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  • The GEBCO_2021 Grid is a global continuous terrain model for ocean and land with a spatial resolution of 15 arc seconds. In regions outside of the Arctic Ocean area, the grid uses as a base, Version 2.2 of the SRTM15+ data set between latitudes of 50 degrees South and 60 degrees North. This data set is a fusion of land topography with measured and estimated seafloor topography. This version of SRTM15+ is similar to version 2.1 [Tozer et al., 2020] with minor updates. Version 2.2 uses predicted depths based on the V29 gravity model [Sandwell et al., 2019] and approximately 400 small areas containing suspect data were visually identified and removed from the grid. Included on top of this base grid are gridded bathymetric data sets developed by the four Regional Centers of The Nippon Foundation-GEBCO Seabed 2030 Project. The GEBCO_2021 Grid represents all data within the 2021 compilation. The compilation of the GEBCO_2021 Grid was carried out at the Seabed 2030 Global Center, hosted at the National Oceanography Centre, UK, with the aim of producing a seamless global terrain model. Outside of Polar regions, the gridded bathymetric data sets are supplied by the Regional Centers as sparse grids, i.e. only grid cells that contain data were populated, were included on to the base grid without any blending. The data sets supplied in the form of complete grids (primarily areas north of 60N and south of 50S) were included using feather blending techniques from GlobalMapper software. The primary GEBCO_2021 grid contains land and ice surface elevation information - as provided for previous GEBCO grid releases. In addition, for the 2021 release a version with under-ice topography/bathymetry information for Greenland and Antarctica is also available. The GEBCO_2021 Grid has been developed through the Nippon Foundation-GEBCO Seabed 2030 Project. This is a collaborative project between the Nippon Foundation of Japan and the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO). It aims to bring together all available bathymetric data to produce the definitive map of the world ocean floor by 2030 and make it available to all. Funded by the Nippon Foundation, the four Seabed 2030 Regional Centers include the Southern Ocean - hosted at the Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany; South and West Pacific Ocean - hosted at the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand; Atlantic and Indian Oceans - hosted at the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, USA; Arctic and North Pacific Oceans - hosted at Stockholm University, Sweden and the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping at the University of New Hampshire, USA.

  • The GEBCO_2020 Grid is a global continuous terrain model for ocean and land with a spatial resolution of 15 arc seconds. In regions outside of the Arctic Ocean area, the grid uses as a base Version 2 of the SRTM15_plus data set (Tozer, B. et al, 2019). This data set is a fusion of land topography with measured and estimated seafloor topography. Included on top of this base grid are gridded bathymetric data sets developed by the four Regional Centers of The Nippon Foundation-GEBCO Seabed 2030 Project. The GEBCO_2020 Grid represents all data within the 2020 compilation. The compilation of the GEBCO_2020 Grid was carried out at the Seabed 2030 Global Center, hosted at the National Oceanography Centre, UK, with the aim of producing a seamless global terrain model. Outside of Polar regions, the gridded bathymetric data sets supplied by the Regional Centers, as sparse grids, i.e. only grid cells that contain data were populated, were included on to the base grid without any blending. The data sets supplied in the form of complete grids (primarily areas north of 60N and south of 50S) were included using feather blending techniques from GlobalMapper software. The GEBCO_2020 Grid has been developed through the Nippon Foundation-GEBCO Seabed 2030 Project. This is a collaborative project between the Nippon Foundation of Japan and the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO). It aims to bring together all available bathymetric data to produce the definitive map of the world ocean floor by 2030 and make it available to all. Funded by the Nippon Foundation, the four Seabed 2030 Regional Centers include the Southern Ocean - hosted at the Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany; South and West Pacific Ocean - hosted at the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand; Atlantic and Indian Oceans - hosted at the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, USA; Arctic and North Pacific Oceans - hosted at Stockholm University, Sweden and the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping at the University of New Hampshire, USA.

  • Collection of geophysical and oceanographic data from several cruises dedicated to the repeated mapping and monitoring of three UK Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) - Haig Fras, Whittard Canyon and the Darwin Mounds. Data were collected during the following 2018-2020 cruises: JC166/7, DY103, DY108/9, DY120 and DY106. Data collection took place at three of the UK’s MPAs - Haig Fras Marine Conservation Zone (MCZ) in the Celtic Sea, Whittard Canyon submarine complex, which includes The Canyons MCZ, situated off the south west UK continental shelf and Darwin Mounds Special Area of Conservation (SAC), situated in the northern Rockall Trough. An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) was used to collect photographic data, sidescan sonar and multibeam bathymetry. Other data included shipboard multibeam bathymetry data; moored ADCP, CTD and sediment trap datasets from repeat mooring deployments; ROV video, pushcores and specimen samples; settling plate experiments; box cores and mega cores; BioCam imagery. The MPAs under investigation had been previously surveyed on cruises JC035 (2009) and JC125 (2015) hence these cruises formed part of the Fixed Point Observations Underpinning Activity. Here repeated observations and surveys of MPAs and their surroundings aim to provide insight into the development and recovery of benthic ecosystems following natural and/or anthropogenic impacts. The data collection was undertaken by scientists at the UK’s National Oceanography Centre (NOC) and formed part of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Climate Linked Atlantic Sector Science (CLASS) Programme (NERC grant reference NE/R015953/1).

  • The Marine Autonomous Systems in Support of Marine Observations (MASSMO) campaign 4 dataset includes data collected by 8 submarine gliders, 2 wavegliders and one autonomous surface vehicle. The dataset comprises recovery version data. i.e. the data downloaded from a vehicle at the end of its mission. The data obtained from gliders operated by the University of East Anglia (UEA) is fully quality controlled. No quality control procedures have been applied to the data obtained from all other autonomous vehicles. Parameters observed include, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, optical backscatter, oxygen, acoustic noise and video data. The dataset was collected within the UK sector of the Faroe-Shetland Channel, focussing on the outer shelf and upper shelf. The work area had a bounding box of 58-62 degrees north and 2-9 degrees west. The MASSMO 4 campaign was run between 1st June 2017 until 7th June 2017 while platforms were deployed they were collecting data continuously. The dataset was collected using a mixture of three autonomous surface vehicles and eight submarine gliders. Glider sensor suites included CTD, bio-optics, oxygen optodes, and passive acoustic sensors. Additionally the surface vehicles were equipped with meteorological sensors and cameras. The campaign comprised a range of oceanographic data collection, but had a particular focus on passive acoustic monitoring of marine mammals and oceanographic features, and included development of near-real-time data delivery to operational data users. MASSMO 4 was co-ordinated by the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) in partnership with University of East Anglia (UEA), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) and Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS). The mission was sponsored by Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) and involved close co-operation with the NATO Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE) and UK Royal Navy, and was supported by several additional commercial, government and research partners.

  • The data set comprises those data collected on UK World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) cruises. The cruises completed to date have collected data either in the North Atlantic (RRS Charles Darwin 58, 59, 62, 62a, 68 and 78; RRS Discovery 223, 230 and 233) or in the Southern Ocean (RRS Discovery 199, 200, 201, 207, 213 and 214; RRS James Clark Ross 0a, 0b, 10, 16 and 27). Conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) data are held from all 20 cruises. 14 out of the 16 shipborne acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data sets are held, those from RRS Discovery 230 and RRS James Clark Ross 0b are still to be received. 4 out of the 6 lowered ADCP data sets are held, those from RRS Discovery 230 and 233 are still to be received. 3 out of the 4 SeaSoar data sets are held, with that from RRS Discovery 223 still to be received. 12 out of 13 eXpendable BathyThermograph (XBT) data sets are held, with that from RRS James Clark Ross 0a still awaited. All main water bottle data sets have been received apart from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) tracer data from RRS Discovery 223, 230 and 233. All of the main underway data sets thermosalinograph, meteorology, etc.) are held apart from thermosalinograph data from RRS James Clark Ross 0b.

  • For around a decade, southern elephant seals (mirounga leonina) have been used to collect hydrographic (temperature & salinity) profiles in the Southern Ocean. CTD-SRDLs (Conductivity Temperature Depth –Satellite Relayed Data Loggers) attached to seals' heads in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic locations measure water property profiles during dives and transmit data using the ARGOS (Advanced Research & Global Observation Satellite) network (Fedak 2013). CTD-SRDLs are built by the Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU, University of St Andrews, UK); they include miniaturised CTD units made by Valeport Ltd. When seals are foraging at sea 2.5 profiles can be obtained daily, on average. Profiles average 500m depth, but can be 2000m in extreme cases (Boehme et al. 2009, Roquet et al. 2011). Deployment efforts have been very intensive in the Southern Indian Ocean, with biannual campaigns in the Kerguelen Islands since 2004 and many deployments in Davis and Casey Antarctic stations (Roquet et al., 2013) more recently. 207 CTD-SRDL tags have been deployed there, giving about 75,000 hydrographic profiles in the Kerguelen Plateau area. About two thirds of the dataset was obtained between 2011 & 2013 as a consequence of intensive Australian Antarctic station deployments. There is also regular data since 2004 from French and Franco-Australian Kerguelen Island deployments. Although not included here, many CTD-SRDL tags deployed in the Kerguelen Islands included a fluorimeter. Fluorescence profiles can be used as a proxy for chlorophyll content (Guinet et al. 2013, Blain et al. 2013). Seal-derived hydrographic data have been used successfully to improve understanding of elephant seal foraging strategies and their success (Biuw et al., 2007, Bailleul, 2007). They provide detailed hydrographic observations in places and seasons with virtually no other data sources (Roquet et al. 2009, Ohshima et al. 2013, Roquet et al. 2013). Hydrographic data available in this dataset were edited using an Argo-inspired procedure and then visually. Each CTD-SRDL dataset was adjusted using several delayed-mode techniques, including a temperature offset correction and a linear-in-pressure salinity correction - described in Roquet et al. (2011). Adjusted hydrographic data have estimated accuracies of about +/-0.03oC and +/-0.05 psu (practical salinity unit). The salinity accuracy depends largely on the distribution of CTD data for any given CTD-SRDL, which decides the quality of adjustment parameters. Adjustments are best when hydrographic profiles are available in the region between the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front and the Antarctic divergence (55oS-62oS latitude range in the Southern Indian Ocean). Several institutes provided funding for the associated programs and the logistics necessary for the fieldwork. The observatory MEMO (Mammifères Echantillonneurs du Milieu Marin), funded by CNRS institutes (INSU and INEE), carried out the French contribution to the study. The project received financial and logistical support from CNES (TOSCA program), the Institut Paul-Emile Victor (IPEV), the Total Foundation and ANR. MEMO is associated with the Coriolis centre, part of the SOERE consortium CTD02 (Coriolis-temps différé Observations Océaniques, PI: G. Reverdin), which distributes real-time and delayed-mode products. The Australian contribution came from the Australian Animal Tracking and Monitoring System, an Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) facility. The work was also supported by the Australian Government's Cooperative Research Centres Programme via the Antarctic Climate & Ecosystem Cooperative Research Centre. The University of Tasmania and Macquarie University's Animal Ethics Committees approved the animal handling. Both tagging programs are part of the MEOP (Marine Mammals Exploring the Oceans Pole to Pole) international consortium - an International Polar Year (IPY) project.

  • This dataset consists of a variety of hydrographic, biogeochemical and meteorological data. Hydrographic profiles, towed and underway measurements and point sources provided information on free-fall turbulence data, current velocities and acoustic backscatter, water column structure including temperature and salinity, the underwater light field, fluorescence and dissolved oxygen. A comprehensive biogeochemical water sampling programme provided details on nutrients, primary productivity, dissolved organic matter and phytoplankton pigments. Biological samples such as zooplankton were obtained from the water column using nets, and from the sea-bed using grabs. Bathymetry and meteorological parameters were measured across the study area. A dye release experiment was also carried out. Data collection was undertaken in the Celtic Sea. The data were collected during the period 02 - 27 July 2008 during RRS James Cook cruise JC025. Measurements were taken using a variety of instrumentation, including conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profilers with attached auxiliary sensors, bathymetric echosounders, water bottle samplers, nets, acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs), remote access water samplers, towed undulators, free-fall turbulence profilers, temperature loggers, fluorometers, grabs and ship flow-through and meteorological packages. The data have been collected as part of the United Kingdom (UK) Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Oceans 2025 programme (Work Package 3.2) to provide information on vertical mixing processes at the thermocline. This will help improve modelling of these processes and is an expansion of work carried out during a previous National Oceanography Centre Liverpool (NOCL) project ‘Physical-Biological Control of New Production within the Seasonal Thermocline’. The cruise was undertaken jointly by NOCL, the Scottish Association for Marine Sciences (SAMS), the University of Aberdeen, the University of Strathclyde, Napier University and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The Principal Scientist during the research cruise was Professor Jonathan Sharples of NOCL, who is also the Principal Investigator of Work Package 3.2. CTD data, towed undulator data, temperature logger data, nutrient data, ADCP data, dye tracking data, zooplankton data, primary productivity data and ship underway monitoring system data from this cruise are held at the British Oceanographic Data Centre. Other data have not yet been supplied.

  • The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) 'Delayed-mode' Data Assembly Centre at the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) quality controls and archives high frequency (i.e. hourly or more frequent) global sea level data and any ancillary measurements (e.g. temperature, wind speed/direction, atmospheric pressure) that are included with the data. The tide gauges are situated on most coastlines, and data cover the Arctic to the Antarctic, and the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. The main component of GLOSS is the 'Global Core Network' (GCN) of 290 sea level stations around the world for long term climate change and oceanographic sea level monitoring. The Core Network is designed to provide an approximately evenly-distributed sampling. The GLOSS Long Term Trends (LTT) set of gauge sites (some, but not all, of which are in the GCN) are used for monitoring long term trends and accelerations in global sea level. The GLOSS altimeter calibration (ALT) set consists mostly of island stations, and provides a facility for mission intercalibrations. A GLOSS ocean circulation (OC) set, including in particular gauge pairs at straits and in polar area, complements altimetric coverage of the open deep ocean. Data exist from the mid 1800s up to the present day, with particularly long records from Newlyn, U.K.; Brest, France; Prince Rupert, Canada and Honolulu, San Diego and San Francisco, U.S.A.; Sea level has been measured by a variety of different instruments with the historical data mainly coming from mechanical float gauges. More recent technologies include acoustic, pressure, and radar instruments. GLOSS aims at the establishment of high quality global and regional sea level networks to create long‐term sea level records. These records, as well as being used in climate studies (sea level rise), are also used in oceanography (ocean currents, tides, surges), geodesy (national datum), geophysics and geology (coastal land movements) as well as various other disciplines. The programme became known as GLOSS as it provides data for deriving the 'Global Level of the Sea Surface'. GLOSS is an international programme conducted under the auspices of the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC). Data are collected by local agencies such as port authorities, universities and navies and sent to or downloaded by the data centre.

  • This dataset consists of ~18000 scanned images (available to download in .jpg, but high resolution .tiff images are also available) from historical UK tide gauge ledgers. In 1993 the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) acquired the registers from the Mersey Docks and Harbour Company (MDHC). These registers were in the form of large, leather‐bound volumes dating back to 1853 for Hilbre Island and 1857 for Georges Pier. The earlier books for Georges Pier and Hilbre Island contain 1/4 hourly heights and the remaining volumes mainly list high and low waters. Some of the ledgers include metrological data alongside the tidal information. There was also one ledger from the port of Sheerness. There were 142 books included in this project. The majority of the sites were in the Mersey Estuary, with one in the Thames Estuary. The sites are listed below, with the time period covered (gaps not shown): Dutton Locks Lower Gauge, River Weaver (53.28778,-2.62111) 1897-1917 Dutton Locks Upper Gauge, River Weaver (53.35111,-2.90694) 1897-1906 Eastham Lock, Mersey (53.3167,-2.9499) 1892-1981 Fiddlers Ferry (53.36667,-2.65) 1891-1974 Frodsham Bridge, River Weaver (53.30167,-2.70833) 1891-1917 Garston Dock, Mersey (53.40528,-2.99444) 1892-1917 George’s Pier, Liverpool (53.28333,-2.85) 1857-1912 Hale Head, Mersey (53.38333,-2.6) 1891-1917 Hilbre Island (53.3833,-3.2276) 1853-1987 Liverpool, Gladstone Dock (53.44969,-3.018) 1971-1981 Liverpool, Princes Pier (53.4083,-2.9983) 1971-1981 Stanlaw, Mersey (53.39556,-3.00833) 1891-1917 Sheerness (51.44564,0.74344) 1832-1849 Tranmere (53.3756,-2.9978) 1974-1981 Warrington, Mersey (53.28722,-2.6225) 1891-1912 Waterloo (53.4125,-3.0031) 1986-1987 Widnes, Mersey (53.32361,-2.79306) 1892-1917 Woodside Landing, Birkenhead (53.35,-2.73333) 1847-1897 The ledger scanning was put out to tender. Most of the ledgers were quite old and fragile, the books had to be preserved in their original format and binding and care had to be taken to prevent further deterioration as they were irreplaceable. It was specified in the tender that a specialist organisation was required with a proven track record of handling antique books. They had to use an archival quality overhead flatbed book scanner/ planetary scanner to preserve the pages and spines of the books. Some of the ledgers were quite large and required a scanner that could accommodate them without damage. The aim of this project was to digitise and scan historic analogue chart and manuscript sea level records held in the archive of the British Oceanographic Data Centre and to make these records available to the wider community. These data are unrepeatable scientific measurements and we want to encourage their reuse. Extending back and infilling tide gauge records will help with, among other things, climate change research, storm surge predictions and coastal land movement studies. BODC received a grant from the JISC eContent Capital Programme 2011-13, Strand B: Mass Digitisation to carry out the scanning of the ledgers.

  • This dataset consists of measurements of density, electrical conductivity, sound velocity and travel time, salinity, depth and temperature of the water column. The data were acquired from the RV Falcon Spirit, the Plymouth University vessel. The small 14m catamaran was used on a daily basis from 13 May 2012 to 24 May 2012 in the Celtic Sea, off the Cornish coast, with the idea to capture high-quality, spatially-resolved field data ahead of the Wave Hub construction. Measurements were collected using CTDs, moored temperature loggers, ADCP, VMADCP and towed minibat CTD. These cruises formed the field component of NERC Discovery Science project "Wave Hub baseline study". The aims of the research were to obtain a detailed oceanographic study at the Wave Hub site and surrounds - covering the whole range of physical, chemical and biological parameters before the deployment of Wave Hub infrastructure and wave energy devices – and to ensure data acquisition in time and space to allow development of physical and ecosystem models at scales relevant to wave arrays. Ultimately models will make predictive assessments of the extent, timescales and intensity of ecosystem impacts and perturbation resulting from implementation of wave energy arrays. Other aims include: engagement of environmental economists to ensure the data can be used to develop economic valuation estimates of critical life-supporting ecosystem services at scales appropriate to arrays of wave devices for comparison with other uses of marine space and to address questions that have arisen directly in respect of marine renewable energy development and sustainable use of marine resources. The Discovery Science project was composed of Standard Grant reference NE/I015094/1 as the lead grant with child grants NE/I015183/1 and NE/I015108/1. The lead grant, NE/I015094/1, ran from 01 August 2010 to 31 July 2012, with Dr Ricardo Javier Torres, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, as principal investigator. The child grant NE/I015183/1 ran from 01 August 2010 to 31 July 2011, led by Professor Michael Richard Belmont, University of Exeter. The second child grant, NE/I015108/1, ran from 03 December 2010 to 31 July 2012, led by Dr Philip John Hosegood, University of Plymouth. All data detailed here were received by BODC as raw files from the RV Falcon, processed and quality controlled using in-house BODC procedures. Towed undulator CTD data and temperature logger data have been processed to completion and are available online on the BODC website. The remaining data will be made available in the near future.