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  • The data were collected during household surveys designed to investigate the strategies adopted by households to cope with environmental shocks linked to the 2015-2016 El Nino event in Tanzania, and the role played by Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) - community-based natural resource management - in enabling or constraining these responses. The surveys referred to the period from 2014 to 2016 and were carried out with both heads of households and the wives of heads of household. Those carried out with household heads included sections on: basic household demographics; overall trends in wellbeing; experience of severe livelihood shocks; ownership and use of land and livestock; collection of bushmeat; changes in access to natural resources; composition of environmental income and livelihood portfolios; strategies for coping with environmental shocks; direct income and benefits from WMAs where they are present; conflict; and human casualties linked to wildlife. Those carried out with wives included sections on: basic household demographics; overall trends in wellbeing; use of produce from livestock, farms and gardens; income generating activities and remittances; food security; strategies for coping with environmental shocks; participation in WMAs where they are present; access to natural resources; conflict and safety; receipts of external aid and scholarships; and ability to perform ceremonies. https://reshare.ukdataservice.ac.uk/853955/