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Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI)

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  • The ESA funded GlobSnow project produced snow water equivalent (SWE) 7-day estimates for the Northern Hemisphere for the years 1979-2013. SWE describes the amount of liquid water in the snow pack that would be formed if the snow pack was completely melted. Weekly Aggregated Snow Water Equivalent (Weekly L3B SWE) were calculated for each day based on a 7-day sliding time window aggregation of the daily SWE product. The SWE product shall cover the Northern Hemisphere, excluding the mountainous areas, Greenland, the glaciers and snow on ice (lakes/seas/oceans) The spatial resolution of the product is 25 km on EASE-grid projection. Construction of the 30 years historical data set will be carried out using SMMR, SSM/I and SSMI/S data along with ground-based weather station data. The data are utilized for the different years as follows: 1979/09/11 - 1987/10/30 SMMR (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer onboard Nimbus-7 satellite) 1987/11/01 - 2008/12/31 SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager onboard the DMSP satellite series F8/F11/F13) 2009/01/01 - present SSM/I(S) (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager onboard the DMSP satellite series F17/F18/) These data may be redistributed and used without restriction.

  • The ESA funded GlobSnow project produced snow water equivalent (SWE) 7-day estimates and standard errors for the Northern Hemisphere for the years 1979-2013. SWE describes the amount of liquid water in the snow pack that would be formed if the snow pack was completely melted. Weekly Aggregated Snow Water Equivalent (Weekly L3B SWE) were calculated for each day based on a 7-day sliding time window aggregation of the daily SWE product. The SWE product shall cover the Northern Hemisphere, excluding the mountainous areas, Greenland, the glaciers and snow on ice (lakes/seas/oceans) The spatial resolution of the product is 25 km on EASE-grid projection. Construction of the 30 years historical data set will be carried out using SMMR, SSM/I and SSMI/S data along with ground-based weather station data. The data are utilized for the different years as follows: 1979/09/11 - 1987/10/30 SMMR (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer onboard Nimbus-7 satellite) 1987/11/01 - 2008/12/31 SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager onboard the DMSP satellite series F8/F11/F13) 2009/01/01 - present SSM/I(S) (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (Sounder) onboard the DMSP satellite series F17/F18/) These data may be redistributed and used without restriction.

  • The ESA funded GlobSnow project produced snow water equivalent (SWE) monthly estimates for the Northern Hemisphere for the years 1979-2013. SWE describes the amount of liquid water in the snow pack that would be formed if the snow pack was completely melted. The monthly aggregate, a single product for each month, is calculated by determining the mean and the maximum of the weekly SWE samples. This dataset presents the monthly maximum value of SWE only. The SWE product shall cover the Northern Hemisphere, excluding the mountainous areas, Greenland, the glaciers and snow on ice (lakes/seas/oceans). The spatial resolution of the product is 25 km on EASE-grid projection. Construction of the 30 years historical data set will be carried out using SMMR, SSM/I and SSMI/S data along with ground-based weather station data. The data are utilized for the different years as follows: 1979/09/11 - 1987/10/30 SMMR (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer onboard Nimbus-7 satellite) 1987/11/01 - 2008/12/31 SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager onboard the DMSP satellite series F8/F11/F13) 2009/01/01 - present SSM/I(S) (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (Sounder) onboard the DMSP satellite series F17/F18/) These data may be redistributed and used without restriction.

  • The ESA funded GlobSnow project produced snow water equivalent (SWE) monthly estimates for the Northern Hemisphere for the years 1979-2013. SWE describes the amount of liquid water in the snow pack that would be formed if the snow pack was completely melted. The monthly aggregate, a single product for each month, is calculated by determining the mean and the maximum of the weekly SWE samples. The SWE product shall cover the Northern Hemisphere, excluding the mountainous areas, Greenland, the glaciers and snow on ice (lakes/seas/oceans). The spatial resolution of the product is 25 km on EASE-grid projection. Construction of the 30 years historical data set will be carried out using SMMR, SSM/I and SSMI/S data along with ground-based weather station data. The data are utilized for the different years as follows: 1979/09/11 - 1987/10/30 SMMR (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer onboard Nimbus-7 satellite) 1987/11/01 - 2008/12/31 SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager onboard the DMSP satellite series F8/F11/F13) 2009/01/01 - present SSM/I(S) (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (Sounder) onboard the DMSP satellite series F17/F18/) These data may be redistributed and used without restriction.

  • The ESA funded GlobSnow project produced snow water equivalent (SWE) daily standard errors (Variance estimates) for the Northern Hemisphere for the years 1979-2013. SWE describes the amount of liquid water in the snow pack that would be formed if the snow pack was completely melted. The SWE product shall cover the Northern Hemisphere, excluding the mountainous areas, Greenland, the glaciers and snow on ice (lakes/seas/oceans). The spatial resolution of the product is 25 km on EASE-grid projection. Construction of the 30 years historical data set will be carried out using SMMR, SSM/I and SSMI/S data along with ground-based weather station data. The data are utilized for the different years as follows: 1979/09/11 - 1987/10/30 SMMR (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer onboard Nimbus-7 satellite) 1987/11/01 - 2008/12/31 SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager onboard the DMSP satellite series F8/F11/F13) 2009/01/01 - present SSM/I(S) (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (Sounder) onboard the DMSP satellite series F17/F18/) These data may be redistributed and used without restriction.

  • The GlobSnow SWE product is the first satellite based daily SWE dataset for the non-alpine northern hemisphere that extends from 1979 to 2014. The previous existing daily SWE records have spanned a shorter time period (2002-2014) or described the snow conditions on a monthly basis for a similar period (1978-2014). The GlobSnow SWE record utilizes a novel data-assimilation based approach for SWE estimation which combines weather station measurements of snow depth with satellite passive microwave measurements. This approach was shown to be superior to alternative algorithms which solely utilize satellite data through comparison with extensive ground reference datasets. The GlobSnow-1 and -2 projects have developed a long term data record of SWE products covering the non-alpine Northern Hemisphere, based on a time series of remotely sensed observations from the Nimbus-7 SMMR, DMSP F8/F11/F13/F17 SSM/I(S) instruments and ground-based weather station measurements from 1979 until 2014. There are three SWE products (all on the EASE model grid; see Armstrong and Brodzik, 1995): - Daily Snow Water Equivalent (Daily L3A SWE), snow water equivalent (mm) for each grid cell for all evaluated land areas of the Northern Hemisphere. - Weekly Aggregated Snow Water Equivalent (Weekly L3B SWE), calculated for each day based on a 7-day sliding time window aggregation of the daily SWE product. - Monthly Aggregated Snow Water Equivalent (Monthly L3B SWE), a single product for each calendar month, providing the average and maximum SWE, calculated from the weekly aggregated SWE product. The GlobSnow-1 project resulted in two versions of the data record, SWE v1.0 and SWE v1.3 (available from FMI). The dataset produced in GlobSnow-2 is identified as the GlobSnow SWE v2.0 data record. In addition to the SWE retrievals, the SWE products include information on the overall extent of snow cover. The information on snow extent is included in the product by utilizing the following coding for the SWE product, whereby SWE values of: - 0 mm denotes snow-free areas (Snow Extent 0%) - 0.001 mm denote areas with melting snow (Snow Extent undefined between 0% and 100%; no SWE retrieval because of the wet state of the snow cover) - > 0.001 mm denote areas with full snow cover (Snow Extent 100%) The areas that have been flagged as snow-free or melted are identified using a time-series melt detection approach described in Takala et al. (2009). The areas that are identified as wet snow or have no SWE retrieval, but are identified as snow covered with the time-series melt-detection approach, are denoted with a SWE value of 0.001 mm. The areas that are determined as snow-free or melted by the melt-detection approach, are denoted with a SWE value of 0 mm. All the other areas show a retrieved SWE value (that is in all cases greater than 0.001 mm). The project was coordinated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). Other project partners involved are NR (Norwegian Computing Centre), ENVEO IT GmbH, GAMMA Remote Sensing AG, Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Environment Canada (EC), Northern Research Institute (Norut), University of Bern, Meteoswiss and ZAMG.

  • The the HAMMOZ-Consortium team team consisted of the following agencies: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH-Zurich), Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M), Forschungszentrum Jülich, University of Oxford, Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (IfT) and Center for Climate Systems Modeling (C2SM) at ETH Zurich.World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6): Collection of simulations from the the HAMMOZ-Consortium team MPI-ESM-1-2-HAM model. The official CMIP6 Citation, and its associated DOI, is provided as an online resource linked to this record.

  • The World Climate Research Program (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 6 (CMIP6) data from the the HAMMOZ-Consortium team MPI-ESM-1-2-HAM model output for the "abrupt quadrupling of CO2" (abrupt-4xCO2) experiment. These are available at the following frequencies: 3hr, 6hrPlev, 6hrPlevPt, Amon, CFday, E3hr, Eday, Oday, Ofx, Omon, SIday, SImon, day and fx. The runs included the ensemble member: r1i1p1f1. CMIP6 was a global climate model intercomparison project, coordinated by PCMDI (Program For Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison) on behalf of the WCRP and provided input for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 6th Assessment Report (AR6). The the HAMMOZ-Consortium team team consisted of the following agencies: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH-Zurich), Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M), Forschungszentrum Jülich, University of Oxford, Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (IfT) and Center for Climate Systems Modeling (C2SM) at ETH Zurich. The official CMIP6 Citation, and its associated DOI, is provided as an online resource linked to this record.

  • The World Climate Research Program (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 6 (CMIP6) data from the the HAMMOZ-Consortium team MPI-ESM-1-2-HAM model output for the "Control simulation providing baseline for evaluating effective radiative forcing (ERF)" (piClim-control) experiment. These are available at the following frequencies: 3hr, 6hrLev, 6hrPlevPt, AERmonZ, Amon, CF3hr, CFday, CFmon, E3hr, E3hrPt, Eday, EdayZ, Emon, day and fx. The runs included the ensemble member: r1i1p1f1. CMIP6 was a global climate model intercomparison project, coordinated by PCMDI (Program For Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison) on behalf of the WCRP and provided input for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 6th Assessment Report (AR6). The the HAMMOZ-Consortium team team consisted of the following agencies: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH-Zurich), Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M), Forschungszentrum Jülich, University of Oxford, Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (IfT) and Center for Climate Systems Modeling (C2SM) at ETH Zurich. The official CMIP6 Citation, and its associated DOI, is provided as an online resource linked to this record.

  • The World Climate Research Program (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 6 (CMIP6) data from the the HAMMOZ-Consortium team MPI-ESM-1-2-HAM model output for the "pre-industrial control" (piControl) experiment. These are available at the following frequencies: AERmonZ, Amon, Lmon, Omon, Oyr and SImon. The runs included the ensemble member: r1i1p1f1. CMIP6 was a global climate model intercomparison project, coordinated by PCMDI (Program For Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison) on behalf of the WCRP and provided input for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 6th Assessment Report (AR6). The the HAMMOZ-Consortium team team consisted of the following agencies: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH-Zurich), Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M), Forschungszentrum Jülich, University of Oxford, Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (IfT) and Center for Climate Systems Modeling (C2SM) at ETH Zurich. The official CMIP6 Citation, and its associated DOI, is provided as an online resource linked to this record.