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National Oceanography Centre (Southampton)

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  • This dataset contains particle flux analyses and current measurements collected from sediment traps and associated moored current meter instrumentation. Four McLane sediment traps were deployed in the Iceland Basin (by the Ocean Weather Station India) in a mesoscale array around 60 degrees N 20 degrees W to sample particle flux time series between November 2006 - July 2007 and August 2007 - June 2008. Sediment traps were deployed with Aanderaa RCM8 current meters 15 m below the traps, recording current speed and direction once an hour. The sediment traps were initially deployed during RRS Discovery cruise D312 and recovered on RRS Discovery cruise D321. For the second deployment period the traps were deployed on RRS Discovery cruise D321 and recovered on RRS Discovery cruise D340. The first sediment traps were prepared for analysis by scientists shortly after recovery. The second deployment samples were stored in the dark at 4 degrees Celsius until 2016 and were subsequently analysed. All sediment trap samples are preserved with formalin and hence should not be affected by long time storage. The samples were analysed for mass flux, particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON) flux, calcium carbonate flux, biogenic silica flux (including dissolved contribution for deployment 2), strontium flux (including Acantharian cyst fractions for deployment 1 and 2 and particulate fractions for deployment 2). The samples from the latter part of deployment 2 are thought to have severely under collected and so those data are flagged. The dataset was produced for the purposes of calculating sediment fluxes in the Iceland Basin and was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) - Oceans 2025 Programme (Grant number NE/L002531/1).

  • The Carbon Uptake and Seasonal Traits in Antarctic Remineralisation Depth (CUSTARD) data set comprises hydrographic data, including measurements of temperature, salinity and currents, complemented by bathymetric, meteorological and nutrient data. All the observational data from the project were collected at, and south of, the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) Global Southern Ocean Array, located south-west of Chile. Data collection activities span from November 2018 to January 2020 over 3 cruises (DY096, DY111 and DY112). The main aim of the CUSTARD project is to quantify the seasonal drivers of carbon fluxes in a region of the Southern Ocean upper limb, and estimate how long different quantities of carbon are kept out of the atmosphere based on the water flow routes at the observed remineralisation depths. The lead grant was funded by the NERC grant reference NE/P021247/1 with child grants NE/P021328/1, NE/P021336/1, NE/P021263/1. NE/P021247/1 was held at the National Oceanography Centre, led by Adrian Martin. Child grants were lead by Mark Moore of University of Southampton, Simon Ussher of University of Plymouth and Dorothee Bakker of University of East Anglia respectively.

  • The MASSMO 5 dataset includes the near real time transmitted EGO (Everyone’s Gliding Observatories) NetCDF versions of glider data collected by five submarine gliders across three deployment campaigns. Recovery versions of data downloaded from the all gliders with no quality assurance are also available on request. Glider sensor suites included CTD, bio-optics, and oxygen optodes. Parameters observed include, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, optical backscatter, and oxygen data. The MASSMO 5a mission focused on the period 23 Jun 2018 to 06 Jul 2018 and included three submarine glider deployments (UK glider deployments only are included in this dataset). All assets were deployed from NRV Alliance in partnership with NATO-CMRE, but were recovered prematurely due to vessel technical issues. The primary geographic focus of MASSMO 5 was the outer shelf and upper slope off northern Norway, in the region between Bear Island and southern Spitsbergen, but outside the 12 mile territorial limits of these islands. The MASSMO 5b mission occurred within the period 17-24 Oct 2018, a total of three ocean gliders were deployed. The primary geographic focus of MASSMO5b was the northern North Sea to the east of the Orkney archipelago. The MASSMO 5c mission was aborted and no data were collected. The MASSMO 5d mission occurred within period 26 Apr 2019 to 6 May 2019, there was deployment of a single ocean glider. The primary geographic focus of MASSMO 5d was the Faroe Shetland Channel. MASSMO 5 was co-ordinated by the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) in partnership with University of East Anglia (UEA), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) and Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS). The mission was sponsored by Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) and involved close co-operation with the NATO Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE) and UK Royal Navy, and was supported by several additional commercial, government and research partners.

  • The dataset comprises the combination of estimates of anthropogenic carbon derived from hydrographic occupations of the 26N section with volume transports for the area between east USA and Africa calculated using the RAPID-MOCHA-WBTS AMOC timeseries. The data cover the time period between April 2004 and October 2012. The observations will be used with data from other sources to determine and interpret the accumulation of anthropogenic carbon in the North Atlantic, to infer the magnitude and variability of uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and assess the risk of changes in the meridional overturning circulation on the marine carbon cycle. The Atlantic Biogeochemical Fluxes programme (ABC-Fluxes) is a joint effort between NERC in the UK (Principal Investigator Elaine McDonagh), and NOAA in the USA (Molly Baringer). It builds on the work of the RAPID-MOCHA-WBTS programme, a joint effort between NERC in the UK (Principal Investigator Eleanor Frajka-Williams), NOAA (Molly Baringer) and RSMAS (Bill Johns) in the USA. The Atlantic anthropogenic carbon transport (and its components), calculated from the above data, are held by BODC in NetCDF format.

  • The Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) Observatory is a sustained, multidisciplinary observatory. Key time-series datasets include measurements of sea temperature, air temperature, air pressure, waves, wind, CO2, salinity, Megafauna (Species diversity, abundance and biomass), geochemistry, humidity, chlorophyll, nitrate, PAR and currents. The PAP observatory is situated in the Northeast Atlantic away from the continental slope and mid Atlantic ridge (49N,16.5W, depth 4800m). Since 1989, this environmental study site in the Northeast Atlantic has become a major focus for international and interdisciplinary scientific research and monitoring including water column biogeochemistry, physics and benthic biology. Since 2002, a mooring has been in place with sensors taking a diverse set of biogeochemical and physical measurements of the upper 1000m of the water column. Some of these data are transmitted in near real-time via satellite. A diverse range of Essential Climate variables are measured and sampled at the PAP site from the atmosphere and surface ocean to the seafloor. The instruments used include CTD + Backscatter; ADCP (2 way, re-programmable for water profiling as well as burst sampling), Seismometer (2 way, retrieval of selected time period - 1 Minute - in the past e.g. seismic event), Bottom Pressure Sensor, Sediment trap (2 way, re-programmable for change sampling interval), Boxcores, Mega- and Multicores, Optode, Digital Camera and Stand-alone hydrophone. Seafloor sampling includes trawling, coring, towed camera systems from a research ship and time-lapse photography. Since 2002 many of the upper ocean measurements (0-1000m) have been transmitted in near real-time. There is a growing need for ever more accurate climatic models to predict future climate change and the impact this will have on human settlement, the insurance industry, fisheries, agriculture and nature at large. Long term observations at fixed points in the open oceans are essential to provide high quality and high resolution data to increase our knowledge of how our oceans function, how they are changing and how this may impact on the climate. The observatory is coordinated by the National Oceanography Centre. In 2010, a collaboration between NERC and UK Met Office has led to the first atmospheric measurements at the site.

  • The dataset comprises 10 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, and 40 moored CTDs from across the North Atlantic Ocean area specifically the Subtropical North Atlantic, during May and June 2006. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton as part of the Rapid Climate Change Programme.

  • The dataset comprises 12 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, from across the North Atlantic Ocean area specifically the Mid-Atlantic Ridge - Eastern Boundary. The data were collected during October and November of 2007. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton as part of the Rapid Climate Change Programme.

  • Data from the MarineE-tech project were collected via three platforms; ship, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) and Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). Shipboard data includes multibeam bathymetry, sub-bottom profiler, gravimeter and moorings data, plus CTD casts and gravity core samples. AUV data consists of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry, sub-bottom profiler, CTD, LADCP, turbidity and magnetics data, plus camera stills. ROV data consists of video and camera stills plus grab samples and drill core samples. Also available are numerical model results and input files from the TELEMAC-3D numerical model developed by HR Wallingford and used to predict currents during plume dispersion experiments. Data were collected from the Tropic Seamount in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean between October and December 2016. A second cruise, DY094, collected data from the Rio Grande Rise and Sao Paulo Ridge region in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean from late 2017 to early 2018. The project deployed robotic underwater technology including the use of the 6500m depth-rated ISIS remotely operated vehicle to sample over 100 locations of FeMn crusts and the 6000m rated AUV Autosub6000 to image the lateral extent and thickness of crusts across the seamounts. Benthic landers and moored instruments such as ADCPs (for disturbance plume monitoring) were also deployed. The JC142 oceanographic data provided verification for the TELEMAC-3D numerical model. This research will improve understanding of the processes controlling the concentration of E-tech deposits and their composition at a local scale, and for the potential impacts of mineral recovery to be identified. MarineE-tech is jointly funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), Security of Supply of Mineral Resources (SoS Minerals), Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Programme (EPSRC), and the Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP). Other parties involved include the British Geological Survey (BGS), University of Sao Paulo, University of Bath, University of Leicester, HR Wallingford, Marine Ecological Surveys Ltd (MESL), Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) and Soil Machine Dynamics Ltd (SMD).

  • The Rapid Climate Change (RAPID) data set comprises a diverse collection of oceanographic and benthic observations, including profiles of temperature, salinity, dissolved gases and currents. The dataset also includes discrete measurements of plankton, stable isotopes, dissolved metals, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nutrients in the water column, sediment grain size parameters and geochemistry, and atmospheric concentrations of inorganic halogens. The RAPID data were collected from numerous locations in the North Atlantic, North Sea, Greenland and Europe via over 30 cruises between 2004 and 2008. Many of the oceanographic data resulted from an extensive mooring array in the North Atlantic devoted to monitoring the Atlantic overturning circulation. These mooring arrays are continuing to return data in the follow-on programmes, Rapid Climate Change - Will the Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation Halt? (RAPID-WATCH, 2008-2015) and RAPID - Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (RAPID-AMOC, 2015 onwards) which will result in a decadal time series spanning the North Atlantic. RAPID, RAPID-WATCH and RAPID-AMOC aim to investigate and understand the causes of rapid climate change, with a primary (but not exclusive) focus on the role of the Atlantic Ocean thermohaline circulation. A Rapid Climate Change project office has been established at the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton. The cruise and mooring data are managed by the British Oceanographic Data Centre and are supplemented by atmospheric model output held at the British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC).

  • The dataset comprises concentration of gas hydrates beneath the seabed, in the water column and, atmosphere along with the topography of the sea floor. Data were collected in the Arctic Ocean off the NorthWestern coast of Svalbard across the continental margin between 78 and 80 North and 4 and 11 East. The data were collected during cruise JR211 which, over two legs, took place between 23rd August 2008 and 24th September 2008. Geophysical and geological techniques were used to detect methane hydrate beneath the seafloor and to investigate features trough which methane escapes to the seafloor. The seabed was imaged and mapped using a multibeam sonar (Simrad EM120), an echosounder (Simrad EK60), TOBI deep-towed sidescan sonar (30 kHz), widescan sidescan sonar (100 and 350 kHz). The sedimentary layers and geological structures beneath the seabed were imaged with the 7 kHz profiler in TOBI, a TOPAS sub-bottom acoustic profiler and multichannel seismic reflaction (96 channels with 6.25 m group spacing) using two air guns in true GI mode 45/105 cu.in. More accurate information on seismic velocity was obtained by deploying ocean-bottom seismometers on the seabed which contained 3 Sercel L-28 4.5 Hz geophones and a High Tech HTI-90-U hydrophone. Sediment samples were obtained using a piston corer, a gravity corer and, a box corer. Water chemistry was measured from discrete samples taken from bottles attached to the conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package and continuously from the ship's seawater supply. Methane concentration was measured on-board using a headspace technique. Air samples were collected at 12 hour intervals. Sampling occurred on the Navigation Bridge deck and the side of the ship upwind of the ships emissions was chosen each time. Additional samples were also collected close to the ship's funnel, to check for contamination, and from the gas released by the cores when in an inert atmosphere (N2). Analysis of methane mixing ratio is performed by Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionisation Detector (GC-FID) and the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane is analysed using a continuous flow Gas Chromatography - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-IRMS) system. Almost half of the Earth's carbon is stored in gas hydrates and related shallow gas deposits. Numerical models predict that this reservoir is highly mobile and that escaping gas has a significant potential to accelerate climate change releasing as much as 2000 Gt of methane over a short period of time. As methane is a potent greenhouse gas it would course further global warming. Arctic gas hydrates are most vulnerable to future climate change because (1) it is predicted that temperatures will increase faster in the Arctic than in low latitudes (2) the intercept of the gas hydrate stability zone with the seabed is within the reach of fast warming surface waters and (3) the water column above the vulnerable zone of gas hydrates is smaller than in warmer oceans facilitating more efficient transport of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. This information will allow a detailed assessment of the mobility of Arctic gas hydrates and it will significantly decrease the uncertainties involved in climate modelling. The data were collected by the National Oceanographic Centre, Southampton with Professor Tim Minshull as the principal scientist on-board.