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climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere

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  • This record contains time series observations of land surface-atmosphere exchanges of net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE), sensible heat (H) and latent heat (LE), and meteorological observations measured at an eroded upland blanket bog peatland (UK-BAL) in the Eastern Cairngorms in Scotland, UK (56.93° N, -3.16° E, 642 m asl). The dataset comprises eddy covariance CO2, water and energy fluxes, originally collected at 20Hz and processed to 30-minute data, as well as accompanying meteorological observations, originally collected at 15 min and processed to 30-minute data. Time period covered in this dataset is 04/07/2018 until 04/11/2020. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/a65f6241-bfc3-430a-ae93-ccb7c63c1a53

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. Meteorology data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. Variables measured include albedo (ground and sky), temperature (dry bulb, wet bulb and soil (at 10cm and 30cm)), relative humidity, radiation (net. and solar), rainfall, surface wetness, soil moisture, wind direction and wind speed). These data are collected by Automatic Weather Stations at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol. They represent continuous hourly records from 1992 to 2012. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/e1d33b37-f1d4-4234-a0d5-8bf4e657f653

  • The data resource consists of half hourly time series of heat (latent and sensible) and trace gas (carbon dioxide and methane) fluxes obtained by eddy-covariance, gas concentrations and ancillary meteorological data (e.g. air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, photosynthetically active radiation, total incoming radiation, wind speed and direction). The data were collected at Guma Lagoon (18°57'53.01"S; 22°22'16.20"E), in the perennially flooded area of the Okavango Delta, Botswana, for the purpose of quantifying greenhouse gas fluxes over a Cyperus papyrus stand. The measurement period was 01/01/2018 to 31/12/2020. The instrumentation was installed the UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology; monthly maintenance and data collection visits were effected by the Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana. The research was funded through NERC grant reference NE/N015746/2 - The Global Methane Budget. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/d366ed40-af8c-42be-86f2-bb90b11a659e

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. 1km resolution gridded meteorological variables over Great Britain for the years 1961-2012. This dataset contains time series of daily mean values of air temperature (K), specific humidity (kg kg-1), wind speed (m s-1), downward longwave radiation (W m-2), downward shortwave radiation (W m-2), precipitation (kg m-2 s-1) and air pressure (Pa), plus daily temperature range (K). These are the variables required to run the JULES land surface model [1] with daily disaggregation. The precipitation data were obtained by scaling the Gridded estimates of daily and monthly areal rainfall (CEH-GEAR) daily rainfall estimates [2,3] to the units required for JULES input. Other variables were interpolated from coarser resolution datasets, taking into account topographic information. [1] Best, M. J., Pryor, M., Clark, D. B., Rooney, G. G., Essery, R. L. H., Ménard, C. B., Edwards, J. M., Hendry, M. A., Porson, A., Gedney, N., Mercado, L. M., Sitch, S., Blyth, E., Boucher, O., Cox, P. M., Grimmond, C. S. B., and Harding, R. J.: The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), model description - Part 1: Energy and water fluxes, Geoscientific Model Development, 4, 677-699, doi:10.5194/gmd-4-677-2011, 2011. [2] Tanguy, M., Dixon, H., Prosdocimi, I., Morris, D. G., Keller, V. D. J. (2014). Gridded estimates of daily and monthly areal rainfall for the United Kingdom (1890-2012) [CEH-GEAR]. NERC-Environmental Information Data Centre doi:10.5285/5dc179dc-f692-49ba-9326-a6893a503f6e [3] Keller,V. D. J., Tanguy, M. , Prosdocimi, I. , Terry, J. A. , Hitt, O., Cole, S. J. , Fry, M., Morris, D. G., Dixon, H. (2015) CEH-GEAR: 1km resolution daily and monthly areal rainfall estimates for the UK for hydrological use. Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., 8, 83-112, www.earth-syst-sci-data-discuss.net/8/83/2015/ doi:10.5194/essdd-8-83-2015. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/80887755-1426-4dab-a4a6-250919d5020c

  • This dataset consists of monthly spatial patterns of meteorological change for 22 Global Circulation Models (GCMs). The patterns are a set of regression coefficients, each representing the change per degree of mean global warming over land, for the corresponding meteorological variable. The meteorological variables analysed for each GCM include: surface temperature change per degree global warming (K/K); surface relative humidity change per degree global warming (%/K); wind change per degree global warming (m/s/K); longwave change per degree global warming (W/m2/K); shortwave change per degree global warming (W/m2/K); precipitation change per degree global warming (mm/day/K) and pressure change per degree global warming (hPa/K). The 22 GCMs emulated are: BCCR-BCM2.0, CGCM3.1(T47), CNRM-CM3, CSIRO-Mk3.0, CSIRO-Mk3.5, GFDL-CM2.0, GFDL-CM2.1, GISS-EH, GISS-ER, FGOALS-g1.0, INGV-SXG, INM-CM3.0, IPSL-CM4, MIROC3.2(hires), MIROC3.2(medres), ECHO-G, ECHAM5/MPI-OM, MRI-CGCM2.3.2, CCSM3, PCM, UKMO-HadCM3, UKMO-HadGEM1. The supporting information document associated with this metadata includes parameters for an energy balance model (IMOGEN EBM) that calculates the amount of global warming. Each GCM output has been re-mapped on to UKMO-HadCM3 grid, with resolution of 3.75 deg longitude and 2.5 deg latitude; this produces a surface spatial resolution of about 417 km E-W x 278 km N-S, reducing to 295 km E-W x 278 km N-S at 45 degrees North and South. This corresponds to 1631 land points, each of which has a row in the provided data files. The data presented here is calibration of IMOGEN EBM parameters and patterns against 22 GCMs in the CMIP3 GCM ensemble. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/4e8f3459-4101-4c85-a598-80b3c739f580

  • The WATCH Forcing data is a twentieth century meteorological forcing dataset for land surface and hydrological models. It consists of three/six-hourly states of the weather for global half-degree land grid points. It was generated as part of the EU FP 6 project "WATCH" (WATer and global CHange") which ran from 2007-2011. The data was generated in 2 tranches with slightly different methodology: 1901-1957 and 1958-2001, but generally the dataset can be considered as continuous. More details regarding the generation process can be found in the associated WATCH technical report and paper in J. Hydrometeorology. To understand how the data grid is formed it is necessary to read the attached WFD-land-long-lat-z files either in NetCDF or DAT formats. The data covers land points only and excludes the Antarctica. PSurf or surface pressure is the surface pressure (instantaneous) measured in Pa at 6 hourly resolution and 0.5 x 0.5 degrees spatial resolution.

  • [This dataset is embargoed until February 22, 2022]. Half-hourly data from eight eddy covariance towers deployed in the Sevilleta Refuge (New Mexico, USA). The main sensors deployed were sonic anemometer, relative humidity sensor and carbon dioxide concentration sensor . They were deployed and maintained by Fabio Boschetti and Andrew Cunliffe (University of Exeter). The data were collected to test the new design of eddy covariance towers and investigate the spatial variability of fluxes. Data were collected from 2018-11-01 to 2019-11-01. The data contains very few small gaps due to maintenance. Half-hourly data were gap-filled using code published on GitHub. The research was funded through NERC grant reference NE/R00062X/1 - "Do dryland ecosystems control variability and recent trends in the land CO2 sink?" Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/e96466c3-5b67-41b0-9252-8f8f393807d7

  • Precipitation chemistry data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. Variables measured include pH, conductivity, alkalinity, aluminium, calcium, chloride, ammonium, nitrate nitrogen, phosphate phosphorous, potassium, sulphate sulphur, sodium, total nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorous. These data are collected by a bulk collector at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol. They represent continuous weekly records from 1992 to 2015. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/18b7c387-037d-4949-98bc-e8db5ef4264c

  • The meteorological data describes the air and soil temperatures, net radiation balance, down-welling photosynthetically active radiation, wind speed, wind direction and the vapour pressure deficit. Data collection was carried out at Abbotts Hall marsh from the 15th of December 2012 till the 27th of January 2015. The Abbotts Hall site is in Essex, South East England, and the meteorological tower was situated in the middle of the marsh. This data was collected as part of Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS): NE/J015644/1. The project was funded with support from the Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (BESS) programme. BESS is a six-year programme (2011-2017) funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) as part of the UK's Living with Environmental Change (LWEC) programme. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/dd2f7d23-6f11-4053-bc18-3cf2431c1963

  • This dataset provides daily estimates of the Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) using data from 46 COSMOS-UK sites across the United Kingdom. One set of estimates is derived from the cosmic ray neutron sensor and provides an estimate of the average SWE within the sensor’s large (>100m) footprint. Other SWE estimates are based on either a snowmelt model, or, for certain sites, either a snow depth sensor or a buried 'SnowFox' neutron sensor. Additionally, daily neutron counts, the albedo, and a collection of figures for each snow event are provided. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/e1fa6897-0f09-4472-adab-5d0d7bbc2548