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biota

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  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. This dataset provides linear trends, over varying time periods, for the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS) Collated Indices of individual butterfly species across the UK. The main statistical values derived from a linear regression (slope, standard error, P-value) are presented for the entire time series for each species (1976 to 2014), for the last 20 years, and for the last decade. In addition a trend class, based on slope direction and its significance, and a percentage change for that time period are provided to describe the statistical trends. These trend data are provided for 59 UK butterfly species. Trends across different time series allow us to determine the long and short-term trends for individual species. This enables us to focus conservation and research and also to assess species responses to conservation already in place. The Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) and Butterfly Conservation (BC) are responsible for the calculation and interpretation of this trend datasets. The collection of the underlying UKBMS data is reliant on a large volunteer community. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is funded by a consortium of organisations led by the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/279fb877-20e5-42cb-8db1-481079880caa

  • This dataset contains vegetation abundance information from sites in southern England. The data are estimated as percentage cover and flower density of 165 plant species in 1624 vegetation quadrats. The surveys were conducted during 2008 and 2009. The 54 sites are all part of the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme network. The data were collected to compare plant abundance and butterfly population density. The research was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/ca34e25b-6138-4b72-b32c-778d762118f1

  • This dataset consists of measurements of leaf and root growth, species abundance and soil temperature made in ten subarctic plant communities located at the Arctic Biosphere Atmosphere Coupling at Multiple Scales (ABACUS) project sites near to Abisko, Sweden, and Kevo, Finland. The data were collected during the summer growing seasons (May to September) in 2008 and 2009, and comprise field survey measurements, temperature logs and values derived from analyses of mini-rhizotron images. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/887a5e91-93be-4f5d-8674-b2d22a1ae8ae

  • This dataset provides linear trends, over varying time periods, for the Collated Indices of individual butterfly species across the UK. The main statistical values derived from a linear regression (slope, standard error, P-value) are presented for the entire time series for each species (1976# to the present year), for the last 20 years, and for the last decade. In addition, trends are classified based on the direction and significance of a linear slope together with an estimated percentage change for that time period. These trend data are provided for all UK butterfly species for which we have sufficient data (58 species). Trends are calculated by performing a linear regression on the annual Collated indices for each species. Collated indices are calculated using a log-linear model incorporating individual site indices from all monitored sites across the UK for a given species in a given year. Trends across different time series allow us to determine the long and short-term status of individual species. This is enables us to focus conservation and research and also to assess species responses to conservation already in place. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. #Because the Collated indices are only calculated for each species in years in which it was recorded on five or more sites, the starting year for the series is later than 1976 for a number of rarer species. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/8ccccf05-45b4-4a65-b145-38e9b44d2ce4

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. This dataset provides the details of all sites which have been monitored as part of the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Data includes the location within the UK, the length and width of the line transect on each site, and how long the transect has been monitored. The UKBMS started in 1976 with fewer than 50 sites (a small number of pilot sites started from 1973). The number of sites monitored each year has increased to over a thousand since 2008. There is turnover in sites monitored each year and details of the first and last year in which each site was surveyed are given. The majority of site data is provided by recorders at the time a transect is created. The majority of these recorders are volunteers. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/b321fa16-30fb-4ece-99cf-a9b921171fbf

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. Site indices, as a relative measure of the actual population size, for UK butterfly species calculated from data from the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Site indices are a relative rather than an absolute measure of the size of a population, and have been shown to relate closely to other, more intensive, measures of population size such as mark, release, recapture (MRR) methods. The site index can be thought of as a relative measure of the actual population size, being a more or less constant proportion of the number of butterflies present. The proportion seen is likely to vary according to species; some butterfly species are more conspicuous and thus more easily detected, whereas others are much less easy to see. Site indices are only calculated at sites with sufficient monitoring visits throughout the season, or for targeted reduced effort surveys (timed observations, larval web counts and egg counts) where counts are generally obtained as close to the peak of the flight period as possible and are subsequently adjusted for the time of year and size of the site (area of suitable habitat type for a given species). Wider Countryside Butterfly Survey (WCBS) sites are thus excluded because they are based on very few visits from which accurate indices of abundance cannot currently be calculated. For transect sites a statistical model (a General Additive Model, 'GAM') is used to impute missing values and to calculate a site index. Each year most transect sites (over 90%) produce an index for at least one species and in recent years site indices are calculated for almost 1,500 sites across the UK. Site indices are subsequently collated to contribute to the overall 'Collated Index' for each species, which are relative measures of the abundance of each species across a geographical area, for example, across the whole UK or at country level in England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. Individual site indices are important in informing conservation management as not all sites show the same patterns for each species and likely reflect a combination of local climate and habitat management at the site. Although the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) and Butterfly Conservation (BC) are responsible for the calculation and interpretation of site indices, the collection of the data used in its creation is ultimately reliant on a large volunteer community. The UKBMS is run by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) and the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), in partnership with the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), and supported and steered by Forestry Commission (FC), Natural England(NE), Natural Resources Wales (NRW), Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA), and Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/0f64d554-b36f-484a-a231-b6526796877a

  • [This dataset is embargoed until April 1, 2023]. This dataset contains information about local population densities of great tits, blue tits, marsh tits and nuthatches from a manipulation experiment. The time, location and bird species were recorded using a Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag attached to each bird and the information recorded using a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) antenna within the feeder. Population density was manipulated by programming automated feeders to only open for a specific set of individuals (creating low- and high-density treatments). Local population densities were recorded using automated bird feeders at six experimental and two control sites prior to and during the manipulation. The experiment took place in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, UK between January and March 2021, as part of a study on the effects of ecological factors on social structure and information transmission. The work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council (Grant NE/S010335/1, The ecology of behavioural contagion in natural systems.) Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/1a4dcbb3-c4fb-4bd4-acb3-d03932de9323

  • This dataset provides data on the timing of butterfly flight periods for each UK butterfly species across all monitored sites in the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Annual data from over 2,500 sites are presented relating to the timing (first appearance, last appearance, date of peak abundance and mean flight date) and the duration (total number of days, standard deviation around the mean flight date) of the flight period for all UK butterfly species from 1976 to the present year. In addition, this data is divided each year for eleven multi-voltine species to provide separate phenology data for distinct flight periods associated with first and subsequent generations. Phenology change is a widely used measure of the biological impacts of climate change because of the close relationship between temperature and the timing of biological events. This dataset provides an invaluable tool for assessing the impacts of climate change both spatially and temporally. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (UKCEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/b13ffd72-62bf-47d1-948b-d9d84dd12af7

  • These data are the recorded outcomes of binary male choice experiments. Teleopsis dalmanni males were able to choose to mate with either a large or a small female. Individuals were taken from laboratory stock populations. Also included is information on male genotype indicating if he is a carrier of a sex-ratio distorting or nondistorting X chromosome, and a calculation of male preference. The second dataset additionally contains measures of male eyespan and thorax length obtained by measuring images. Full details about this nonGeographicDataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/d6c36f89-07f1-4bcc-96a0-f5302fd3ccec

  • Dataset comprising data on the lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of 879 individually marked long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus, a cooperatively breeding passerine. LRS is measured in terms of the number of local recruits into the breeding population in the study area, controlling for fledgling sex and extra-pair paternity. LRS data are then partitioned into direct and indirect fitness components, quantified as genetic equivalents. Partitioning of fitness follows Hamilton’s definition of inclusive fitness: (a) direct fitness is measured as the production of offspring, stripped of the social effect of helpers on productivity; (b) indirect fitness is calculated from the mean marginal effect of a helper on productivity, adjusted for helper relatedness. Inclusive fitness is calculated by summing direct and indirect fitness. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/0e55f507-e5bd-4678-a5ea-8c3ffb62d3ac