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University of Edinburgh, School of GeoSciences

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  • This dataset contains visual and physical analyses of the impacts of ocean acidification on the skeletons of the cold-water coral <em>Lophelia pertusa</em>. Visual analysis includes synchrotron images from the Diamond Light Source and electron back scatter diffraction images on polished coral skeletons. Physical analyses include Raman spectroscopy data. Skeletal samples analysed were from the Southern California Bight (SCB), USA, and the Mingulay Reef Complex (MRC), UK. SCB samples were collected in 2010, 2014 and 2015. MRC samples were collected in 2012. Samples from the SCB were taken using a ROV at varying depths covering an environmental gradient with respect to aragonite saturation. Each sample represents an aggregation of <em>Lophelia pertusa</em> that was sampled with a basket attached to the ROV. The samples were transported to the surface and subsampled for live, ethanol preserved, frozen, and dried samples. Carbonate chemistry parameters of the water column were collected at the same time using a CTD and include temperature, salinity, oxygen, DIC, pH, and total alkalinity. Coral samples from the MRC were subjected to long term experimentation in projected future conditions. The conditions for MRC samples are outlined in Hennige et al. 2015. The coral samples were also analysed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and these images are held at BODC and can be requested through this record. RAMAN spectroscopy and Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis was also used to further examine the corals under future projections of climate change. Ocean acidification is a threat to cold-water coral reefs in terms of dissolution to their skeletons, and their subsequent structural stability. This will likely determine the stability of the habitats they form. Work in the Southern California Bight was funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science. The study was supported by Diamond Light Source (DLS) experimental campaigns MT19794 and MT20412. This work was supported by an Independent Research Fellowship from the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) to Sebastian Hennige (NE/K009028/1 and NE/K009028/2) and the MASTS pooling initiative (The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland), funded by the Scottish Funding Council (grant reference HR09011) and contributing institutions. Experimental incubations for N. Atlantic corals were supported by the UK Ocean Acidification programme (NE/H017305/1 awarded to John Murray Roberts). Imaging analysis by Uwe Wolfram and Alexander Groetsch were supported by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) of the UK under grant number EP/P005756/1.

  • This dataset comprises the following water body parameters: pressure; density; salinity; temperature; fluorescence; oxygen; dissolved inorganic nutrients; dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC); particulate carbon (PC); particulate organic carbon (POC); particulate nitrogen (PN); alkalinity; pH; chlorophyll; photosynthetically active radiation (PAR); delta 15 N isotopic composition of PN and nitrate; delta 13 C isotopic composition of POC; delta 18 O isotopic composition of nitrate; ratio of oxygen isotopes. This dataset also includes dissolved inorganic nutrients in sediment pore water, and major and minor element concentrations in sediment. Data were sampled on the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), more specifically in Ryder and Marguerite Bays. Measurements were obtained from either in situ sensors, samples collected by box coring, or by Niskin bottles mounted on the CTD rosette of RRS James Clark Ross during cruises JR20141231 (JR307, JR308) and JR15003 which took place from 31 December 2014 to 07 January 2015 and from 17 December 2015 to 13 January 2016 respectively. Samples were also collected from Niskin bottles deployed with a hand-cranked winch or 12 V electric bilge pump from a rigid-hulled inflatable boat between 16 November 2013 and 21 March 2016. Sediment samples were analysed for major and minor element composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at the School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh. This research project aimed to examine the ways in which ongoing climate change and sea ice decline at the WAP impact upon nutrient budgets and biogeochemical cycling throughout the region, and to trace the movement and modification of circumpolar deep water across the WAP shelf and its influence on macronutrient and inorganic carbon supply to productive coastal regions. Data were generated by Sian Henley (University of Edinburgh), Hugh Venables and Michael Meredith (British Antarctic Survey), Elizabeth Jones (University of Groningen), Katharine Hendry (University of Bristol), and Yvonne Firing (NOC Southampton), with funding from NERC Independent Research Fellowship (NE/K010034/1), the University of Edinburgh School of Geosciences, the British Antarctic Survey Polar Oceans Program, the Netherlands Polar Program (NOW), British Antarctic Survey CGS-109, and NERC NC Funding for SR1b repeat transect (PI Firing). Additional contributors to the dataset were Malcolm Woodward (Plymouth Marine Laboratory), Melanie Leng (British Geological Survey) and Colin Chilcott and Nicholas Odling (University of Edinburgh).

  • Dataset was collated from surveys in the west side of Vavvaru Island, Lhaviyani Atoll, Maldives. The data were collected as a series of triplicate 25 m x 2 m transecs parallel to shore, at three locations on the reef flat: near (70 m from the shore), mid (140 m from the shore) and far (210 m from the shore). All locations were at similar depths of 1 m. This took place during March 2015. Along each transect the number and size of all coralliths and total number of non-free living individuals were recorded, alongside with several environmental parameters (Water Temperature, Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR), Total Alkalinity, Dissolved Inorganic Carbon and Dissolved Oxygen). Abundance and size of coralliths was recorded through non-invasive techniques and the environmental parameters were obtained through multiple instruments: Fluorometer, Oxygen sensor, spectrophotometry, Titration and a PAR logger. The aim was to examine whether corals have the capacity to create their own stable habitat through 'free-living stabilisation'. The work was supported by an Independent Research Fellowship from NERC to Sebastian Hennige (NE/K009028/1; NE/K009028/2), an Independent Research Fellowship from the Marine Alliance for Science & Technology for Scotland to Heidi Burnett, an Independent Research Fellowship from the Royal Society of Edinburgh / Scottish Government (RSE 48701/1) and NERC (NE/H010025) to Nick Kamenos, a Gilchrist Fieldwork Award to Heidi Burnett, Sebastian Hennige and Nick Kamenos by the Gilchrist Educational Trust, administered by the Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers), and a Research Incentive Grant from the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland to Heidi Burnett, Sebastian Hennige and Nick Kamenos (grant # 70013). Field sampling was under permission from the Maldives Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture ((OTHR) 30-D/lNDIV/2015).

  • The dataset comprises physical, biogeochemical and biological oceanographic, surface meteorological and benthic measurements. Hydrographic profiles including temperature, salinity, fluorescence, transmissance and suspended sediment concentration were collected at numerous stations, while surface hydrographic (fluorescence, transmissance, sea surface temperature, salinity) and meteorological (irradiance, air temperature, humidity, wind speed/direction) data were collected across the survey areas. Sediment, pore water and water column samples were also collected for biogeochemical analysis, as were biological samples for the purposes of species classification and abundance analyses. The data were collected across the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea and Pakistan margin areas between March and October 2003. Data collection was undertaken by the RRS Charles Darwin during four cruises: CD145 (12 March 2003 to 9 April 2003), CD146 (12 April 2003 to 30 May 2003), CD150 (22 August 2003 to 15 September 2003) and CD151 (17 September 2003 to 20 October 2003). Conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profilers with auxiliary sensors, benthic samplers and nets were deployed from the ship, while underway sensors provided continuous surface ocean, meteorological and bathymetric data. The study was designed to investigate an oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ) in the northern Arabian Sea. Chief Investigators include Gregory L Cowie (University of Edinburgh School of GeoSciences) and Brian J Bett (Southampton Oceanography Centre), while other institutions including the Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, University of Liverpool and Netherlands Institute of Ecology were also involved in the research. Data management is being undertaken by BODC. Some of the data are still undergoing processing at BODC and further data are expected from originators in the future.

  • This dataset includes physical, biological and biogeochemical measurements of both the water column and seabed sediments. Hydrographic data include temperature, salinity, attenuance, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), sound velocity and current velocities, while biogeochemical analyses of water samples provided measurements of nutrients and biological sampling provided measurements of zooplankton abundance. A large number of benthic parameters were measured, including concentrations of substances such as nutrients, metals and carbon in both sediments and sediment pore waters. Benthic fauna were also studied, while rates of sedimentation flux were quantified. These oceanographic and benthic data were supplemented by satellite ocean colour imagery. The data were collected in the North Atlantic Ocean at the Mouth of Rockall Trough, Hatton-Rockall Basin and the Flank of Feni Drift between August 1997 and June 1999 over four cruises, comprising a preliminary site assessment (CD 107 August, 1997) followed by two process cruises (CD 111, April-May 1998, and CD 113, June-July 1998). A further cruise (CH 143) was part-funded by BENBO to retrieve moorings. The data were collected using a variety of instrumentation, including shipboard deployment of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profilers with attached auxiliary sensors, benthic samplers, landers, cameras and incubation chambers, water samplers and continuous underway sensors. These were supplemented by moored sensor and satellite data. The BENBO programme was led by the Scottish Association for Marine Science/Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory involved researchers from Southampton Oceanography Centre, Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Lancaster University, Leeds University, Edinburgh University, Cambridge University and the University of Wales, Bangor.

  • The Shelf Sea Biogeochemistry (SSB) data set comprises hydrographic data, including measurements of temperature, salinity and currents, complemented by bathymetric and meteorological data. The study area is located in the Celtic Sea, shelf seas and shelf-edges around the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. The data were collected by a combination of research cruises that spanned from March 2014 to September 2015. Shipboard data collection involved the deployment of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) packages in the study area. Continuous measurements of current velocities (using vessel mounted ADCPs, VMADCPs), bathymetry and surface ocean and meteorological properties were collected throughout each cruise. Moorings were deployed in the Celtic Sea in early 2014 and provided approximately two years worth of hydrographic time series data. The SSB programme aims to increase the understanding of the cycling of nutrients and carbon and the controls on primary and secondary production, and their role in wider biogeochemical cycles, which in turn will significantly improve predictive marine biogeochemical and ecosystem models over a range of scales. SSB brings together UK researchers from Bangor University, Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Meteorological Office, National Oceanography Centre (NOC), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML), Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS), University of Aberdeen, University of East Anglia (UEA), University of Edinburgh, University of Liverpool, University of Oxford, University of Portsmouth and University of Southampton. It also has UK and Irish partners, as Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI), Marine Institute and Marine Scotland Science. The programme was divided into five work packages, having Jonathan Sharples as the Principal Investigator for work package 1 (CANDYFLOSS), Martin Solan as Principal Investigator for work package 2 (Biogeochemistry, macronutrient and carbon cycling in the benthic layer), Peter J. Statham as Principal Investigator for work package 3 (Supply of iron from shelf sediments to the ocean), Icarus Allen as Principal Investigator for work package 4 (Integrative Modelling for Shelf Seas Biogeochemistry) and Keith Weston as Principal Investigator for work package 5 (Blue Carbon – How much carbon is stored in UK shelf seas, what influences storage and could it be used in carbon trading?). All data will be managed by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC).