Met Office, Exeter
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The Ocean Regulation of Climate by Heat and Carbon Sequestration and Transports (ORCHESTRA) data set comprises hydrographic data, including measurements of temperature, salinity and currents, complemented by bathymetric, meteorological and stable isotope data. The study area was the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Ocean, including the Weddell and Scotia Seas and Drake Passage. The data were collected by research cruises, beginning March 2016. Shipboard data collection involved the deployment of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) packages and Lowered Acoustic Doppler Profilers (LADCP) in the study area. Continuous measurements of current velocities (using vessel mounted ADCPs, VMADCPs), bathymetry and surface ocean and meteorological properties were collected throughout each cruise. The ORCHESTRA programme aims to advance the understanding of, and capability to predict, the Southern Ocean's impact on climate change via its uptake and storage of heat and carbon. It represents the first fully unified activity by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) institutes as part of the Long-Term Multi-centre Science (LTMS) along with other UK research institutes, more specifically the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), National Oceanography Centre (NOC), British Geological Survey (BGS), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML), Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU), Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling (CPOM) and the Met Office Hadley Centre. The programme was divided into three Work Packages with the following Principal Investigators for each: WP1 (Interaction of the Southern Ocean with the atmosphere), led by Liz Kent from NOC; WP2 (Exchange between the upper ocean mixed layer and the interior), led by Dave Munday from BAS and WP3 (Exchange between the Southern Ocean and the global ocean), led by Yvonne Firing from NOC. The overall programme is led by Andrew Meijers from BAS. The majority of the data will be managed by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC), with a minority of data sets being submitted to the BAS Polar Data Centre (BAS-PDC) and atmospheric data from MASIN aircrafts submitted to the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis (CEDA).
The data set comprises measurement of physical and biogeochemical oceanographic parameters and complementary meteorology collected during the Liverpool Bay/Irish Sea Coastal Observatory initiative. It includes measurements from across the Liverpool Bay and Irish Sea area with data collection spanning a decade from 2001 to 2011. It incorporates regular hydrographic survey cruises (typically 8 - 10 per year) undertaken by the RV Prince Madog, data collected via instrumented ferries, time series data from oceanographic moorings and at two meteorological stations, namely: Bidston Observatory (up to 2004) and Hilbre Island (2004 - 2011), and a shore-based high-frequency (HF) radar measuring waves and surface currents out to a range of 50km. The hydrographic surveys include conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) casts with attached auxiliary sensors and data collected via the ships' underway monitoring system. Oceanographic parameters include temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, attenuance, turbidity, fluorescence, chlorophyll, nutrients, irradiance, waves and currents and meteorological parameters include air temperature, air pressure, wind velocities, humidity, precipitation and atmospheric irradiance. The instrumented ferries also incorporated an underway monitoring system for sea surface properties. The Observatory integrated (near) real-time measurements with the POLCOMS (Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Ocean Modelling System) models. The objective was to understand a coastal sea's response both to natural forcing and to the consequences of human activity. The foci were the impact of storms, variations in river discharge (especially the Mersey), seasonality, and blooms in Liverpool Bay. The Observatory was coordinated at the National Oceanography Centre (previously the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, POL) in Liverpool and data are managed by British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC). The data set is supplemented by infra-red (for sea surface temperature) and visible (for chlorophyll and suspended sediment) satellite data. These data are held at the NERC Earth Observation Data Centre /Remote Sensing Data Analysis Service (NEODC/RSDAS).
The Joint Air-Sea Interaction (JASIN) 78 Project Data Set comprises a variety of measurements including upper air and near surface meteorology, and physical oceanography. Meteorological data include air temperature, pressure, humidity and wind, while oceanographic data include temperature, salinity, currents, wave spectra and short-term wave statistics. The data were collected in the North Rockall Trough, an area of deep water (1000m - 2000m) several hundred kilometres off the west coast of Scotland. The experiment lasted for 2 months from mid-July to mid-September 1978 and comprised 2 intensive observational phases preceded by a preparatory test period. Data were collected using a variety of instrumentation, with meteorological data being provided by radiosondes, tethered balloons, and ship- and aircraft-mounted sensors. Hydrographic data were collected via shipboard deployment of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor packages (both standard and yoyo profiles), towed thermistor chains, ship-mounted wave recorders and moored temperature and current meters. The JASIN Project was designed to study the interaction of the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers with the large scale motions of the sea and air. The multiplicity of processes sampled necessitated a large experiment and involved more than 50 teams of investigators from nine countries. The data are held at the British Oceanographic Data Centre and many series are available via BODC's online data delivery portal.
The Shelf Sea Biogeochemistry (SSB) data set comprises hydrographic data, including measurements of temperature, salinity and currents, complemented by bathymetric and meteorological data. The study area is located in the Celtic Sea, shelf seas and shelf-edges around the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. The data were collected by a combination of research cruises that spanned from March 2014 to September 2015. Shipboard data collection involved the deployment of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) packages in the study area. Continuous measurements of current velocities (using vessel mounted ADCPs, VMADCPs), bathymetry and surface ocean and meteorological properties were collected throughout each cruise. Moorings were deployed in the Celtic Sea in early 2014 and provided approximately two years worth of hydrographic time series data. The SSB programme aims to increase the understanding of the cycling of nutrients and carbon and the controls on primary and secondary production, and their role in wider biogeochemical cycles, which in turn will significantly improve predictive marine biogeochemical and ecosystem models over a range of scales. SSB brings together UK researchers from Bangor University, Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Meteorological Office, National Oceanography Centre (NOC), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML), Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS), University of Aberdeen, University of East Anglia (UEA), University of Edinburgh, University of Liverpool, University of Oxford, University of Portsmouth and University of Southampton. It also has UK and Irish partners, as Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI), Marine Institute and Marine Scotland Science. The programme was divided into five work packages, having Jonathan Sharples as the Principal Investigator for work package 1 (CANDYFLOSS), Martin Solan as Principal Investigator for work package 2 (Biogeochemistry, macronutrient and carbon cycling in the benthic layer), Peter J. Statham as Principal Investigator for work package 3 (Supply of iron from shelf sediments to the ocean), Icarus Allen as Principal Investigator for work package 4 (Integrative Modelling for Shelf Seas Biogeochemistry) and Keith Weston as Principal Investigator for work package 5 (Blue Carbon – How much carbon is stored in UK shelf seas, what influences storage and could it be used in carbon trading?). All data will be managed by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC).