposed to 29 last year. All other processing steps for HadISDH remain identical. The new version of HadISD2 (2.0.2.2017p) has pulled through some historical changes to stations which are passed on to HadISDH. This, and the additional year of data, results in small changes to station selection. The homogeneity adjustments differ slightly due to sensitivity to the addition and loss of stations, historical changes to stations previously included and the additional 12 months of data. To keep informed about updates, news and announcements follow the HadOBS team on twitter @metofficeHadOBS. For more detailed information e.g bug fixes, routine updates and other exploratory analysis, see the HadISDH blog: http://hadisdh.blogspot.co.uk/ References: When using the dataset in a paper you must cite the following papers (see Docs for link to the publications) and this dataset (using the "citable as" reference) : Willett, K. M., Dunn, R. J. H., Thorne, P. W., Bell, S., de Podesta, M., Parker, D. E., Jones, P. D., and Williams Jr., C. N.: HadISDH land surface multi-variable humidity and temperature record for climate monitoring, Clim. Past, 10, 1983-2006, doi:10.5194/cp-10-1983-2014, 2014. Smith, A., N. Lott, and R. Vose, 2011: The Integrated Surface Database: Recent Developments and Partnerships. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 92, 704–708, doi:10.1175/2011BAMS3015.1 We strongly recommend that you read these papers before making use of the data, more detail on the dataset can be found in an earlier publication: Willett, K. M., Williams Jr., C. N., Dunn, R. J. H., Thorne, P. W., Bell, S., de Podesta, M., Jones, P. D., and Parker D. E., 2013: HadISDH: An updated land surface specific humidity product for climate monitoring. Climate of the Past, 9, 657-677, doi:10.5194/cp-9-657-2013.

  • This dataset contains surface layer meteorological measurements that were made during the Iceland Greenland Seas Project (IGP) field campaign from a variety of observation platforms, including several WeatherPack systems, RPG Hatpro Radiometer and a Windcube LIDAR. This dataset presents a quality controlled combination of observations from these instruments, as indicated by the data origin flags. Sea surface temperature was measured by the underway SBE38 bow temperature sensor for the majority of the cruise, with 2m CTD observations used to fill several short gaps where high frequency observations were available. Additionally these observations have been processed using the COARE 3.0a bulk aerodynamic flux algorithm to provide bulk variables at standard heights and estimated flux coefficients. Attached documentation on quality control methods and calibrations should be consulted before using these data. The Iceland Greenland seas Project (IGP) was an international project involving the UK, US a Norwegian research communities. The UK component was funded by NERC, under the Atmospheric Forcing of the Iceland Sea (AFIS) project (NE/N009754/1).

  • In support of the COAPEC Thematic Programme the BADC has extracted seasonal forecast ensemble data from the ECMWF MARS (Meteorological Archive and Retrieval System) archive. These data are also known as "Hindcasts" as they are forecasts run retrospectively. Since the data is part of the ECMWF Operational system BADC users must successfully apply for access to this dataset before they can obtain the data. The ECMWF produced two sets of runs, System 1 and System 2. The data archived at the BADC are the System 2 runs which use the atmospheric component Cy23r4 of the IFS (Integrated Forecasting System) with a horizontal resolution of TL95 at 40 levels in the vertical. This is the same cycle of the IFS used for the ERA-40 re-analysis. A detailed description of the ECMWF Seasonal Forecasting system can be found on the ECMWF web site. Products: The BADC has extracted monthly means, maxima, minima and standard deviations for the available surface variables from 1987 to 6 months before the present date. Atmospheric variables are only currently available as monthly means. The data is held as part of the main BADC Operational ECMWF archive. For each month there are six forecast months archived, with 5 ensemble members for 10 months of the year, and 40 ensemble members in May and November of each year from 1987-2001. From 2002 onwards there are 40 ensemble members per month. There are 33 parameters held on surface or single levels and 6 parameters available on pressure levels. The data is held on a regular 1.875 x 1.875 degree grid in GRIB format.

  • The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) has provided global atmospheric analyses from its archive for many years. The ERA-15 Re-analysis project was devised in response to wishes expressed by many users for a data set generated by a modern, consistent, and invariant data assimilation system. The ERA-15 project produced a long time-series (January 1979 - February 1994) of consistent meteorological analyses using a single version of the ECMWF model. This dataset contains regular 2.5 degree x 2.5 degree gridded data on standard pressure levels and at the surface.

  • Surface level wave model parameters on a reduced N256 Gaussian grid from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECWMF) ERA-Interim programme. The ERA-Interim global atmospheric reanalysis of the covers 1979 to August 2019. This follows on from the ERA-15 and ERA-40 re-analysis projects This subset of the ERA-Interim dataset contains 29 parameters.

  • HadEX3 is a land-surface dataset of climate extremes indices available on a 1.875 x 1.25 longitude-latitude grid. These 29 indices have been developed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). Daily precipitation, as well as maximum and minimum temperature observations, are used to calculate these indices at each station. The daily data, as well as indices, have been supplied, quality controlled and combined to make a gridded set of NetCDF files covering 1901-2018 (inclusive). Spatial coverage is determined by the number of stations present at each time point as well as the spatial correlation structure between the stations for each index. The spatial coverage is lowest at the beginning of the dataset, rising until around 1960 where it plateaus, and then declines slightly after 2010. All indices are available as annual quantities, with a subset also available on a monthly basis. A number of the indices use a reference period to determine thresholds. For these, we provide two versions, one set using 1961-1990 and another using the more recent 1981-2010 (these reference periods have been indicated in the file name as either 'ref-6190' or 'ref-8110'). In September 2020, a user identified some issues in the DTR and TN90p (61-90) indices. These were found to have arisen from erroneous values in a few stations which were not picked up by any quality control checks. These stations were noted on the bad list and these two indices re-run, hence v3.0.1.

  • Orography files for the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts's (ECMWF) operational forecast model. Archived data are on the 1.125 and 2.5 degree regular longitude-latitude grids, N80 (full) Gaussian grid and Spectral (T106) grid. These files are updated each time the model orography is changed. For the Operational data (March 1994-present day) there are orography files for the following dates: 1 March 1994, 4 April 1995, 8 September 1996, 10 December 1996, 1 April 1998 and 12 October 1999. The orography for the ERA-15 project was constant so only the start date orography is stored here: i.e. for 1 Jan 1979. The spectral orography file only contains the orography data (surface geopotential). Depending on the age and grid type, the remaining files contain some of the constant fields: Geopotential (at the surface, orography), Standard deviation of orography, Anisotropy of subgrid scale orography, Angle of subgrid scale orography, Slope of subgrid scale orography, Land/Sea mask, EW component of sub-grid scale orographic variance, NScomponent of sub-grid scale orographic variance, NWSE component of sub-grid scale orographic variance, NESW component of sub-grid scale orographic variance.

  • The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) has provided global atmospheric analyses from its archive for many years. The ERA-15 Re-analysis project was devised in response to wishes expressed by many users for a data set generated by a modern, consistent, and invariant data assimilation system. The ERA-15 project produced a long time-series (January 1979 - February 1994) of consistent meteorological analyses using a single version of the ECMWF model. This dataset is a direct copy of disk 1 of the ECMWF Re-Anlysis Sample Data CD-ROM. It contain some evaporation data which is not elsewhere in the CEDA archive. The data are 2.5 degree gridded at 12Z daily for the Re-Analysis period, 1979-1993. The parameters are: U10 - The 10 meter U wind component (also in BADC archive) V10 - The 10 meter U wind component (also in BADC archive) e - evaporation tp - Total precipitation (large scale plus convective) (also in BADC archive) tcc - Total Cloud cover (also in BADC archive) t2 - 2 meter temperature (also in BADC archive) d2 - 2 meter dew point temperature

  • HadEX3 is a land-surface dataset of climate extremes indices available on a 1.875 x 1.25 longitude-latitude grid. These 29 indices have been developed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). Daily precipitation, as well as maximum and minimum temperature observations, are used to calculate these indices at each station. The daily data, as well as indices, have been supplied, quality controlled and combined to make a gridded set of NetCDF files covering 1901-2018 (inclusive). Spatial coverage is determined by the number of stations present at each time point as well as the spatial correlation structure between the stations for each index. The spatial coverage is lowest at the beginning of the dataset, rising until around 1960 where it plateaus, and then declines slightly after 2010. All indices are available as annual quantities, with a subset also available on a monthly basis. A number of the indices use a reference period to determine thresholds. For these, we provide two versions, one set using 1961-1990 and another using the more recent 1981-2010 (these reference periods have been indicated in the file name as either 'ref-6190' or 'ref-8110'). Version 3.0.2 was added due to a correction to the land-sea mask used. More details can be found in the HadEX3 blog under 'Details/Docs' tab.

  • The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) has provided global atmospheric analyses from its archive for many years. The ERA-15 Re-analysis project was devised in response to wishes expressed by many users for a data set generated by a modern, consistent, and invariant data assimilation system. The ERA-15 project produced a long time-series (January 1979 - February 1994) of consistent meteorological analyses using a single version of the ECMWF model. This dataset contains uninitialised T106 spectral upper air data (approximately 1 degree resolution) on model levels and standard pressure levels. Corresponding surface parameters are held on a reduced gaussian N80 grid. Regular 2.5 degree x 2.5 degree gridded data are also stored on standard pressure levels and at the surface.