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  • This dataset captures information on the diet composition and mass of Adelie penguin stomach contents at Signy Island, from 1997 to 2020. The monitoring period occurred over four weeks each year and involved sampling adults returning to feed their chicks during the creche period. Sampling took place approximately every five days. Numbers of birds sampled on each occasion varied over the entire period of the dataset from a maximum of eight to a minimum of six, equating to an annual maximum of forty birds and an annual minimum of thirty, depending on the year. All adult penguins were sampled on their return to the colony using the stomach lavage methodology specified in CCAMLR (Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources) Ecosystem Monitoring Program (CEMP) Standard Methods A8A. The stomach samples were then weighed and categorised into krill, cephalopods, fish and non-food and identified to species level where possible. Krill carapaces and otoliths were removed and measured. Ecosystems component of BAS Polar Science for Planet Earth Programme, funded by NERC.

  • This data set provides processed Ku- and Ka-band fully-polarimetric backscatter and derived polarimetric parameters from hourly scans, acquired using the KuKa radar, during Legs 1, 2, 4 and 5 of the 2019-2020 MOSAiC International Arctic Drift Expedition. Scans were acquired during winter (Legs 1 and 2), advanced melt (Leg 4) and freeze-up (Leg 5) seasons, from various Remote Sensing (RS) sites, located in the MOSAiC ice floe. The first deployment of the KuKa radar was on 18 October 2019 at RS1 site and the radar was retreated (due to ice break up) on 18th November. The radar was redeployed on 29th November at RS2 site until 13th December when cracks were observed at the site and the instrument was turned off and moved to a safe location. The radar was redeployed at RS3 site and started measuring again on 21st December 2019 until 31st January 2020, after which the radar was taken off the RS site to conduct maintenance. The radar was not operational during Leg 3. During Leg 4, the radar was operational between 25th June and 19th July 2020, and later retreated back to the ship, for deployment in Leg 5. The radar was deployed on 24th August 2020 and operational until the end of the MOSAiC expedition. The dataset was collected by MOSAiC Team ICE participants and processed by Vishnu Nandan at the University of Manitoba, Canada. This work was funded in part through NERC grant NE/S002510/1, the Canada 150 Chair Program and the European Space Agency PO 5001027396. The authors thank Marine Environmental Observation, Prediction and Response Network (MEOPAR) Postdoctoral Fellowship grant to Vishnu Nandan. The authors also thank the crew of R/V Polarstern and all scientific members of the MOSAiC expedition for their support in field logistics and field data collection.

  • Coastline for Antarctica created from various mapping and remote sensing sources, consisting of the following coast types: ice coastline, rock coastline, grounding line, ice shelf and front, ice rumple, and rock against ice shelf. Covering all land and ice shelves south of 60S. Suitable for topographic mapping and analysis. This dataset has been generalised from the high resolution vector polyline. Medium resolution versions of ADD data are suitable for scales smaller than 1:1,000,000, although certain regions will appear more detailed than others due to variable data availability and coastline characteristics. Major changes in v7.5 include updates to ice shelf fronts in the following regions: Seal Nunataks and Scar Inlet region, the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf, between the Brunt Ice Shelf and Riiser-Larsen Peninsula, the Shackleton and Conger ice shelves, and Crosson, Thwaites and Pine Island. Small areas of grounding line and ice coastlines were also updated in some of these regions as needed. Data compiled, managed and distributed by the Mapping and Geographic Information Centre and the UK Polar Data Centre, British Antarctic Survey on behalf of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research.

  • Coastline for Antarctica created from various mapping and remote sensing sources, provided as polygons with ''land'', ''ice shelf'', ''ice tongue'' or ''rumple'' attribute. Covering all land and ice shelves south of 60S. Suitable for topographic mapping and analysis. This dataset has been generalised from the high resolution vector polygons. Medium resolution versions of ADD data are suitable for scales smaller than 1:1,000,000, although certain regions will appear more detailed than others due to variable data availability and coastline characteristics. Major changes in v7.5 include updates to ice shelf fronts in the following regions: Seal Nunataks and Scar Inlet region, the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf, between the Brunt Ice Shelf and Riiser-Larsen Peninsula, the Shackleton and Conger ice shelves, and Crosson, Thwaites and Pine Island. Small areas of grounding line and ice coastlines were also updated in some of these regions as needed. Data compiled, managed and distributed by the Mapping and Geographic Information Centre and the UK Polar Data Centre, British Antarctic Survey on behalf of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research.

  • The ocean surface height is constantly varying under the effects of gravity, density and the Earth''s rotation. Information on the Ocean surface elevation in polar regions is available from the CryoSat2 Radar instrument. We compare ocean surface elevation to a static geoid product (GOCO03s) to give the part of the ocean surface elevation accountable due to surface currents, the Dynamic Ocean Topography (DOT). This measurement is smoothed over 100 km and gives monthly surface currents. NERC NE/R000654/1 Towards a marginal Arctic sea ice cover.

  • Ionospheric boundary locations derived from IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) satellite FUV (Far Ultra Violet) imager data covering the period from May 2000 until October 2002. These include poleward and equatorward auroral boundary data derived directly from the three imagers, WIC (Wideband Imaging Camera), SI12 (Spectrographic Imager 121.8 nm), and SI13 (Spectrographic Imager 135.6 nm). These also include the OCB (open-closed magnetic field line boundary) and EPB (equatorward precipitation boundary) derived indirectly from the auroral boundaries. The data set also includes model fitted circles for all the boundary data sets for all measurement times. Chisham et al. (2022) also describe that the v2 data set also includes estimates of the OCB at each time, derived from a combination of the poleward auroral boundary measurements in combination with modelled statistical offsets between the auroral boundary and the OCB as measured by the DMSP spacecraft. The v2 data set also includes estimates of the EPB at each time, derived from a combination of the equatorward auroral boundary measurements in combination with modelled statistical offsets between the auroral boundary and the EPB as measured by the DMSP spacecraft. The v2 data set also includes model circle fit boundaries for all times for all eight raw data sets. These model circle fits were estimated using the methods outlined in Chisham (2017) and Chisham et al. (2022), which involves fitting circles to the spatial variation of the boundaries at any one time. The raw auroral boundaries were derived as outlined in Longden et al. (2010) (the original v1 data set) with the application of the additional selection criteria outlined in Chisham et al. (2022). For the creation of the original v1 data set, for each image, the position of each pixel in AACGM (Altitude Adjusted Corrected Geomagnetic) coordinates was established. Each image was then divided into 24 segments covering 1 hour of magnetic local time (MLT). For each MLT segment, an intensity profile was constructed by finding the average intensity across bins of 1 degree magnetic latitude in the range of 50 to 90 degrees (AACGM). Two functions were fit to each intensity profile: a function with one Gaussian component and a quadratic background, and a function with two Gaussian components and a quadratic background. The function with a single Gaussian component should provide a reasonable model when the auroral emission forms in a continuous oval. When the oval shows bifurcation, the function with two Gaussian components may provide a better model of the auroral emission. Of the two functions fit to each intensity profile, the one with the lower reduced chi-square goodness-of-fit statistic was deemed to be the better model for that profile. The auroral boundaries were then determined to be the position of the peak of the poleward Gaussian curve, plus its FWHM (full-width half-maximum) value of the Gaussian, to the peak of the equatorward Gaussian, minus its FWHM. In the case of the single Gaussian fit, the same curve is used for both boundaries. A number of criteria were applied to discard poorly located auroral boundaries arising from either poor fitting or incomplete data. Following Chisham et al. (2022), additional criteria were used to refine the data for the v2 auroral boundary data sets. These included dealing with anomalous data at the edges of the image fields of view, and dealing with anomalous mapping issues. Funding was provided by: STFC grant PP/E002110/1 - Does magnetic reconnection have a characteristic scale in space and time? NERC directed grant NE/V002732/1 - Space Weather Instrumentation, Measurement, Modelling and Risk - Thermosphere (SWIMMR-T). NERC BAS National Capability - Polar Science for Planet Earth.

  • A medium resolution seamask for regions south of 60S, comprised of a roundel polygon with all land and ice shelves erased. Medium resolution versions of ADD data are suitable for scales smaller than 1:1,000,000, although certain regions will appear more detailed than others due to variable data availability and coastline characteristics. Data compiled, managed and distributed by the Mapping and Geographic Information Centre and the UK Polar Data Centre, British Antarctic Survey on behalf of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research.

  • We can learn about the flow of ice in Antarctica by evaluating the key parameters that control the flow speed. These parameters include the basal drag coefficient and the ice viscosity. They can be estimated by adjusting their values so that model velocities at the upper surface agree with satellite observations. This dataset was produced using inverse methods to obtain the parameter values. In this approach a cost function that describes the mismatch between model and satellite data is minimised iteratively by making small adjustments to the parameters at each iteration to improve the fit. The result is better information about the flow field in the Antarctic ice sheet. Once the flow field is available it can be used as an initial state from which begin temporally evolving simulations using the model. A number of different examples are included to show how varying different parameters alters the temporally evolving simulations. The contributing datasets used to constrain the model are listed by Arthern et al (2015) and Arthern and Williams (2017). Multidecadal model simulations span up to 100 years of simulation time. This work was funded by NERC standard grant NE/L005212/1.

  • Coastline for Antarctica created from various mapping and remote sensing sources, provided as polygons with ''land'', ''ice shelf'', ''ice tongue'' or ''rumple'' attribute. Covering all land and ice shelves south of 60S. Suitable for topographic mapping and analysis. High resolution versions of ADD data are suitable for scales larger than 1:1,000,000. The largest suitable scale is changeable and dependent on the region. Major changes in v7.5 include updates to ice shelf fronts in the following regions: Seal Nunataks and Scar Inlet region, the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf, between the Brunt Ice Shelf and Riiser-Larsen Peninsula, the Shackleton and Conger ice shelves, and Crosson, Thwaites and Pine Island. Small areas of grounding line and ice coastlines were also updated in some of these regions as needed. Data compiled, managed and distributed by the Mapping and Geographic Information Centre and the UK Polar Data Centre, British Antarctic Survey on behalf of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research.

  • Coastline for Antarctica created from various mapping and remote sensing sources, consisting of the following coast types: ice coastline, rock coastline, grounding line, ice shelf and front, ice rumple, and rock against ice shelf. Covering all land and ice shelves south of 60S. Suitable for topographic mapping and analysis. High resolution versions of ADD data are suitable for scales larger than 1:1,000,000. The largest suitable scale is changeable and dependent on the region. Major changes in v7.5 include updates to ice shelf fronts in the following regions: Seal Nunataks and Scar Inlet region, the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf, between the Brunt Ice Shelf and Riiser-Larsen Peninsula, the Shackleton and Conger ice shelves, and Crosson, Thwaites and Pine Island. Small areas of grounding line and ice coastlines were also updated in some of these regions as needed. Data compiled, managed and distributed by the Mapping and Geographic Information Centre and the UK Polar Data Centre, British Antarctic Survey on behalf of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research.